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1.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(4): e133-e140, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Measuring and comparing the incidence of child maltreatment is challenging. Linkage of statewide birth cohorts with Child Protective Services reports to study incident child maltreatment over the life course are becoming more common. This study compares the reported incidence between 2 states derived from population-based administrative data linkages. METHODS: Linked births (2009-2011) with Child Protective Services records (2009-2015) and deaths in each state were used to compare the cumulative incidence of a Child Protective Services report before age 7 years. Given differences in population race structure and documented disparities of race groups in Child Protective Services data, variation was adjusted for using direct standardization. Unadjusted cumulative incidence, race cumulative incidence, and race-adjusted cumulative incidence were compared. Analyses were completed in 2018. RESULTS: Before age 7 years, 26.0% of Alaskan children and 19.0% of Californian children were reported to Child Protective Services (RR=1.37, p<0.001). Aside from Asian/Pacific Islanders, the cumulative incidence between states was similar for each race. The race-adjusted cumulative incidence indicated that children born in Alaska were 1.10 times as likely to experience a report before age 7 years compared with children in California. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the difference in risk for child maltreatment observed between Alaska and California is most likely due to variation in the population structure by race as opposed to modifiable factors. Standardization is a simple method to adjust for population structure differences. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding the use of linked administrative data to study maltreatment and provides insights into considerations for making comparisons or conducting cross-jurisdictional analyses based on commonly aligned data sets.


Assuntos
Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Declaração de Nascimento , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alaska/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/mortalidade , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
2.
Biomedica ; 39(3): 595-600, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584772

RESUMO

Introduction: The HapMap and the 1000 Genomes projects have been important for understanding the genetic component of common diseases and normal phenotypes. However, the Colombian genetic variability included in these projects is not fully representative of our country. Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of the Colombian genetic variability through the genomic study of a sample of individuals from Bogotá. Materials and methods: A total of 2,372,784 genetic markers were genotyped in 32 individuals born in Bogotá whose parents are from the same region, using the Illumina™ platform. The genetic variability levels were determined and compared with the data available from other populations of the 1000 Genomes Project. Results: The genetic variability detected in the individuals from Bogotá was similar to those with shared ancestry. However, despite the low levels of genetic differentiation between Bogotá and Medellín, populations the principal component analysis suggested a different genetic composition in them. Conclusions: Our genomic analysis of a Bogotá sample allowed us to detect similarities and differences with other American populations. The increase of the Bogotá sample and the inclusion of samples from other regions of the country will improve our understanding of the genetic variability in Colombia, essential for studies of human health and the prevention and treatment of common diseases in our country.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cidades/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Projeto Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Biomedica ; 39(3): 601-610, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584773

