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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1544-1547, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880109

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology ranging from non-alcoholic fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occasionally complicated with hepatic fibrosis or even cirrhosis. In order to propose a diagnosis with positive criteria, a panel of experts recently proposed the use of an alternative nomenclature, metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) whose use remains debated. In addition, in Switzerland and elsewhere, there is strong epidemiological growth of NAFLD. The next years will probably see the approval of new therapies for NAFLD/NASH but, at present, management remains focused on lifestyle interventions and joint monitoring by the primary care physician and, when necessary, the specialist.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/classificação , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Suíça
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21714, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872051

RESUMO

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, yet it is inconsistently defined, preventing accurate estimation of its incidence and identification of risk factors. Here we began to explore a unified definition of PPH that may be valid for vaginal delivery and cesarean section.Medical records of women who underwent vaginal delivery or cesarean section at our tertiary medical center between January and December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who delivered by each route were compared in terms of PPH incidence and risk factors depending on different blood loss cut-off values.A total of 560 vaginal deliveries and 393 cesarean sections were analyzed. Vaginal deliveries were associated with significantly greater blood loss based on change of hemoglobin level, but significantly lower blood loss based on clinical estimation. When PPH was defined as blood loss ≥500 ml based on change of hemoglobin level, its incidence was 57.7% for vaginal deliveries and 28.2% for cesarean sections. The corresponding incidences were 15.4% and 3.3% when PPH was defined as blood loss ≥1000 ml based on change of hemoglobin levels. Independent risk factors for PPH in vaginal deliveries were lateral perineotomy (OR 2.835, 95%CI 1.694-4.743), suturing by a junior physician (OR 3.456, 95%CI 2.005-5.956), and long time from delivery of placenta to return to the recovery room (OR 1.013, 95%CI 1.003-1.022). A risk factor for PPH in cesarean sections was a long time from delivery of the fetus until the end of the operation.PPH is a significantly underestimated obstetric problem, especially in vaginal deliveries. Regardless of delivery route, hemoglobin-based blood loss of 500 ml and 1000 ml may be useful, respectively, as early warning and diagnostic cut-off values.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Terminologia como Assunto
4.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(5): 925-933, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792124

RESUMO

Given the incidence of small renal masses, from benign cysts to malignancy, most radiologists encounter these lesions multiple times during their career. Radiologists have an opportunity to provide critical data that will further refine the understanding of the impact of these masses on patient outcomes. This article summarizes and describes recent updates and understanding of the critical observations and descriptors of renal masses. The templates and glossary of terms presented in this review article facilitate the radiology reporting of such data elements, giving radiologists the opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy and influence management of small renal masses.


Assuntos
Documentação/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S66-S69, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737235

RESUMO

In all of medicine, there is perhaps nothing so distressing as bearing witness to a patient's suffering, especially if that patient is a child. We want to do everything that we can to avoid or alleviate a child's suffering, yet what do clinicians, ethicists, lawyers, or family members mean when they use the term "suffering," and how should these claims of suffering factor into pediatric decision-making? This question of suffering and what to do about it has played a key role in several prominent pediatric cases over the past decade, including the cases of Charlie Gard, Alfie Evans, and Baby Joseph. These cases have become seminal cases precisely because there is no clear resolution, and the "suffering child" continues to challenge our moral ideals of what it means to live a good life. In this article, I explore the various ways in which the concept of suffering is used in these cases, and I offer new ways in which parents, providers, and all those who work with sick children can approach the suffering child.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Doença de Leigh , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Terminologia como Assunto , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Doença de Leigh/diagnóstico , Doença de Leigh/psicologia , Doença de Leigh/terapia , Masculino , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/terapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Ontário , Pais/psicologia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/psicologia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Respiração Artificial/ética , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Traqueostomia/psicologia , Reino Unido , Suspensão de Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S70-S74, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737236

RESUMO

The alleviation of suffering has always been central to the care of the sick. Yet as medical technology has advanced and life-sustaining treatments multiplied, medicine's capacity to both prevent and create suffering has grown exponentially. In pediatric medicine, the ability to stave off death with life-sustaining treatments allows children to survive but also to suffer in ways that are diverse and unprecedented. However, although parents and pediatric clinicians broadly agree that all children can suffer, there is little published literature in which researchers analyze or clarify the concept of pediatric suffering. This gap is worrisome, especially in light of growing concerns that the label of suffering is used to justify end-of-life decision-making and mask quality-of-life determinations for pediatric patients with profound neurologic impairment. Moreover, the awareness that some children can experience suffering but cannot communicate whether and how they are suffering creates a problem. Does the determination of suffering in a nonverbal child lie in the judgement of clinicians or parents? In this article, I will address several important questions related to the suffering of children through an analysis of two prevalent conceptualizations of pediatric suffering and suggest a possible avenue forward for future scholarship.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Terminologia como Assunto , Bibliometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Lactente , Futilidade Médica/ética , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção da Dor/ética , Qualidade de Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
9.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(4): 24-32, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748376

