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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze weight gain (WG) and change in nutritional status (NS) after the age of 20 years in the Brazilian adult population between 2006 and 2012. METHODS: Time series using seven surveys from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL). The analyses were stratified by region, age, sex and education, considering the sampling weights and complex design. In addition, relative weight change (RWC) in the period was determined for each category of independent variables using linear regression models. RESULTS: Analyses showed an increase in WG after 20 years in two vectors: by survey year and age group, where the increase was higher in women. From 2006 to 2012, individuals 25-29 years old (women: RWC = 70%; ßyear = 0.54 kg/year) and 30-34 years old (women: RWC = 56%; ßyear = 0.57 kg/year) showed greater RWC. In 2012, the higher WG occurred in the age groups of 21-24 and 25-29 years old. Regarding the change in NS, individuals who were overweight at 20 years had a higher probability of remaining in this condition (or shifting to obesity) over time. However, among those who had a normal weight, the probability of not becoming overweight or obese was > 80%, independently of sex. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian population displayed progressive WG in adulthood, especially in the first decade after the age of 20, in addition to the period effect. On the other hand, individuals with normal weight in their 20s tended to maintain the same condition.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2411-2421, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520286

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of an opinion poll conducted in Brazil on the perception of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms, disseminated through social networks, with questions about the socioeconomic profile and factors associated with isolation. A non-probabilistic sample was obtained with 16,440 respondents. Data were analyzed using the Stata 13 software. Social interaction was the most affected aspect among people with higher education and income (45.8%), and financial problems caused a more significant impact (35%) among people with low income and education. Those who practice some physical activity showed lower levels of stress 13%, as well as greater normality in sleep 50.3%. People who reported living in worse habitability conditions reported willingness to remain isolated for less time, 73.9%. Among non-isolated people (10.7% of the total sample), 75.8% believe that social isolation will reduce the number of victims of COVID-19. We conclude, based on this sample, that the perception about social isolation as a pandemic mitigation action varies by income, education, age, and gender. However, most believe that it is the most appropriate control measure and are willing to wait as long as necessary to contribute to the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2447-2456, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520288

RESUMO

The scope of this work is to explore the feelings and expectations that COVID-19 has generated in Argentina during the first stage of the pandemic. A survey of the World Health Organization adapted to the local context was applied. Open-ended questions were included to study people's feelings about COVID-19, and content analysis was subsequently conducted. In terms of results, it is revealed that the population surveyed feels uncertainty, fear and anguish, albeit a feeling of responsibility and care in the face of COVID-19 also emerges. Moreover, positive feelings regarding society stand out as an achievement of social interdependence. The results obtained show that the impact on mental health differs in accordance with gender, educational level, and perceived comfort in the home. The study concludes that the emotional and bonding dimensions of people are central to confronting the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina. It is recommended that these dimensions, as well as their subjective and differential social impact among the different population groups, should be considered in the planning of policies to address the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emoções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Medo , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Incerteza , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
4.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(3): 1-11, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510315

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents data on recent trends for three sexually transmitted infections (STIs)-chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis-reported among women giving birth in the United States from 2016 through 2018, and rates by selected characteristics for 2018. Methods-Data are from birth certificates and are based on 100% of births registered in the United States for 2016, 2017, and 2018. Birth certificate data on infections during pregnancy are recommended to be collected from the mother's medical records (1). Mothers are to be reported as having an infection if there is a confirmed diagnosis or documented treatment for the infection in their medical record (2). Results-Among women giving birth in 2018, the overall rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were 1,843.9, 310.2, and 116.7 per 100,000 births, respectively. The rates for these STIs increased 2% (chlamydia), 16% (gonorrhea), and 34% (syphilis) from 2016 through 2018. In 2018, rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea decreased with advancing maternal age, whereas those for syphilis decreased with maternal age through 30-34 years and then increased for women aged 35 and over. In 2018, rates of all three STIs were highest for non-Hispanic black women, women who smoked during pregnancy, women who received late or no prenatal care, and women for whom Medicaid was the principal source of payment for the delivery. Among women aged 25 and over, rates of each of the STIs decreased with increasing maternal education.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Declaração de Nascimento , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/etnologia , Humanos , Idade Materna , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/etnologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e066, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520076