RESUMO

Introduction: CYP2C9 metabolizes approximately 15% of the prescribed drugs. Its gene has alleles whose frequencies differ between ethnic groups and populations. The alleles CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 account for an enzyme with decreased activity and their frequencies have not been determined in the Peruvian mestizo population. Objective: To characterize the frequencies of the allelic variants *2 (rs1799853) and *3 (rs1057910) of CYP2C9 gen in the Peruvian mestizo population from Lima, Tacna y Junín. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational, prospective cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic, by convenience, and incidental sampling. We included 218 subjects according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, all of whom had signed the informed consent. We obtained the genomic DNA from oral mucosa swab. For the detection of the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes, we used real-time-polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® probes. Results: The genotyping revealed that CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants have low frequencies (0.046 and 0.062, respectively). The frequency of intermediate metabolizers was 15.13% (CYP2C9*1/*2: 5.96%; CYP2C9*1/*3: 9.17%) and that of slow metabolizers was 3.22% (CYP2C9*2/*2: 1.38%; CYP2C9*3/*3: 1.38%; CYP2C9*2/*3: 0.46%). Conclusions: It was possible to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies for the variants *2 and *3 of the CYP2C9 gene in a non-probabilistic sample of the Peruvian mestizo population. The frequencies obtained (0.046 and 0.062, respectively) corresponded to those expected for a South American mestizo population with Amerindian, European, African and Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Alelos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Frequência do Gene , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cidades/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/etnologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(10): 2857-2863, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of ethnicity in presentation of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients. METHODS: This multicenter study included cSLE patients (American College of Rheumatology criteria) followed in 27 Pediatric Rheumatology services of Brazil. Ethnicities were classified in four groups according to the parents' and all four grandparents' self-reported ethnicity. The statistical analysis was performed using the Bonferroni's correction (p < 0.0027). RESULTS: According to ethnic groups, 1537 cSLE patients were classified in Caucasian (n = 786), African-Latin American (n = 526), Asian (n = 8), and others/unknown (n = 217). Comparisons between 1312 African-Latin American and Caucasian revealed similar median age at cSLE diagnosis [12.2(2.6-18) vs. 12.1(0.3-18) years, p = 0.234], time interval to diagnosis [0.25(0-12) vs. 0.3(0-10) years, p = 0.034], and SLEDAI-2K score [14(0-55) vs. 14(0-63), p = 0.781] in both groups. The mean number of diagnostic criteria according to SLICC (6.47 ± 1.911 vs. 5.81 ± 1.631, p < 0.0001) and frequencies of maculopapular lupus rash (8% vs. 3%, p < 0.0001), palate oral ulcers (17% vs. 11%, p = 0.001), tongue oral ulcers (4% vs. 1%, p = 0.001), and nonscarring alopecia (29% vs. 16%, p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in African-Latin American, whereas malar rash (45% vs. 58%, p < 0.0001) was more frequent in Caucasian. The presence of anti-phospholipid antibody (23% vs. 12%, p < 0.0001), low complement levels (58% vs. 41%, p < 0.0001), and isolated direct Coombs test (10% vs. 5%, p = 0.001) was also significantly higher in the former group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that disease presentation severity of African-Latin American cSLE patients is comparable with Caucasian. Mucocutaneous manifestations and autoantibodies profile were the only distinctive features of the former group. The unique mixed background of Brazilian patients probably minimized race diversity spectrum of these patients. Key Points • Our study demonstrated that disease presentation severity of African-Latin American cSLE patients is comparable with Caucasian. • Mucocutaneous manifestations and autoantibodies profile were the only distinctive features of African-Latin American cSLE patients. • African-Latin American cSLE patients had more often anti-phospholipid antibodies and hypocomplementemia. • The unique mixed background of Brazilian patients probably minimized race diversity spectrum of these patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idade de Início , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Hum Immunol ; 80(7): 419-420, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101374

RESUMO

Mapuche Amerindians live now widespread in Central South Chile and Argentina and speak "Mapudungun", an unclassified language. A group of Chilean Mapuche was studied for HLA genes using standard techniques. Typical Amerindian HLA genes and haplotypes are found in the population, like HLA-DRB1*14:02, -08:02 and class II haplotype DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02. However, these and other genes are also common in Pacific Islanders. Thus, relatedness of First America Inhabitants with some Pacific Islanders is stressed. Evidences of Pacific and Atlantic cultural and genetic exchange, probably in both directions, and California Man settlements found since 130,000 years ago makes it necessary a revision of Americas peopling. This study may be also useful for medical Mapuche use in Transplantation and HLA and disease Epidemiology.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Frequência do Gene , Antígenos HLA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , Alelos , Chile/etnologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Humanos , Filogenia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811412

RESUMO

Ancient systems of mariculture were foundations of social-ecological systems of many coastal Indigenous Peoples. However, since such systems either do not leave tangible remains in the archaeological record, and/or are hard to date, we know little about their development and use. Clam gardens, traditional mariculture features located within the intertidal zone along the Northwest Coast of North America, are composed of a rock wall positioned at the low tide mark and a flattened terrace on the landward side of the wall. Because these features are largely composed of rock and sediment, and have complex formation histories, they can be difficult to age. On northern Quadra Island, British Columbia, we identify three variations in clam garden form, constructed in different geomorphological settings, each of which require different sampling approaches to obtain ages on construction and ongoing use. To age the clam gardens, we consider radiocarbon dating of invertebrates that inhabit beach deposits (both pre- and post-garden construction), and the relationship of the gardens and clam samples to the local sea level history and taphonomic processes. Within our study area, we find clam gardens have been in use for 3500 years, likely corresponding to other social and ecological changes of the time. These data allow us to formulate guidelines on samples most suitable to constrain the age of initial and on-going wall construction and use of clam gardens, which can be extrapolated to dating other ancient mariculture features in other regions. Such dating programs are the foundation for understanding the long-term development of traditional marine management practices and how they are situated in broader social-ecological systems.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/história , Frutos do Mar/história , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/história , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bivalves , Colúmbia Britânica , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos , América do Norte , Oceano Pacífico , Grupos Populacionais/história , Datação Radiométrica
8.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(5): 1385-1388, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612323

