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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 636, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Key populations - men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and people who inject drugs (PWID) - are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) given their sexual risk behaviours along with social, legal and structural barriers to prevention, care and treatment services. The purpose of this secondary analysis is to assess the prevalence of self-reported STIs and to describe associated risk factors among participations of the first Biological Behavioural Surveillance (BBS) in Mozambique. METHODS: Responses from the first BBS surveys conducted in 2011-2014 were aggregated across survey-cities to produce pooled estimates for each population. Aggregate weighted estimates were computed to analyse self-reported STI prevalence. Unweighted pooled estimates were used in multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with self-reported STI. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported STI was 11.9% (95% CI, 7.8-16.0), 33.6% (95% CI, 29.0-41.3), and 22.0% (95% CI, 17.0-27.0) among MSM, FSW and PWID, respectively. MSM who were circumcised, had HIV, reported drug use, reported receptive anal sex, and non-condom use with their last male partner had greater odds of STI self-report. STI-self report among FSW was associated with living in Beira, being married, employment aside from sex work, physical violence, sexual violence, drug use, access to comprehensive HIV prevention services, non-condom use with last client, and sexual relationship with a non-client romantic partner. Among PWID, risk factors for self-reported STI included living in Nampula/Nacala, access to HIV prevention services, and sex work. CONCLUSION: The high-burden of STIs among survey participants requires integrated HIV and STI prevention, treatment, and harm reduction services that address overlapping risk behaviours, especially injection drug use and sex work. A robust public health response requires the creation of a national STI surveillance system for better screening and diagnostic procedures within these vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sex Health ; 17(4): 384-386, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838836

RESUMO

Sex workers confront unique challenges in the face of COVID-19. Data from an international sex work website popular with cisgender men and transgender men and women suggest that, after a period of physical distancing, many sex workers are returning to in-person work: from May to August 2020, active sex work profiles increased 9.4% (P < 0.001) and newly created profiles increased by 35.6% (P < 0.001). Analysis of sex work and COVID-19 guidelines published by five community-based organisations found that they focused on altering sexual practices, enhancing hygiene and pivoting to virtual work. To capitalise on these guidelines, funding and research for implementation and evaluation are needed to support COVID-19 risk reduction strategies for sex workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro , Apoio Social , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1081-1085, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741175