RESUMO

In 2020, the older adult population ( ≥ 65 years old) reached 703 million worldwide and 3.6 million in Taiwan. By 2026, Taiwan will become a super-aged society with at least 20 percent of the population in this category and 180,000 new older adults joining this population annually. The consequences of oropharyngeal physiological degradation include dysphagia, malnutrition, and a negative impact on quality of life. The provision of texture-modified foods and thickened liquids assist users with chewing or swallowing disorders, making foods easier to ingest and improving diet safety. The classification of texture modified foods allows for consistent communication among health professionals, care providers, and industry partners to improve quality of care for users. This article reviews the four texture-modified food classification systems currently in use internationally. 1. International Standardization Committee for Dysphagia: 22 countries implemented this framework, which was developed by a wide range of professions, including nutrition & dietetics, medicine, speech pathology, occupational therapy, nursing, food science & technology. This framework provides internationally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and thickened liquids for persons with dysphagia. 2. Japanese Universal Design Foods: This voluntary standard established by the food industry addresses the physical properties related to the texture of food. The four categories in this standard are distinguished based on the hardness and viscosity of food. The category-based terms and the universal design foods logo are displayed on foods to facilitate consumer selection. 3. The smile care food-The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries reclassified nursing care food into the following three categories: (i) Food for people without eating problems but with nutrition supplement needs; (ii) Food for people with problems with swallowing functions; and (iii) Food for people with problems with chewing functions. 4. Eatender, Taiwan senior friendly food. This standard designates four texture specifications: Easy to chew, gum mashable, tongue mashable, no chewing needed. This standard is used to grade the texture of packaged foods that use agricultural food ingredients sourced in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Alimentos/classificação , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/dietoterapia , Humanos , Taiwan , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(7): 490-493, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610416

RESUMO

Incidental gallbladder cancer(IGBC) originated in the West more than half a century ago.IGBC was translated and introduced into China afterwards with widespread clinical application.With the popularization of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the trend of "abuse" of IGBC has become increasingly apparent worldwide.Many advanced gallbladder cancers have been categorized as IGBC which actually become the synonym of "missed diagnosis" . From the point of the pathology, the diagnosis of IGBC may cause delays in treatment and adversely affect the patient's prognosis.For country like China with relatively high incidences of chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, and gallbladder cancer, the concept of IGBC, however, is no longer applicable to our diagnosis treat model.For improving the prognosis of gallbladder patients, it is necessary to update and rename the concept of IGBC and more attention should be paid to improve the diagnostic level of early stage tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Ausente , Terminologia como Assunto , China , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Colecistite/cirurgia , Colelitíase/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Tempo para o Tratamento
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4406-4408, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602831

RESUMO

Three alternative proposals to emend the Rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes are presented to resolve the status of the Cyanobacteria in the prokaryotic nomenclature. Two were earlier published (Oren and Garrity, Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2014;64 : 309-310; Pinevich, Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015;65 : 1070-1074). The third proposal is based on reciprocation of Article 45.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. According to Article 13b of the Statutes of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, a decision on these proposals must be reached within 11 months from the date of this publication.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Filogenia
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 3956-4042, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603289

RESUMO

We here present annotated lists of names of Candidatus taxa of prokaryotes with ranks between subspecies and class, proposed between the mid-1990s, when the provisional status of Candidatus taxa was first established, and the end of 2018. Where necessary, corrected names are proposed that comply with the current provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes and its Orthography appendix. These lists, as well as updated lists of newly published names of Candidatus taxa with additions and corrections to the current lists to be published periodically in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, may serve as the basis for the valid publication of the Candidatus names if and when the current proposals to expand the type material for naming of prokaryotes to also include gene sequences of yet-uncultivated taxa is accepted by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto
13.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611651

RESUMO

A few weeks after the peak of the global 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic, cases of shock, multisystem inflammation and severe myocarditis have occurred in children and adolescents, generating some concerns and above all many questions. An almost immediate association raised with shock syndrome related to Kawasaki disease (KD). However, in light of bo/th experience and literature have taught us about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection, and what already known on the epidemiology of KD, we suggest here the hypothesis of a new 'post-viral' systemic inflammatory disease related to excessive adaptive immune response rather than a form of KD caused by SARS-COV-2. We discuss analogies and differences between the two forms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vasculite Sistêmica , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Vasculite Sistêmica/imunologia , Vasculite Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Vasculite Sistêmica/terapia , Terminologia como Assunto
15.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e52, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-456901

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has plagued our world, the term "social distancing" has been widely used with the aim to encourage the general population to physically distance themselves from others in order to reduce the spread of the virus. However, this term can have unintended but detrimental effects, as it evokes negative feelings of being ignored, unwelcome, left alone with one's own fears, and even excluded from society. These feelings may be stronger in people with mental illnesses and in socio-economically disadvantaged groups, such as stigmatized minorities, migrants, and homeless persons [1], many of them also having high risk for suicidal behaviors [2]. Mental health disorders are pervasive worldwide; the global burden accounting for approximately 21.2-32.4% of years lived with disability-more than any other group of illnesses [3]. So, the vulnerable group of people with mental health disorders represents a considerable share of the total global population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emoções , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Terminologia como Assunto , Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estereotipagem , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 573-585, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505253

RESUMO

Sepsis and septic shock are major causes of mortality among hospitalized patients. The sepsis state is due to dysregulated host response to infection, leading to inflammatory damage to nearly every organ system. Early recognition of sepsis and appropriate treatment with antibiotics, fluids, and vasopressors is essential to reducing organ system injury and mortality. This review summarizes the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sepsis and septic shock.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sepse/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Taxa Respiratória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Terminologia como Assunto , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
20.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e52, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475365

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has plagued our world, the term "social distancing" has been widely used with the aim to encourage the general population to physically distance themselves from others in order to reduce the spread of the virus. However, this term can have unintended but detrimental effects, as it evokes negative feelings of being ignored, unwelcome, left alone with one's own fears, and even excluded from society. These feelings may be stronger in people with mental illnesses and in socio-economically disadvantaged groups, such as stigmatized minorities, migrants, and homeless persons [1], many of them also having high risk for suicidal behaviors [2]. Mental health disorders are pervasive worldwide; the global burden accounting for approximately 21.2-32.4% of years lived with disability-more than any other group of illnesses [3]. So, the vulnerable group of people with mental health disorders represents a considerable share of the total global population.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emoções , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estereotipagem , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
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