RESUMO

X-chromosomal markers can be useful in some forensic cases, where the analysis of the autosomal markers is not conclusive. In this study, a population sample of 500 unrelated individuals born in São Paulo State was characterized for 32 X-InDel markers. No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected, except for MID1361. The 32 X-InDels showed an accumulated power of discrimination of 0.9999999999993 in females and 0.99999993 in males and an exclusion chance of 0.999996 in trios and 0.99995 in duos. São Paulo showed lower genetic distances to the Colombian admixed and European populations than to Native American, Asian, or African populations. Ancestry analysis revealed 41.8% European, 31.6% African, and 26.6% Native American contributions. Segregation analysis was performed in 101 trios, and the mutation rate was estimated to be low.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Mutação INDEL , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Brasil/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Família , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Taxa de Mutação , Paternidade
9.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 17(2): 147-154, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The knowledge of the concept of brain death is fundamental for being able to understand the organ donation process and helps to achieve its acceptance. Our aim was to analyze levels of understanding of the brain death concept among Latin Americans residing in Florida (USA) and to determine the factors affecting this understanding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of residents of Latin American origin in the state of Florida was randomized and stratified by nationality, age, and sex (N = 1524). Attitude was assessed using a validated questionnaire, which was self-administered and completed anonymously. For statistical analysis of descriptive data, we used t test, the chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The questionnaire completion rate was 95% (n = 1450). We found that 24% (n = 350) understood the concept of brain death, 54% (n = 777) did not understand it, and the remaining 22% (n = 323) believed it did not mean a person's death. The following variables were related to understanding this concept: (1) country of origin (P ⟨ .001), (2) sex (P = .001), (3) marital status (P ⟨ .001), (4) level of formal education (P < .001), (5) having spoken about the subject with one's family (P < .001), (6) a partner's attitude toward donation (P < .001), and (6) religion (P < .001). In the multivariate analysis, the following factors continued to be related: country of origin, level of formal education, and religion. A more positive attitude toward organ donation was found among those who understood the concept of brain death (29% vs 22%; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the concept of brain death among Latin American residents in Florida is limited, with marked differences depending on the respondent's country of origin, level of formal education, and religion.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/psicologia , Morte Encefálica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Morte/etnologia , Compreensão , Escolaridade , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião e Medicina , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Curr Biol ; 29(1): 149-157.e3, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581024

RESUMO

The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15-25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge [1-4]. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later [5, 6] and mtDNA analyses to ∼25 kya [7], followed by isolation ("Beringian Standstill" [8, 9]) for 2.4-9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the Americas. Here, we present a calibrated sequence-based analysis of 222 Native American and relevant Eurasian Y chromosomes (24 new) from haplogroups Q and C [10], with four major conclusions. First, we identify three to four independent lineages as autochthonous and likely founders: the major Q-M3 and rarer Q-CTS1780 present throughout the Americas, the very rare C3-MPB373 in South America, and possibly the C3-P39/Z30536 in North America. Second, from the divergence times and Eurasian/American distribution of lineages, we estimate a Beringian Standstill duration of 2.7 ky or 4.6 ky, according to alternative models, and entry south of the ice sheet after 19.5 kya. Third, we describe the star-like expansion of Q-M848 (within Q-M3) starting at 15 kya [11] in the Americas, followed by establishment of substantial spatial structure in South America by 12 kya. Fourth, the deep branches of the Q-CTS1780 lineage present at low frequencies throughout the Americas today [12] may reflect a separate out-of-Beringia dispersal after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Antigo/análise , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Arqueologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(46): 11742-11747, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373836