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anal sex and related factors in low-tier female sex workers (FSWs) in the demonstration areas of comprehensive AIDS responses (DACAR) in Zhejiang province. Method: In 2013, a survey on low-tier FSWs was carried out in 21 Demonstration Areas of AIDS Responses in Zhejiang. Experience of having anal sex with clients in the last month was taken as dependent variable while independent variables would include perception and characteristics related to behavior of the FSWs. The multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors related to anal sex in low-tier FSWs. Results: A total of 2 645 low-tier FSWs were interviewed. Among these FSWs, 67.9% (1 796/2 645) were over 26 years old, 89.9% (2 378/2 645) were with education level of junior high school or below, 58.4% (1 546/2 645) were married, 78.2% (2 068/2 645) were from other provinces, 68.6% (1 814/2 645) had income level less than 4 000 Yuan, and rates of anal sex with client in the last month were 5.03% (133/2 645). Results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis of related factors of anal sex with client in the last month showed that among the low-tier FSWs, the venues of having commercial sex were in hair salons/massage parlors (OR=7.31, 95%CI: 2.27-23.59), roadside shops (OR=7.89, 95%CI: 2.27- 27.40) or other places (OR=4.65, 95%CI: 1.23-17.53), when compared with the street-women service. FSWs often engaged in commercial sex business in three or more counties (OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.01-2.81), when compared with FSWs often engaged in commercial sex business just one county. FSWs had sex with only middle-aged and the elderly clients (OR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.30-0.66), when compared with FSWs had sex with young or middle-aged and the elderly clients. FSWs had risk perception for sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR=2.00, 95%CI: 1.20-3.32), when compared with FSWs with no risk perception. FSWs had oral sex experience with their clients in the last month (OR=7.29, 95%CI: 4.78-11.12), when compared with the ones without oral sex. The above said factors were all related to the incidence of anal sex. Conclusions: Certain numbers of low-tier FSWs had anal sex experiences with their clients, especially those who had oral sex were more likely to have anal sex in DACAR in Zhejiang province. Attention should be paid to anal sex behavior when conducting behavior-related intervention programs, targeting on the low-tier FSWs.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Between 2014 and 2017, a program aimed at reducing HIV risk and promoting safe sex through consistent use of condoms sought to work through addressing social and economic vulnerabilities and strengthening community-led organizations (COs) of female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines if the program was effective by studying relationship between strengthening of COs, vulnerability reduction, and sustaining of consistent condom use behavior among FSWs. METHODS: We used a longitudinal study design to assess the change in outcomes. A three-stage sampling design was used to select FSWs for the study. Panel data of 2085 FSWs selected from 38 COs across five states of India was used to examine the change in various outcomes from 2015 (Survey Round 1) to 2017 (Survey Round 2). The CO level program pillar measuring institutional development assessed performance of COs in six domains critical for any organization's functionality and sustainability: governance, project management, financial management, program monitoring, advocacy and networking, and resource mobilization. Overall, 32 indicators from all these domains were used to compute the CO strength score. A score was computed by taking mean of average dimension scores. The overall score was divided into two groups based on the median cutoff; COs which scored below the median were considered to have low CO strength, while COs which scored above or equal to median were considered to have high CO strength. Multivariable regression modeling techniques were used to examine the effect of program pillars on outcome measures. RESULTS: Analyses showed a significant improvement in the strength of the COs over time; percentage of COs having high strength improved from 50% in 2015 to 87% in Round 2. The improvement in CO's strength increased financial security (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.18, p<0.01), social welfare security (AOR: 1.71, p<0.01), and socio-legal security (AOR: 2.20, p<0.01) among FSWs. Further, improvement in financial security led to significant increase in consistent condom use with client among FSWs (AOR: 1.69, p<0.01) who were members of COs having high strength. Sustained consistent condom use was positively associated with young age (<30 years), ability to negotiate with clients for condom use, membership in self-help groups, high self-efficacy, self-confidence, and client solicitation in streets and brothels. CONCLUSIONS: Improving financial security and strengthening FSW led CO can improve sustained and consistent condom use. In addition, the program should focus on enhancing ability of FSWs to negotiate with clients for condom use, promote membership in self-help groups and target FSWs who are 30 years or older, and soliciting from homes to sustain consistent condom use across all FSWs.


