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1.
J Anxiety Disord ; 75: 102291, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is rearranging our society with fear and worry about the novel coronavirus impacting the mental health of Americans. The current study examines the intersection of COVID-19 fear, worries and perceived threat with social vulnerabilities and mental health consequences, namely anxiety and depressive symptomatology. METHODS: Using an online platform, a national sample (n = 10, 368) of U.S. adults was surveyed during the week of March 23, 2020. The sample was post-strata weighted to ensure adequate representation of the U.S. population based on population estimates for gender, race/ethnicity, income, age, and geography. RESULTS: Fear and worry are not distributed equally across the country; rather they are concentrated in places where the largest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases is found. Additionally, data highlight significant differences in the subjective perception of distress across groups with varying social vulnerabilities. Women, Hispanics, Asians, families with children under 18, and foreign-born respondents reported higher levels of subjective fear and worry compared to their counterparts. Finally, even after controlling for social vulnerability, subjective assessments of distress were positive, and significantly related to anxiety and depressive symptomatology; prior mental health research from China and Europe confirm what others have begun to document in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary work provides practitioners with a glimpse of what lies ahead, which individuals and communities may be the most vulnerable, and what types of strategic interventions might help to address a wide range of mental health consequences for Americans in the months and years ahead.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(8): 771-783, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614203

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease that emerged in 2019 (COVID-19) spotlights the need for effective leadership in a crisis. Leadership research in applied psychology suggests that women tend to be preferred over men as leaders during uncertain times. We contribute to this literature by examining, in the context of COVID-19, whether states with women governors had fewer deaths than states with men governors, and why. We tested this research question with publicly available data on COVID-19 deaths in the United States as of May 5, 2020 and found that states with women governors had fewer COVID-19 deaths compared to states with men governors. Governor sex also interacted with early stay-at-home orders; states with women governors who issued these orders early had fewer deaths compared to states with men governors who did the same. To provide insight into psychological mechanisms of this relationship, we conducted a qualitative analysis of governor briefings that took place between April 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020 (251 briefings, 38 governors, 1.2 million words). Compared to men, women governors expressed more empathy and confidence in their briefings. Practical implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Governo Estadual , Mulheres , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598772

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Assuntos
Autoria , Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
6.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538780

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Assuntos
Autoria , Bibliometria , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
7.
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 220-227, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593235

RESUMO

The article probes into the development of local self-organization of retired women, actively involved in resolving housing issues at their place of residence in Saint-Petersburg. The socio-spatial approach to aging, also referred to as «aging in a place / in a community¼ serves the theoretical framework. This type of aging requires an active approach to the habitual environment of the elderly and their support. It is the groups of older women that generate activists who have free time and the necessary competencies and who are ready to promote the interests of all the residents of an apartment building, a neighborhood or a district. Therefore, the empirical basis of the article was mainly the materials of interviews with women activists. In the public utilities system full of intricate semi-legal schemes, invisible and incomprehensible to the majority of ordinary citizens, activists are not always able to enter into an equitable dialogue with the controlling bodies and public utilities managers. In order to make insignificant changes, older activists are sometimes required to take tremendous efforts and develop new competencies which help to overcome barriers and to defend the collective interests.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Organizações , Ativismo Político , Setor Público , Mulheres/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Habitação/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Aposentadoria , Federação Russa
9.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S243-S244, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538661

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Spain ranked 1st in number of infected health workers. Despite the fact that up to 75% of them were women, psychological interventions to prevent distress usually lacked a gender perspective and a biopsychosocial approach. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicoterapia/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático , Mulheres , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Espanha , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/terapia
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 578-580, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504462

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has spread across the globe, quarantines and sheltering-in-place orders have become important public health tools but, as currently implemented, have eroded human rights, particularly for the marginalized, including essential workers, detainees, women, and children. Quarantines and sheltering-in-place orders must include explicit guarantees of human rights protections. We outline protections for the quarantined that communities and governments should strive to guarantee.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros , Refugiados , Segurança , Populações Vulneráveis , Mulheres , Recursos Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233994, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497125

RESUMO

The Women's March of 2017 generated unprecedented levels of participation in the largest, single day, protest in history to date. The marchers protested the election of President Donald Trump and rallied in support of several civil issues such as women's rights. "Sister marches" evolved in at least 680 locations across the United States. Both positive and negative reactions to the March found their way into social media, with criticism stemming from certain, conservative, political sources and other groups. In this study, we investigate the extent to which this notable, historic event influenced sentiment on Twitter, and the degree to which responses differed by geographic area within the continental U.S. Tweets about the event rose to an impressive peak of over 12% of all geo-located tweets by mid-day of the March, Jan. 21. Messages included in tweets associated with the March tended to be positive in sentiment, on average, with a mean of 0.34 and a median of 0.07 on a scale of -4 to +4. In fact, tweets associated with the March were more positive than all other geo-located tweets during the day of the March. Exceptions to this pattern of positive sentiment occurred only in seven metropolitan areas, most of which involved very small numbers of tweets. Little evidence surfaced of extensive patterns of negative, aggressive messages towards the event in this set of tweets. Given the widespread nature of online harassment and sexist tweets, more generally, the results are notable. In sum, online reactions to the March on this social media platform suggest that this modern arm of the Women's Movement received considerable, virtual support across the country.