RESUMO

Chemical analysis of residues contained in the matrix of stone smoking pipes reveal a substantial direct biomolecular record of ancient tobacco (Nicotiana) smoking practices in the North American interior northwest (Plateau), in an area where tobacco was often portrayed as a Euro-American-introduced postcontact trade commodity. Nicotine, a stimulant alkaloid and biomarker for tobacco, was identified via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 8 of 12 analyzed pipes and pipe fragments from five sites in the Columbia River Basin, southeastern Washington State. The specimens date from 1200 cal BP to historic times, confirming the deep time continuity of intoxicant use and indigenous smoking practices in northwestern North America. The results indicate that hunting and gathering communities in the region, including ancestral Nez Perce peoples, established a tobacco smoking complex of wild (indigenous) tobacco well before the main domesticated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was introduced by contact-era fur traders and settlers after the 1790s. This is the longest continuous biomolecular record of ancient tobacco smoking from a single region anywhere in the world-initially during an era of pithouse development, through the late precontact equestrian era, and into the historic period. This contradicts some ethnohistorical data indicating that kinnikinnick, or bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) was the primary precontact smoke plant in the study area. Early use likely involved the management and cultivation of indigenous tobaccos (Nicotiana quadrivalvis or Nicotiana attenuata), species that are today exceedingly rare in the region and seem to have been abandoned as smoke plants after the entry of trade tobacco.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/história , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Nicotina/análise , América do Norte , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Public Health ; 108(12): 1613-1616, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359103

RESUMO

American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities harbor understandable mistrust of research. Outside researchers have historically controlled processes, promulgating conclusions and recommended policies with virtually no input from the communities studied. Reservation-based communities can apply sovereignty rights conferred by the federal government to change this research trajectory. Many tribes now require review and approval before allowing research activities to occur, in part through the development of regulatory codes and oversight measures. Tribal oversight ensures that research is directed toward questions of importance to the community and that results are returned in ways that optimize problem solving. Unfortunately, tribal governance protections do not always extend to AI/ANs residing in urban environments. Although they represent the majority of AI/ANs, urban Indians face an ongoing struggle for visibility and access to health care. It is against this backdrop that urban Indians suffer disproportionate health problems. Improved efforts to ensure responsible research with urban Indian populations requires attention to community engagement, research oversight, and capacity building. We consider strategies to offset these limitations and develop a foundation for responsible research with urban Indians.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa/organização & administração , População Urbana , Nativos do Alasca , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/organização & administração , Competência Cultural , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Inuítes , Poder Psicológico , Pesquisa/economia , Pesquisa/normas , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , United States Indian Health Service
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 132(5): 1158-1166, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe racial and ethnic disparities in the incidence of severe maternal morbidity during delivery hospitalizations in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a pooled, cross-sectional analysis of 2012-2015 data from the National Inpatient Sample to define the prevalence of chronic conditions and incidence of severe maternal morbidity among deliveries to non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and Native American or Alaska Native women. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression and predictive margins to generate prevalence and incidence estimates. Adjusted rate ratios and differences were calculated to quantify disparities across racial and ethnic categories. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine the incidence of severe maternal morbidity among deliveries to women with comorbid physical health conditions, behavioral health conditions, and multiple chronic conditions within each racial and ethnic category. RESULTS: The incidence of severe maternal morbidity was significantly higher among deliveries to women in every racial and ethnic minority category compared with deliveries among non-Hispanic white women. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 231.1 (95% CI 223.6-238.5) and 139.2 (95% CI 136.4-142.0) per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women, respectively (P<.001). When excluding cases in which blood transfusion was the only indicator of severe maternal morbidity, only deliveries to non-Hispanic black women had a higher incidence of severe maternal morbidity compared with deliveries among non-Hispanic white women: 50.2 (95% CI 47.6-52.9) and 40.9 (95% CI 39.6-42.3) per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations, respectively (risk ratio 1.2 [95% CI 1.2-1.3], risk difference 9.3 [95% CI 6.5-12.2] per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations; P<.001 for each comparison). Among deliveries to women with comorbid physical and behavioral health conditions, significant differences in severe maternal morbidity were identified among racial and ethnic minority compared with non-Hispanic white women and the largest disparities were identified among women with multiple chronic conditions. CONCLUSION: Programs for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity may have the greatest effect focusing on women at highest risk for blood transfusion and maternity care management for women with comorbid chronic conditions, particularly multiple chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Parto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4270, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323210