Assuntos
Sexo Seguro , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Autoajuda/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1182, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some male heterosexual clients prefer to visit a cross-border Female Sex Worker (FSW) because of cheaper sex and unsafe sex practices, and may therefore be at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The objective of this study was to assess whether having commercial cross-border sex is an independent risk factor for being diagnosed with a STI. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was performed using data of 8 Dutch STI clinics bordering Germany, between 2011 and 2013. All male heterosexual clients of FSWs were selected and data on country of FSW visit and occurrence of STI were used for multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 2664 clients of FSW. Most clients visited the Netherlands (82.4%), followed by visits to another country (beyond cross-border) (9.9%) and cross-border visits (7.8%). Clients of FSW were less likely to be STI positive when they were younger than 25 years(OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4 to 0.8 25-44 years and OR = 0.5, 95%CI 0.4 to 0.7 older than 45 years), and more likely when they had 20 or more sex partners in the last 6 months (OR = 2.9, 95%CI 1.9 to 4.4), did not use a condom during last sexual contact (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.6 to 2.9) and made cross-border visits (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONS: As cross-border visits appears to be a novel independent risk factor for STI in clients of FSW, this group should therefore be advised on STI prevention.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Profissionais do Sexo , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Viagem , Adulto , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People Living with HIV (PLHIV) bear a disproportionate burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Despite their significant toll across populations globally, the NCD burden among key populations (KP) in Kenya remains unknown. The burden of four NCD-categories (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes) was evaluated among female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) at the Sex Workers Outreach Program (SWOP) clinics in Nairobi Kenya. METHODS: A retrospective medical chart review was conducted at the SWOP clinics among KP clients ≥15 years living with HIV enrolled between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2015. The prevalence of the four NCD-categories were assessed at enrollment and during subsequent routine quarterly follow-up care visits as per the Ministry of Health guidelines. Prevalence at enrollment was determined and distributions of co-morbidities assessed using Chi-square and t-tests as appropriate during follow-up visits. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify factors associated with NCD diagnoses. RESULTS: Overall, 1,478 individuals' records were analyzed; 1,392 (94.2%) were from FSWs while 86 (5.8%) were from MSM over the three-year period. FSWs' median age was 35.3 years (interquartile range (IQR) 30.1-41.6) while MSM were younger at 26.8 years (IQR 23.2-32.1). At enrollment into the HIV care program, most KPs (86.6%) were at an early WHO clinical stage (stage I-II) and 1462 (98.9%) were on first-line anti-retroviral therapy (ART). A total of 271, 18.3% (95% CI: 16.4-20.4%), KPs living with HIV had an NCD diagnosis in their clinical chart records during the study period. Majority of these cases, 258 (95.2%) were noted among FSWs. Cardiovascular disease that included hypertension was present in 249/271, 91.8%, of KPs with a documented NCD. Using a proxy of two or more elevated blood pressure readings taken < 12 months apart, prevalence of hypertension rose from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.6-1.7) that was documented in the charts during the first year to 16.3% (95% CI: 14.4-18.3) in the third year. Chronic respiratory disease mainly asthma was present in 16/271, a prevalence of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.6-1.8) in the study population. Cancer in general was detected in 10/271, prevalence of 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1.2) over the same period. Interestingly, diabetes was not noted in the study group. Lastly, significant associations between NCD diagnosis with increasing age, body-mass index and CD4 + cell-counts were noted in univariate analysis. However, except for categories of ≥ BMI 30 kg/m2 and age ≥ 45, the associations were not sustained in adjusted risk estimates. CONCLUSION: In Kenya, KP living with HIV and on ART have a high prevalence of NCD diagnoses. Multiple NCD risk factors were also noted against a backdrop of a changing HIV epidemic in the study population. This calls for scaling up focus on both HIV and NCD prevention and care in targeted populations at increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Hence, KP programs could include integrated HIV-NCD screening and care in their guidelines.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective treatment, women living with HIV can plan for pregnancy while minimizing risk of transmission to infants and seronegative partners. Family planning (FP) services tend to focus solely on addressing contraceptive need, but HIV-positive women-including female sex workers-often plan to have children someday. Various "safer conception" strategies are now available to support women living with HIV achieve fertility intentions, and integrated HIV/FP services may be a promising platform to offer these services. METHODS: At integrated community-based HIV/FP service delivery sites operated by Jhpiego's Sauti project in Dar es Salaam, we conducted exit interviews with 300 HIV-positive female sex workers. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe their desire for children, use of condoms and other modern contraceptive methods, self-reported viral suppression, and knowledge of and interest in safer conception strategies. We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine correlates of fertility desire among respondents. RESULTS: Median age of participants was 32. Nearly one-third wished to have a child within two years. Seventy-two percent had heard of having the HIV-positive partner taking ART to reduce sexual transmission during pregnancy attempts. Thirty-one percent felt the amount of FP content covered in the consultation was "too little." Factors significantly associated with desire for children were having a nonpaying partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.13-4.20) and having fewer children (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.87). Viral suppression was not associated with fertility desire. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers living with HIV attending integrated HIV/FP services have need for both contraception as well as safer conception counseling. This integrated service delivery modality is a promising platform for providing safer conception services. FP counseling for HIV-positive women should be broadened to broach the topic of safer pregnancy, as well as explicit counseling on strategies to minimize risk of sexual transmission to partners.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilização , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilidade , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
9.
Public Health ; 185: 254-260, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and World Health Organization believe that some of the benchmark numbers collected may be inaccurate when using the multiplier method to estimate the size of populations most at risk of acquiring HIV. Here, study data have been evaluated to characterize the inaccurate benchmark numbers. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used is a systematic review. METHODS: Studies published from 1 January 2004 to 1 December 2019 using the multiplier method to estimate the population proportions of men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs) in China were reviewed. Five electronic bibliographic databases were searched: Medline, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wanfang Data, and the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database. RESULTS: In all eight studies of FSW, six of the estimated population proportions fell within the range of national estimates. However, the estimated MSM population proportions of all 18 studies fell outside the range of national estimates. CONCLUSIONS: When estimating the MSM population, the use of benchmark numbers from homosexual websites or MSM-frequented sites usually led to an inaccurate estimation. Therefore, benchmark numbers from services/programs that meet fundamental needs, such as those dealing with health and wellness, should be used.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 32-36, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex workers, people with drug addiction, early onset of sexual activity population, and criminal population, are considered the groups most at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). AIM: To determine the prevalence of infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in inmates of the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) at Arica and Parinacota Region, Chile. The Scientific Ethical Committee of Universidad de Tarapacá approved this study. METHOD: 140 inmates participated, who voluntarily agreed to be part of the study and signed an informed consent. A sample of urethral meatus was taken to investigate N. gonorrhoeae, and an epidemiological survey was applied, which included age, drug use, overcrowding, among others. RESULTS: The prevalence of the agent was 16.4% in inmates of the Arica CDP, a result lower than that reported in other similar studies. CONCLUSION: Knowing the reality of the prevalence of this STI and some risk factors associated with the situation of deprivation of freedom in a tri-border area of northern Chile, contributes to the proposals for prevention programs in this vulnerable and at-risk population.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Prisioneiros , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Chile/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 1947-1958, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617764

