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2.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 773-779, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744857

RESUMO

Hyper-binding refers to the spontaneous formation of target-distractor associations in older adults, with consequences for subsequent memory. While hyper-binding reflects a loss of attentional and mnemonic selectivity in aging, a growing literature suggests that motivational states modulate cognitive performance in both younger and older adults. In the current study, healthy younger and older adults (N = 48 in both age groups) completed a face-name hyper-binding task with or without motivational incentives during incidental encoding. Results revealed a motivation-related decrease in hyper-binding in older adults, leading to a paradoxical motivation-related memory decrement in this age group. These findings suggest that reward motivation can counteract age-related deficits in inhibition and attentional selectivity, without necessarily boosting memory performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes
3.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667959

RESUMO

We present a multi-agent computational approach to partitioning semantic spaces using reinforcement-learning (RL). Two agents communicate using a finite linguistic vocabulary in order to convey a concept. This is tested in the color domain, and a natural reinforcement learning mechanism is shown to converge to a scheme that achieves a near-optimal trade-off of simplicity versus communication efficiency. Results are presented both on the communication efficiency as well as on analyses of the resulting partitions of the color space. The effect of varying environmental factors such as noise is also studied. These results suggest that RL offers a powerful and flexible computational framework that can contribute to the development of communication schemes for color names that are near-optimal in an information-theoretic sense and may shape color-naming systems across languages. Our approach is not specific to color and can be used to explore cross-language variation in other semantic domains.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Reforço Psicológico , Semântica , Cor , Percepção de Cores , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Linguística/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Nomes , Vocabulário
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 271: 23-30, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) is the process of detecting dataset entries that refer to the same individual within two independent datasets, without disclosing any personal information. While applied in different fields, it particularly attained importance in the medical sector. One popular PPRL method are Bloom filters. However, Bloom filters were originally used for encoding strings only. OBJECTIVES: This paper evaluates an encoding method specifically designed for numerical data and adjusts it for encoding geocoordinates in Bloom filters. METHODS: The proposed numerical encoding of geocoordinates is compared to the string-based method by using synthetic data. RESULTS: The proposed method for encoding geocoordinates in Bloom filters attains a higher recall and precision than the conventional string encoding. CONCLUSION: Numerical encoding has the potential of increasing the record linkage quality of Bloom filters, as well as their privacy level.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Nomes , Registros
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517287

RESUMO

Family medicine is officially a specialty, but is often not regarded as a specialty by the general public. Past studies have usually investigated the opinions of medical students and resident physicians regarding family medicine, whereas few have focused on practicing family physicians themselves, especially in terms of analyzing how they represent themselves. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of clinic names to better apprehend whether general practitioners see themselves as being on an equal footing with other medical specialists. The registered names, medical specialties, and levels of urbanization of all clinics of Western medicine in Taiwan were collected. For clinics of each specialty, we examined whether their names contained the corresponding specialty designation. For example, a family medicine clinic was checked to determine whether its name contained the term "family medicine" or its abbreviation. The naming of family medicine clinics was then compared with that of clinics with other specialties. Of the 9867 Western medicine clinics included in this study, two-thirds (n = 6592) were single-specialty clinics. In contrast to the high percentages of single-specialty clinics of other specialties with specialty-containing names (97.5% for ophthalmology, 94.8% for dermatology, and 94.7% for otolaryngology), only 13.3% (132/989) of the family medicine clinics had such names. In addition, the urban family medicine clinics had a higher proportion (15.2%, 74/487) of specialty-containing names than the suburban (12.6%, 44/349) and rural family medicine clinics (9.2%, 14/153). Overall, a low percentage of family medicine clinics in Taiwan included "family medicine" in their names. This issue of professional identity deserves further qualitative investigation.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Nomes , Humanos , Especialização , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
7.
Psychol Aging ; 35(4): 497-507, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352805