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of and attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the parents of child dental patients in Shenzhen during the outbreak. A structured questionnaire containing 10 questions was used, and each question had 2 or 3 possible answers. The parents of children (aged 0-14 years) who visited the dental department of our hospital last year were eligible to participate in this study. A total of 148 parents were interviewed by telephone in February 2020 by research staff. A total of 94.59% of the parents said they paid high attention to COVID-19 and explained it to their children; 66.22% thought the dental department environment was more dangerous than other public places; 91.89% believed the dental department had a higher risk of virus infection; and 83.78% said they would take their children to a dental department if the children had a severe toothache. Approximately 81.08% of the parents expressed confidence after we informed them about the preventive measures taken in the dental department to ensure safe treatment for their children. In conclusion, all parents were concerned about COVID-19, and most of them had talked about it with their children often. In addition, a considerable percentage of them would not take their children to the dental department even if they had severe dental pain and thought that the dental environment could be more dangerous than other environments. More information about this topic should be delivered to this population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pais , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion and total number of the general adult population who may be at higher risk of severe Covid-19 in Brazil. METHODS We included 51,770 participants from a nationally representative, household-based health survey (PNS) conducted in Brazil. We estimated the proportion and number of adults (≥ 18 years) at risk of severe Covid-19 by sex, educational level, race/ethnicity, and state based on the presence of one or more of the following risk factors: age ≥ 65 years or medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic respiratory disease, cancer, stroke, chronic kidney disease and moderate to severe asthma, smoking status, and obesity. RESULTS Adults at risk of severe Covid-19 in Brazil varied from 34.0% (53 million) to 54.5% (86 million) nationwide. Less-educated adults present a 2-fold higher prevalence of risk factors compared to university graduated. We found no differences by sex and race/ethnicity. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, and Rio Grande do Sul were the most vulnerable states in absolute and relative terms of adults at risk. CONCLUSIONS Proportion and total number of adults at risk of severe Covid-19 are high in Brazil, with wide variation across states and adult subgroups. These findings should be considered while designing and implementing prevention measures in Brazil. We argue that these results support broad social isolation measures, particularly when testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2 is limited.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(5): 1575-1586, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402018

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the behavioral aspects and beliefs of the population of Ceará in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire was conducted on sociodemographic aspects and opinions related to the pandemic. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated, the association between variables was performed with Chi-square, and the level of significance was 5%. The final sample had 2,259 participants, and an association was observed between females and perceiving themselves with a high risk of infection (p = 0.044) and males with non-performance of voluntary quarantine (p < 0.001). People aged 80 years and over were partially quarantined due to the flow of people at home (p < 0.001). Participants with elementary school education had a lower risk of infection than participants with a higher level of education (p < 0.001). This group includes people who did voluntary quarantine the least (p < 0.001). Participants living in the inland region of the state had less direct contact with someone tested positive for the Coronavirus (p = 0.031) and are less reclusive (p < 0.001). We can conclude that the approach to the COVID-19 pandemic varies by social aspects, such as gender, age, education, and place of residence, as well as the belief system of the population of the State of Ceará.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobrevida
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428183

RESUMO

Dogs have been implicated as main reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. Therefore, studies on this species provide important data for public health. Thus, the objective of the present study was to ascertain the seroprevalence of canine VL (CVL) and the associated factors in the Brejo Paraibano microregion, northeastern Brazil. A total of 409 dogs were sampled from the eight municipalities of the microregion: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões and Serraria. The diagnosis of CVL was made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA S7®), through which the prevalence observed was 29.3%. By robust Poisson regression analysis two factors were associated with seroprevalence: illiterate/incomplete elementary owner's education level (prevalence ratio = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34; p-value = 0.027) and tick infestation (prevalence ratio = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.27-2.61; p-value = 0.001). It is concluded that the seroprevalence of CVL in the Brejo Paraibano microregion is high. The factors associated with seroprevalence indicated the importance to develop socioeducational actions on the population, and the finding that tick infestation was associated with seroprevalence shows that there is a need for investigation regarding the role of ticks in the epidemiology of CVL.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 21 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (

Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Verduras , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232550, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The maternal mortality rate in Indonesia is still quite high. It requires good knowledge for early prevention. The study aimed to analyze the determinants of knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs in Indonesia. METHODS: The samples used were 85,832 women of childbearing age (15-49 years old). The variables included understanding of danger signs of pregnancy, types of residence, age, education, employment, marital status, wealth, parity, the autonomy of health, current pregnancy status, and media exposure. The determinant was pointed out by using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Urban women were 1.124 times more likely to understand the pregnancy danger signs of than rural women. Older women could identify pregnancy danger signs better than those aged 15-19 years. The more educated a woman is, the higher knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs she has. Married women or those who live with their partner were at 1.914 times likely to identify the pregnancy danger signs than unmarried ones or those who have never been in a relationship. If the wealth status gets higher, knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs will be better too. Grande multiparous women were at 0.815 times more likely to understand the pregnancy danger signs than primiparous. Women with the autonomy of health had 1.053 times chances to identify the pregnancy danger signs than those without autonomy. Women who were currently pregnant had 1.229 times better understanding of the pregnancy danger signs than women who were not currently pregnant. Media exposure had a good effect on women's understanding of the pregnancy danger signs. CONCLUSION: All variables tested were the determinants of knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs in Indonesia. These include residence, age, education, employment, marital status, wealth, parity, the autonomy of health, current pregnancy status, and media exposure.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 79-88, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438379

RESUMO

AIMS: Personal cannabis use is common across New Zealand, and an upcoming referendum will enable the public to vote on whether this should be legalised. The present research aimed to examine the attitudes of midlife New Zealand adults on cannabis use and legalisation, and to identify potential predictors of those attitudes. METHODS: At age 40, 899 participants drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study were interviewed about the perceived harmfulness of cannabis use, opinions on legalisation for recreational use and supply, and the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. In addition, a range of potential predictors of legislative attitudes were examined. RESULTS: We identified a wide range of attitudes across the cohort, however the majority tended to hold a neutral view. More than 80% of the cohort expressed support for medicinal cannabis, while 47.8% supported decriminalisation, and 26.8% expressed support for legalisation for recreational use. The strongest predictors of support for legalisation were prior use of cannabis and other drugs, while additional positive predictors included a history of depression, Maori ancestry, parental drug use, novelty seeking and higher educational attainment. Predictors of more negative attitudes were also identified, and included female gender and having dependent children. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insight into cannabis-related views within the New Zealand context, and may help to predict voting behaviour during the 2020 Cannabis Referendum.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cannabis , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude/etnologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 76-82.e1, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Examine (1) the distribution of experiencing the death of a parent or sibling (family death) by race/ethnicity and (2) how a family death affects attaining a college degree. METHODS: Participants (n = 8984) were from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 aged 13-17 at baseline in 1997 and 29-32 in 2013. We examined the prevalence of family deaths by age group and race/ethnicity and used covariate-adjusted logistic regression to assess the relationship between a family death and college degree attainment. RESULTS: A total of 4.2% of white youth experienced a family death, as did 5.0% of Hispanics, 8.3% of Blacks, 9.1% of Asians, and 13.8% of American Indians (group test P < .001). A family death from ages 13-22 was associated with lower odds of obtaining a bachelor's degree by ages 29-32 (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.50, 0.84), compared with no family death. The effect of a death was largest during college years (age 19-22) (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Young people of color are more likely to have a sibling or parent die; and family death during college years is associated with reduced odds of obtaining a college degree. Racial disparities in mortality might affect social determinants of health of surviving relatives, and college policies are a potential intervention point.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Parental/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Morte Parental/etnologia , Irmãos/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A primary objective of this study was to identify specific facilitators and challenges around exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in our community in India, from the perspective of breastfeeding mothers and their support networks. METHODS: We conducted eight focus groups incorporating 75 women and their support networks in the Belagavi District, Karnataka State, India. We used a directed content analysis to guide the analysis. RESULTS: The specific facilitator that emerged as a theme, broad support for and knowledge about breastfeeding on the individual, family and community levels, was a seeming contraction to the identified specific challenge, the paradox of the common practice of supplemental feeds. CONCLUSIONS: Despite voicing strong support for and knowledge about EBF, participants were familiar with a variety of supplemental feeding practices in their communities. In place of universal condemnation of all supplemental feeding, policy makers might consider strategies to address the most potentially dangerous of these practices.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Mães/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20149, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a worldwide concern in patients receiving neurotoxic agents for cancer therapy. High tone external muscle stimulation is a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate symptoms of CIPN. METHODS: This pilot study aims to investigate whether the application of home-based high-tone external muscle stimulation therapy (HTEMS) improves symptoms of CIPN. The trial is planned as a therapist- and assessor-blinded, 1:1 randomized controlled study. A total of 50 patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral polyneuropathy will be included. All patients will perform therapy at home. Study participants will be allocated randomly to the HTEMS therapy (intervention group) or to the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, control group), respectively, following a standardized therapy schedule. Compliance of participants can be verified by reading out the tool box. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of home-based therapy. The primary outcome includes improvement of CIPN according to the patient-reported EORTC QLQ-CIPN 20 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are the patient-reported change in health-related quality of life and clinician-reported changes of vibration sensibility, tendon reflexes, temperature sensibility, perception of touch, and strength of the lower leg muscles. Further a safety- and process evaluation will be performed. DISCUSSION: This pilot RCT aims to evaluate the impact of home-based HTEMS as compared to TENS in CIPN. There is a need for an effective treatment for CIPN and the results of this study are expected to possibly identify a novel and effective treatment strategy in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Polineuropatias/induzido quimicamente , Polineuropatias/terapia , Autocuidado/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Reflexo de Estiramento , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Sensação Térmica , Tato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 6990-6997, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229559