RESUMO

Coinfections of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and poor prognosis. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HCV and/or HBV coinfections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and female sex workers (FSWs) who live with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Data sources were searched from January 2008 to October 2018 in different databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid. Data were analyzed in Stata 14 software using the Metaprop command. The results showed that the prevalence of HCV among PWID and FSWs with HIV/AIDS was 72% (95% CI: 59%-83%) and 40% (95% CI: 0%-94%), respectively. The prevalence of HBV among PWID and FSWs with HIV/AIDS was 8% (95% CI: 5%-13%) and 2% (95% CI: 0%-7%), respectively, and the prevalence of HCV/HBV in PWID with HIV/AIDS was 11% (95% CI: 7%-15%). The highest prevalence of HCV was observed in PWID in the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe regions, and the lowest was observed in the Africa region. The South-East Asia region had the highest prevalence of HBV among PWID, and the Africa region had the lowest prevalence. The high prevalence of HCV coinfection among PWID and FSWs with HIV/AIDS was an alarming health problem and requires appropriate interventions. Therefore, considering that these populations are key populations for HCV elimination, it is recommended to screen them regularly for HCV. In addition, harm reduction and HBV vaccination should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , HIV/fisiologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20063, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring adherence to PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) remains challenging. Biological adherence measurements are reported to be more accurate than self-reports and pill counts but can be expensive and not suitable on a daily basis in resource-limited countries. Using data from a demonstration project on PrEP among female sex workers in Benin, we aimed to measure adherence to PrEP and compare self-report and pill count adherence to tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF) concentration in plasma to determine if these 2 measures are reliable and correlate well with biological adherence measurements. METHODS: Plasma TFV concentrations were analyzed in samples collected at day 14 follow-up visit and months 6, 12, 18, and 24 (or at last visit when follow-up was shorter). Self-reported adherence was captured at day 14 follow-up visit and then quarterly by asking participants to report the number of missed pills within the last week. For pill count, medications were refilled monthly and participants were asked to bring in their medication bottles at each follow-up visit. Using generalized estimating equations adherence measured by self-report and pill count was compared to plasma drug concentrations. RESULTS: Of 255 participants, 47.1% completed follow-up. Weighted optimal adherence combining data from all visits was 26.8% for TFV concentration, 56.0% by self-report and 18.9% by pill count. Adherence measured by both TFV concentrations and self-report decreased over time (P = .009 and P = .019, respectively), while the decreasing trend in adherence by pill count was not significant (P = .087). The decrease in adherence was greater using TFV concentrations than the other 2 adherence measures. CONCLUSION: With high levels of misreporting of adherence using self-report and pill count, the objective biomedical assessment of adherence via laboratory testing is optimal and more accurately reflects PrEP uptake and persistence. Alternative inexpensive and accurate approaches to monitor PrEP adherence should be investigated.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/sangue , Benin , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Profissionais do Sexo , Tenofovir/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy (LA ART) was found to be non-inferior to daily oral ART in Phase 3 clinical trials. LA ART may offer an important alternative for people living with HIV with challenges adhering to daily oral ART or preferences for non-pill-based regimens. METHODS: Using a mixed methods approach integrating survey, in-depth interview and biological data from female sex workers (FSW) living with HIV in Tanzania (N = 208) and the Dominican Republic (DR) (N = 201), we assessed factors associated with the potential likelihood of LA ART use if it were available. We conducted multivariate logistic regression and thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Likelihood of LA ART use was high with 84.92% of FSW from the DR and 92.27% of FSW from Tanzania reporting they would be "likely" or "very likely" to use LA ART if available (p = 0.02). In Tanzania better HIV-related patient-provider communication (AOR 4.58; 95% CI 1.90-11.05) and quality of HIV clinical care (AOR 3.68; 95% CI 1.05-12.86) were positively associated with the high likelihood of LA ART use. In the DR, easier clinic access was associated with a higher likelihood of LA ART use (AOR 3.04; 95% CI 1.41-6.56), as was greater monthly income from sex work (AOR 2.37; 95% CI 1.27-4.41). In both settings, years on ART was significantly associated with a strong likelihood of LA ART use (TZ: AOR 1.16 per year; 95% CI 1.00-1.34/DR: AOR 1.07 per year; 95% CI 1.00-1.14). Qualitative findings underscored enthusiasm for LA ART and reinforced its potential to address sex work-specific barriers to daily oral ART adherence including work-related schedules and substance use. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high likelihood of LA ART use if available among FSW in two diverse settings and documented barriers to future uptake. Community-driven approaches which include tailored health education and improved patient-provider communication and quality of care, as well as strategies to facilitate appointment adherence are needed to optimize LA ART use among FSW.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções , Profissionais do Sexo , República Dominicana , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Razão de Chances , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Glob Public Health ; 15(7): 1073-1082, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459578