RESUMO

People see themselves as better than average in many domains, from leadership skills to driving ability. However, many people-especially older adults-struggle to remember others' names, and many of us are aware of this struggle. Our beliefs about our memory for names may be different from other information; perhaps forgetting names is particularly salient. We asked younger and older adults to rate themselves compared with others their age on several socially desirable traits (e.g., honesty); their overall memory ability; and their specific ability to remember scientific terms, locations, and people's names. Participants demonstrated a better-than-average (BTA) effect in their ratings of most items except their ability to remember names, which both groups rated as approximately the same as others their age. Older adults' ratings of this ability were related to a measure of the social consequences of forgetting another's name, but younger adults' ratings were not. The BTA effect is present in many judgments for both younger and older adults, but people may be more attuned to memory failures when those failures involve social consequences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(3): 199, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268412
9.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000659, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243450

RESUMO

Putting a name to a face is a highly common activity in our daily life that greatly enriches social interactions. Although this specific person-identity association becomes automatic with learning, it remains difficult and can easily be disrupted in normal circumstances or neurological conditions. To shed light on the neural basis of this important and yet poorly understood association between different input modalities in the human brain, we designed a crossmodal frequency-tagging paradigm coupled to brain activity recording via scalp and intracerebral electroencephalography. In Experiment 1, 12 participants were presented with variable pictures of faces and written names of a single famous identity at a 4-Hz frequency rate while performing an orthogonal task. Every 7 items, another famous identity appeared, either as a face or a name. Robust electrophysiological responses were found exactly at the frequency of identity change (i.e., 4 Hz / 7 = 0.571 Hz), suggesting a crossmodal neural response to person identity. In Experiment 2 with twenty participants, two control conditions with periodic changes of identity for faces or names only were added to estimate the contribution of unimodal neural activity to the putative crossmodal face-name responses. About 30% of the response occurring at the frequency of crossmodal identity change over the left occipito-temporal cortex could not be accounted for by the linear sum of unimodal responses. Finally, intracerebral recordings in the left ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in 7 epileptic patients tested with this paradigm revealed a small number of "pure" crossmodal responses, i.e., with no response to changes of identity for faces or names only. Altogether, these observations provide evidence for integration of verbal and nonverbal person identity-specific information in the human brain, highlighting the contribution of the left ventral ATL in the automatic retrieval of face-name identity associations.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
10.
Vet Rec ; 186(11): 355, 2020 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198255
11.
Vet Rec ; 186(11): 356, 2020 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198256

Assuntos
Nomes , Animais , Cafeína
13.
BMJ ; 368: m228, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974074

Assuntos
Nomes
15.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(23): 2152-2153, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800429
16.
Perspect Med Educ ; 8(6): 320-321, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820399
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102934, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707077

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that stimuli with subjective salience could affect duration estimation. Although self-referential stimuli possess high biological and social importance, no prior study has examined whether and how self-referential information affects duration perception. Experiment 1 used the temporal bisection task to investigate participants' duration estimation of the presentation of their own name versus familiar and unfamiliar names. The results showed that participants overestimated the duration of their own name and became more sensitive to duration perception in such trials when compared with stranger's names. Given the specificity of personal name, Experiment 2 used two types of personality-trait words in self-referential and friend-referential manner as the targets of duration perception. The duration of self-referential negative trait words was perceived to be longer relative to friend-referential negative trait words. The mechanism underlying the subjective time dilation effect of self-referential information possibly involves the engagement of increased attentional resources, which could allow the individual to preserve a certain level of stability and positivity of self-knowledge.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(6): 475-490, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711311

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies on Russian surnames have been based on outdated and inconsistent sources; they also had limited territorial coverage and population samples constrained by Russian ethnicity.Aim: To study surnames for the present Russian population, including migrants, as of January 2019.Subjects and methods: Based on cell phone subscriber data, our sample has twenty nine million people and 380 thousand different surnames.Results: We made a list of five hundred of the most popular surnames in modern Russia, and the top five surnames in several regions. Ivanov is the most common surname in Russia. Kuznetsov, Smirnov, Popov, and Petrov contribute to the top five most popular surnames. Thirty-one percent of the names listed are of non-Russian origin: Arabian, Turkic, Ukrainian, Armenian, Jewish, Chinese and Korean surnames are among them. There is a core of fourteen thousand surnames, which are used by 70% of the population. The regions with a high variety of surnames are located within the main belt of settlement in Russia, which fostered a more active exchange of the population.Conclusions: The regional surname distribution reflects the specificity of historical pathways of settlement and ethnic, cultural and religious plurality.


Assuntos
Nomes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Federação Russa
20.
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