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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 203-207, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570375

RESUMO

Radiology reports include various types of clinical information that are used for patient care. Reports are also expected to have secondary uses (e.g., clinical research and the development of decision support systems). For secondary use, it is necessary to extract information from the report and organize it in a structured format. Our goal is to build an application to transform radiology reports written in a free-text form into a structured format. To this end, we propose an end-to-end method that consists of three elements. First, we built a neural network model to extract clinical information from the reports. We experimented on a dataset of chest X-ray reports. Second, we transformed the extracted information into a structured format. Finally, we built a tool that enabled the transformation of terms in reports to standard forms. Through our end-to-end method, we could obtain a structured radiology dataset that was easy to access for secondary use.


Assuntos
Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Radiologia , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Software , Redação
5.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303589

RESUMO

Physical distancing imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic has led to alterations in routines and new responsibilities for much of the research community. We provide some tips for how research teams can cope with physical distancing, some of which require a change in how we define productivity. Importantly, we need to maintain and strengthen social connections in this time when we can't be physically together.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pesquisadores , Betacoronavirus , Criatividade , Humanos , Pandemias , Tecnologia , Redação
6.
Am J Nurs ; 120(5): 24-33, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical illness survivors may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following critical illness and hospitalization. Left untreated, PTSD may result in poor health outcomes. PURPOSE: This study sought to examine the effects of a nurse-initiated diary intervention on PTSD development and symptom severity in critical illness survivors with varying levels of mentation. METHODS: The study used a pretest-posttest control group design. Patients who were hospitalized in a critical care unit for more than 24 hours were recruited at a single medical center with two such units. All participants completed a pretest on day 2 of critical care hospitalization; the intervention group participants also received a diary. All participants received a posttest one month after critical care discharge. The variables examined were PTSD severity and symptoms of avoidance, intrusion, and hyperarousal. Variables were measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Diaries were written by the patient, visitors, and interdisciplinary team members, and kept by the patient. RESULTS: A total of 134 participants completed the study. The intervention group participants experienced significantly fewer PTSD symptoms than the control group participants. PTSD was found to be of concern in 35 (26%) of all participants: five in the intervention group and 30 in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: For critical illness survivors, a collaborative diary-writing intervention during hospitalization and after discharge can mitigate post-critical care PTSD. Participants who received diaries had a lower incidence of PTSD symptoms than controls; and at follow-up, they indicated that the diary intervention was worthwhile. We recommend the use of collaborative diary writing to help critical illness survivors in working through their experiences.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Redação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes
8.
BMJ ; 368: m954, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184207
9.
Brain Nerve ; 72(3): 227-238, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152256

RESUMO

Mokichi Saito (1882-1953) was born in Yagamata in 1882. After he graduated from junior high school, he was adopted by the Saito family. He started writing songs from the time he was in school. He eventually became a doctor, and soon after that, he published his first work, "Red Light." While studying in Europe, he wrote "The Brain Map in Progressive Dementia." After returning to Japan, he composed several songs. She was a best mother for her children. I have written his story because he had a peculiar character, even according to his wife.


Assuntos
Demência , Médicos , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão , Música , Redação
11.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 37-40, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150711

RESUMO

Research about the academic profile of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reports a variable performance, although it tends to be lower than what it is expected according to the cognitive level. In the school context, reading and writing are crucial abilities for learning in different curricular areas and they have important implications for academic, social and occupational success. A brief review is carried out about the main reading and writing disabilities that students with ASD show. Studies about reading coincide to point out an adequate knowledge of the decodification processes. However, a lower performance in reading comprehension and, particularly, inferential comprehension has been frequently described. In addition, deficits in the different components of writing have been reported, especially, handwriting and text coherence. Different factors may explain this profile of difficulties, like linguistic factors or aspects related to the psychological theories of autism, which may contribute to possible interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Leitura , Criança , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Redação
12.
J Dent Educ ; 84(3): 283-289, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176337

RESUMO

The use of surveys is popular in dental education research. However, designing and conducting a survey can have many pitfalls. This article aims to prepare a new researcher or one with little experience to undertake survey research. It covers points such as survey design (including question construction), pilot testing for validity and reliability, sampling strategy, methods to increase response rates, logistical considerations, and items to include when writing the manuscript. Careful consideration of a survey from beginning to end can help one design and conduct a successful study that meets its research aims and adds valuable evidence to the literature.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Redação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Dent Educ ; 84(3): 316-322, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176343