RESUMO

The number of viruses circulating in small isolated human populations may be reduced by viral extinctions and rare introductions. Here we used viral metagenomics to characterize the eukaryotic virome in feces from healthy children from a large urban center and from three Amerindian villages with minimal outside contact. Numerous human enteric viruses, mainly from the Picornaviridae and Caliciviridae families, were sequenced from each of the sites. Multiple children from the same villages shed closely related viruses reflecting frequent transmission clusters. Feces of isolated villagers also contained multiple viral genomes of unknown cellular origin from the Picornavirales order and CRESS-DNA group and higher levels of nematode and protozoan DNA. Despite cultural and geographic isolation, the diversity of enteric human viruses was therefore not reduced in these Amazonian villages. Frequent viral introductions and/or increased susceptibility to enteric infections may account for the complex fecal virome of Amerindian children in isolated villages.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano , Fezes/virologia , Vírus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Venezuela
15.
mSphere ; 3(4)2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158281

RESUMO

People living traditional lifestyles have higher gut microbiota diversity than urban subjects. We hypothesized that shifting lifestyles from an urban environment to a traditional rainforest village would lead to changes in the microbiota of visitors, which would become more similar to the microbiota of villagers. Here, we characterized at different time points the microbiota of 7 urban visitors (5 adults and 2 children) staying in a rainforest Amerindian village for 16 days and compared them with a reference collection of samples from age-matched local villagers. We performed a 16S rRNA gene survey of samples from multiple body sites (including fecal, oral, nasal, and skin samples) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The main factor segregating the microbiotas of each body site was the human group (i.e., visitors versus villagers), with the visitor microbiota tending to have lower alpha diversity; the lowered alpha diversity was statistically significant in the microbiota of skin and in the children's fecal and oral microbiota. During the rainforest period, all visitors experienced microbiota changes within their personal cloud of variation. For all body sites, the microbiota conformations in the visitor children better matched the microbiota conformations in villagers of the same age than did those of the visitor adults, which showed a lower "microbiota age" than the microbiota of the villagers. The results suggest higher stability in the adult microbiota, with the less resilient children's microbiota responding more to dietary changes.IMPORTANCE Despite the limitations of a small study, our results evidence higher resilience of the gut microbiota with respect to dietary manipulation in adults than in children and urge further studies to understand the extent of microbiota plasticity in response to dietary changes and the mechanisms underlying microbiota resilience. These studies are relevant to the potential of future human pre- and probiotics in preventing or curing microbiota-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estilo de Vida , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/microbiologia , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Floresta Úmida , Pele/microbiologia , Viagem
16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12733, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143708

RESUMO

The Andean Altiplano has been occupied continuously since the late Pleistocene, ~12,000 years ago, which places the Andean natives as one of the most ancient populations living at high altitudes. In the present study, we analyzed genomic data from Native Americans living a long-time at Andean high altitude and at Amazonia and Mesoamerica lowland areas. We have identified three new candidate genes - SP100, DUOX2 and CLC - with evidence of positive selection for altitude adaptation in Andeans. These genes are involved in the TP53 pathway and are related to physiological routes important for high-altitude hypoxia response, such as those linked to increased angiogenesis, skeletal muscle adaptations, and immune functions at the fetus-maternal interface. Our results, combined with other studies, showed that Andeans have adapted to the Altiplano in different ways and using distinct molecular strategies as compared to those of other natives living at high altitudes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Loci Gênicos , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Haplótipos/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , América do Sul
17.
Physiol Behav ; 194: 532-537, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008437

RESUMO

Genetic variations in the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) may alter dopamine signaling and modify the rewarding effects of food. This study aimed to analyze the association of the C957T DRD2 polymorphism with sugar consumption in West Mexican subjects. In a cross-sectional and analytical study, a total of 215 Mexican subjects were enrolled. DRD2 genotyping was performed by an allelic discrimination assay. Habitual dietary intake and the biochemical profile were evaluated. Genotype frequencies of the C957T DRD2 polymorphism were CC (12.1%), CT (40.9%) and TT (47.0%). Carriers of the CC genotype had a higher intake of sugar (g/day) than heterozygotes (67.4 g vs. 41.3 g, p = 0.001) and TT homozygotes (67.4 g vs. 45.2 g, p = 0.004). Also, the habitual consumption of soda (daily or at least 3 times per week) was more frequent among CC genotype carriers compared with heterozygotes (81% vs. 51%, p = 7.5 × 10-6) and TT homozygotes (81% vs. 57%, p = 2.4 × 10-4). Furthermore, the CC genotype was associated with elevated serum triglyceride levels (>150 mg/dL) than the CT genotype (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.08-7.24, p = 0.034). In conclusion, our results suggest a genetic background associated with sugar consumption among West Mexicans, which may contribute to increases in serum triglyceride levels.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Açúcares/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
mSphere ; 3(3)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720524