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, and its attendant responses, has led to massive health, social, and economic challenges on a global scale. While, so far, having a relatively low burden of COVID-19 infection, it is the response in lower- and middle- income countries that has had particularly dire consequences for impoverished populations such as sex workers, many of whom rely on regular income in the informal economic sector to survive. This commentary captures the challenges in Kenya posed by daily curfews and lost economic income, coupled with further changes to sex work that increase potential exposure to infection, stigmatisation, violence, and various health concerns. It also highlights the ways in which communities and programmes have demonstrated resourcefulness in responding to this unprecedented disruption in order to emerge healthy when COVID-19, and the measures to contain it, subside.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prática de Saúde Pública
16.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 349-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390358

RESUMO

Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to prevent HIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complex and interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and intervention programs. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes five strategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decrease the stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on next-generation PrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, such as social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expected to be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promote PrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Profissionais do Sexo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa became the first country in Africa to introduce oral PrEP in June 2016. The National Department of Health has used a phased approach to rollout, allowing for a dynamic learn-and-adapt process which will lead ultimately to scale-up. Phased rollout began with provision of oral PrEP at facilities providing services to sex workers in 2016 and was expanded in 2017, first to facilities providing services to MSM and then to students at selected university campus clinics, followed by provision at primary health care facilities. Programmatic data shows variability in initiation and continuation between these populations. This study examines factors related to PrEP initiation, continuation, and discontinuation at facilities providing services to sex workers and MSM during the national PrEP rollout. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered September 2017-January 2018 among clients (ages 18-62 and providers at 9 facilities implementing oral PrEP in South Africa, followed by in-depth interviews. The client survey captured PrEP initiation, continuation and discontinuation. Analysis was performed in STATA 13 for survey data and thematic analysis was performed in NViVO 11 for in-depth interview data. RESULTS: 299 clients (203 from sex worker facilities, 96 from MSM facilities) participated in the survey and additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 clients. Participants self-identified as either current users (n = 94; 36.2%), past users (n = 80; 30.8%) and never users of PrEP (n = 86; 33.1%). Participants who had never used PrEP either cited not being offered PrEP by a provider (57%, n = 49) or declining PrEP (43%, n = 37) as reasons for lack of uptake. The primary reason for declining to use oral PrEP was fear of side effects (41.7%, n = 15). The primary reasons for initiating and continuing on oral PrEP were all related to perceived risk associated with sexual activity. The majority of participants (87.9%, n = 153) also noted that printed IEC materials influenced their decision to initiate PrEP. Qualitative data suggested that several clients initiated on PrEP because they wanted additional protection beyond using condoms due to challenges such as partners refusing to use condoms, having partners with unknown HIV status, having multiple partners, involvement in sex work, or having a partner living with HIV. The majority (73.8%, n = 59) of participants who discontinued oral PrEP cited side effects as the primary reason for discontinuation, followed by feeling stigmatized (18.8%, n = 15). CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable insights on early rollout of PrEP of how clients perceive oral PrEP and where to target efforts to improve the uptake of this highly effective HIV prevention product. By identifying strengths and areas for improvement, the ACCESS study has generated evidence that can be used to guide high quality scale-up in South Africa and may be instructive for other countries' efforts to expand quality access to oral PrEP.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Profissionais do Sexo , Suspensão de Tratamento , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preservativos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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