RESUMO

Valid and reliable assessment of students' knowledge and skills is integral to dental education. However, most faculty members receive no formal training on student assessment techniques. The aim of this study was to quantify the value of a professional development program designed to improve the test item-writing skills of dental faculty members. A quasi-experimental (pretest, intervention, posttest) study was conducted with faculty members in the dental school of Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. Data assessed were 450 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) from final exams in 15 courses in 2017 (prior to the intervention; pretest) and the same number in 2018 (after the intervention; posttest). The intervention was a faculty development program implemented in 2018 to improve the writing of MCQs. This training highlighted construct-irrelevant variance-the abnormal increase or decrease in test scores due to factors extraneous to constructs of interest-and provided expert advice to rectify flaws. Item analysis of pre- and post-intervention MCQs determined the difficulty index, discrimination index, and proportion of non-functional distractors for each question. MCQs on 2017 and 2018 exams were compared on each of these parameters. The results showed statistically significant improvements in MCQs from 2017 to 2018 on all parameters. MCQs with low discrimination decreased, those with high discrimination increased, and the proportion of questions with more than two non-functional distractors were reduced. These results provide evidence of improved test item quality following implementation of a long-term faculty development program. Additionally, the findings underscore the need for an active dental education department and demonstrate its value for dental schools.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Docentes de Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Redação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210449

RESUMO

Despite the increase in the number of journals issuing data policies requiring authors to make data underlying reporting findings publicly available, authors do not always do so, and when they do, the data do not always meet standards of quality that allow others to verify or extend published results. This phenomenon suggests the need to consider the effectiveness of journal data policies to present and articulate transparency requirements, and how well they facilitate (or hinder) authors' ability to produce and provide access to data, code, and associated materials that meet quality standards for computational reproducibility. This article describes the results of a research study that examined the ability of journal-based data policies to: 1) effectively communicate transparency requirements to authors, and 2) enable authors to successfully meet policy requirements. To do this, we conducted a mixed-methods study that examined individual data policies alongside editors' and authors' interpretation of policy requirements to answer the following research questions. Survey responses from authors and editors along with results from a content analysis of data policies found discrepancies among editors' assertion of data policy requirements, authors' understanding of policy requirements, and the requirements stated in the policy language as written. We offer explanations for these discrepancies and offer recommendations for improving authors' understanding of policies and increasing the likelihood of policy compliance.


Assuntos
Atitude , Políticas Editoriais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação/normas
18.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(4): 674-676, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092340
20.
J Dent Educ ; 84(2): 157-165, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043590

RESUMO

Reflection involves taking the time to deeply consider a past situation and examine areas of weakness or confusion. It allows identification of learning needs and the development of an action plan to improve future experiences. The aim of this study was to assess second-year dental students' ability to reflect in writing on a clinical rotation when prompted with a guided reflection template. The 76 second-year dental students enrolled in a periodontics clinical rotation course at one U.S. dental school in 2016-17 completed two reflective writing exercises during the semester. A total of 144 journals (after excluding incomplete journals) were analyzed individually by two evaluators following a rubric developed by Kember. This rubric combined Mezirow's seven levels of reflection into four categories: Habitual Action (HA), Understanding (U), Reflection (R), and Critical Reflection (CR). The first two categories are examples of non-reflective thoughts, and the latter two are reflective. The two sets of journals were also compared. On average, the journals contained 0.2% HA, 15.9% U, 73.8% R, and 10.1% CR, averaging 16.1% non-reflective thoughts and 83.9% reflective thoughts. Comparison of the students' first journal submissions to their second showed that the first journals averaged a higher percentage of reflective thought than the second journals: 85.2% vs. 82.7%, respectively. However, the first journals showed a lower average percentage of critical reflection than the second journals: 9.3% vs. 11.3%, respectively. Overall, a high degree of reflection was found in these students' journals after rotation in periodontics clinic, suggesting that reflective journaling can serve as a useful learning exercise to promote continual improvement during clinical training.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Odontologia , Redação , Compreensão , Humanos , Aprendizagem
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