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV), an etiological agent of cervical cancer (CC), has infected humans since ancient times. Amerindians are the furthest migrants out of Africa, and they reached the Americas more than 14,000 years ago. Some groups still remain isolated, and some migrate to towns, forming a gradient spanning urbanization. We hypothesized that, by virtue of their history, lifestyle, and isolation from the global society, remote Amerindian women have lower HPV diversity than do urban women (Amerindian or mestizo). Here we determined the diversity of the 25 most relevant cervical HPV types in 82 Amerindians spanning urbanization (low, medium, and high, consistent with the exposure to urban lifestyles of the town of Puerto Ayacucho in the Venezuelan Amazonas State), and in 29 urban mestizos from the town. Cervical, anal, oral, and introitus samples were taken, and HPVs were typed using reverse DNA hybridization. A total of 23 HPV types were detected, including 11 oncogenic or high-risk types, most associated with CC. Cervical HPV prevalence was 75%, with no differences by group, but Amerindians from low and medium urbanization level had significantly lower HPV diversity than mestizos did. In Amerindians, but not in mestizos, infections by only high-risk HPVs were higher than coinfections or by exclusively low-risk HPVs. Cervical abnormalities only were observed in Amerindians (9/82), consistent with their high HPV infection. The lower cervical HPV diversity in more isolated Amerindians is consistent with their lower exposure to the global pool, and transculturation to urban lifestyles could have implications on HPV ecology, infection, and virulence.IMPORTANCE The role of HPV type distribution on the disparity of cervical cancer (CC) incidence between human populations remains unknown. The incidence of CC in the Amazonas State of Venezuela is higher than the national average. In this study, we determined the diversity of known HPV types (the viral agent of CC) in Amerindian and mestizo women living in the Venezuelan Amazonas State. Understanding the ecological diversity of HPV in populations undergoing lifestyle transformations has important implication on public health measures for CC prevention.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Papillomaviridae/genética , Prevalência , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
CMAJ ; 190(11): E320-E326, 2018 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Métis people are 1 of 3 Aboriginal groups recognized by the Canadian constitution. We estimated site-specific incidence rates and survival for the most common cancers among Métis adults in Canada and compared these with rates among non-Aboriginal adults in Canada. METHODS: We examined responses to the 1991 long-form census, including self-reported Métis ancestry linked to national mortality and cancer databases for followup from 1992 to 2009. We estimated age-standardized incidence rates and 5-year relative survival. We determined relative risk (RR) of cancer among Métis and non-Aboriginal adults using Poisson regression, and estimated excess mortality rate ratios using ethnicity-specific life tables. RESULTS: For all cancers and both sexes combined, cancer incidence was similar for Métis and non-Aboriginal adults. However, incidence was significantly higher among Métis adults than among non-Aboriginal adults for the following cancers: female breast (RR 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.37), lung (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.18-1.52), liver (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.30-3.38), larynx (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.48), gallbladder (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.12-4.96) and cervix (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.23-2.76). Métis people had poorer survival for prostate cancer (excess mortality rate ratio 2.60, 95% CI 1.52-4.46). INTERPRETATION: We found higher incidence for several cancers and poorer survival after prostate cancer among Métis adults. Several of these disparities may be related to lifestyle factors (including tobacco use, obesity and lack of cancer screening), providing evidence to support development of public health policy and health care to address cancer burden in the Métis people of Canada.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Healthc Q ; 20(4): 6-9, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595420

RESUMO

Indigenous data governance principles assert that Indigenous communities have a right to data that identifies their people or communities, and a right to determine the use of that data in ways that support Indigenous health and self-determination. Indigenous-driven use of the databases held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has resulted in ongoing partnerships between ICES and diverse Indigenous organizations and communities. To respond to this emerging and complex landscape, ICES has established a team whose goal is to support the infrastructure for responding to community-initiated research priorities. ICES works closely with Indigenous partners to develop unique data governance agreements and supports processes, which ensure that ICES scientists must work with Indigenous organizations when conducting research that involves Indigenous peoples.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano , Bases de Dados Factuais , Participação da Comunidade , Curadoria de Dados/ética , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Ontário
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