Assuntos
Política , Protestantismo , Mulheres , Feminino , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos
13.
Neuron ; 106(6): 890-894, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553205

RESUMO

Reference lists of neuroscience articles show marked gender imbalances. To mitigate this disparity, we discuss relevant ethical considerations and offer practical recommendations to scientists of all ages. We envision an equitable future by all scientists for all scientists.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Editoração , Pesquisa , Mulheres , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401821

RESUMO

Although ICPD brought about an international consensus on the centrality of women's empowerment and gender equity as desired national goals, the conceptualization and measurement of empowerment in demography and economics have been largely understood in a relational and in a family welfare context where women's altruistic behaviour within the household is tied either to developmental or child health outcomes. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to offer an empirical examination of the household level empowerment measure through the theoretical construct of self-compassion and investigate its association with antenatal health, and (2) to ensure robust psychometric quality for this new measure. Drawing data from the nationally representative, multi-topic dataset of 42, 152 households, India Human Development Survey, IHDS II (2011-2012), the study performed a confirmatory factor analysis followed by an OLS estimation to investigate the association between a self-compassionate based empowerment and antenatal care. Empowerment was shown to be positively and significantly associated with antenatal care with significant age and education gradient. A woman's married status, her relation to the household head and joint family residence created conditions of restricted freedom in terms of her mobility, decision making and sociality. The empowerment measure showed inconsistent associations with social group affiliations and household wealth. The study provided an intellectual starting point to rethink the traditional formulations of empowerment by foregrounding its empirical measure within the relatively unexplored area of social psychology. In the process it addressed measurement gaps in the empowerment-health debate in India and beyond.


Assuntos
Empatia , Empoderamento , Autoimagem , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007754, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379823

RESUMO

The current academic culture facing women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields in the United States has sparked the formation of grassroots advocacy groups to empower female scientists in training. However, the impact of these initiatives often goes unmeasured and underappreciated. Our Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) organization serves postdoctoral researchers, graduate students, and research technicians (trainees) at a private research institute for biological sciences. Here we propose the following guidelines for cultivating a successful women-in-STEM-focused group based upon survey results from our own scientific community as well as the experience of our WiSE group leaders. We hope these recommendations can provide guidance to advocacy groups at other research and academic organizations that wish to strengthen their efforts. Whereas our own group specifically focuses on the underrepresented state of women in science, we hope these guidelines may be adapted and applied to groups that advocate for any minority group within the greater scientific community (i.e., those of gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, etc.).


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Mulheres/educação , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Engenharia/educação , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200033, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321005

RESUMO

The social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic brings out, in a empowered way, some worrying indicators about domestic violence and family violence against women. Organizations addressing domestic violence have already seen an increase in domestic violence due to forced coexistence, economic stress and fears about the Coronavirus. The article seeks to establish some relations between social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in violence against women, taking into account the context of a patriarchal society. Data, still incipient, published by the press of several countries were analyzed, as well as reports from international organizations and organizations focused on combating domestic violence. In parallel, a brief literature review with authors who discuss the social role of women in society.


Assuntos
Isolamento Social/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social
19.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 299-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women veterans are a rapidly increasing subset of the Veterans Affairs (VA) patient population but remain a numerical minority. Men veteran-dominated health care settings pose unique considerations for providing care to women veterans in a comfortable and welcoming environment. We analyzed patient suggestions on how to make the VA more welcoming to women. METHODS: We surveyed a convenience sample of women veteran patients who visited 1 of 26 VA locations in August and September of 2017. Women veterans were invited to complete brief anonymous questionnaires that included questions about harassment experiences and feeling welcome at the VA, and an open-ended question about suggestions to make the VA more welcoming to women. We analyzed data from the open-ended question using the constant comparison method. RESULTS: Among respondents (N = 1,303), 85% felt welcome at the VA. Overall, 29% answered the open-ended prompt for a total of 490 distinct responses: 260 comments and 230 suggestions. Comments included praise for the VA (67%) and stories about feeling uncomfortable or harassed in the VA (26%). Suggestions included those related to VA staff (31%), the environment of care (18%), additional resources for women veterans (18%), clinical services for women veterans (15%), changing men veterans' behavior toward women veterans at the VA (5%), and making the treatment of women and men the same (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Although most women veterans felt welcome in the VA, patient-centered suggestions offer opportunities for making the VA more welcoming to women. Soliciting patient suggestions and increasing awareness of how feeling welcome is experienced by patients are first steps to health care settings becoming more inclusive.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Veteranos/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 480-484, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342844

RESUMO

The female immigrant population is especially vulnerable to imported diseases. We describe the results of a prospective screening program for imported diseases performed in immigrant female patients. The protocol included tests for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Treponema pallidum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp., intestinal parasites, malaria, and the detection of microfilaremia, according to the patient's origin. Six hundred eleven patients were studied. The most frequent imported diseases were intestinal parasitosis (39.4%), followed by syphilis (14.6%), HIV infection (9%), chronic HCV (5%), and HBV (3.3%). Most of the cases of HIV (78%) and HBV (85%) were diagnosed in patients aged between 16 and 45 years. Hepatitis C virus appeared mostly in patients in the 46- to 65-year range (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OD]: 3.667 [1.741-7.724]) or older than 65 years (P = 0.0001; OR: 26.350 [7.509-92.463]). Syphilis was diagnosed more frequently in patients older than 46 years (P = 0.0001; OR: 4.273 [2.649-6.893]). Multivariate analysis confirmed a greater presence of HCV infection (P = 0.049) and syphilis (P = 0.0001) in patients aged between 46 and 65 years. In 15.4% of patients, screening did not find any pathology. These data show a high prevalence of imported diseases in the female immigrant population, which may have serious consequences in terms of morbimortality and vertical transmission. Our results encourage the establishment of policies of active screening both in women of childbearing age and within the specific pregnancy screening programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , América Central/etnologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Filariose/diagnóstico , Filariose/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , América do Sul/etnologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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