RESUMO

We examine change in multiple indicators of gender inequality for the period of 1970 to 2018. The percentage of women (age 25 to 54) who are employed rose continuously until ∼2000 when it reached its highest point to date of 75%; it was slightly lower at 73% in 2018. Women have surpassed men in receipt of baccalaureate and doctoral degrees. The degree of segregation of fields of study declined dramatically in the 1970s and 1980s, but little since then. The desegregation of occupations continues but has slowed its pace. Examining the hourly pay of those aged 25 to 54 who are employed full-time, we found that the ratio of women's to men's pay increased from 0.61 to 0.83 between 1970 and 2018, rising especially fast in the 1980s, but much slower since 1990. In sum, there has been dramatic progress in movement toward gender equality, but, in recent decades, change has slowed and on some indicators stalled entirely.


Assuntos
Direitos da Mulher/história , Escolaridade , Emprego/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Salários e Benefícios/história
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348344

RESUMO

This study examines differences across demographic subgroups in the phenomenon of recent doctoral recipients seeking work but having no job offers for employment. Gender and race/ethnicity have been identified as two characteristics with considerable issues of representation in a number of science and engineering fields, particularly at the doctoral level. Using the NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates dataset, which includes over 298,000 respondents in the biological sciences, engineering, and physical sciences since 1977, we use logistic regression modelling to examine the likelihood of doctoral recipients having no offers at the time of graduation as a function of race, gender, family and funding variables. We find that across the fields of biology, engineering, and physical sciences, women and underrepresented minorities have a higher prevalence of having no job offers, but this relationship has notable interaction effects for family variables and doctoral program funding mechanism. Importantly, marital status accounts for differences in job offers between genders that deserves further exploration.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Engenharia/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations among twenty formal and informal, societal and individual-level factors and quality of life (QOL) among people living with congestive heart failure (CHF) in two settings with different healthcare and social care systems and sociocultural contexts. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 367 adult patients with CHF from a single heart failure clinic within two countries with different national social to healthcare spending ratios: Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States (US), and Nijmegen, Netherlands (NL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. We adapted the Social Quality Model (SQM) to organize twenty diverse factors into four categories: Living Conditions (formal-societal: e.g., housing, education), Social Embeddedness (informal-societal: e.g., social support, trust), Societal Embeddedness (formal-individual: e.g., access to care, legal aid), and Self-Regulation (informal-individual: e.g., physical health, resilience). We developed a survey comprising validated instruments to assess each factor. We administered the survey in-person or by mail between March 2017 and August 2018. OUTCOMES: We used Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale to assess overall QOL. We used backwards stepwise regression to identify factors within each SQM category that were independently associated with QOL among US and NL participants (p<0.05). We then identified factors independently associated with QOL across all categories (p<0.05). RESULTS: 367 CHF patients from the US (32%) and NL (68%) participated. Among US participants, financial status, receiving legal aid or housing assistance, and resilience were associated with QOL, and together explained 49% of the variance in QOL; among NL participants, financial status, perceived physical health, independence in activities of daily living, and resilience were associated with QOL, and explained 53% of the variance in QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Four formal and informal factors explained approximately half of the variance in QOL among patients with CHF in the US and NL.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Resiliência Psicológica , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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