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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the mechanisms by which chronic psychosocial stress (CPSS) affects the parameters of cerebral blood flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty locomotive machinists (LM) and machinist assistants (MA), whose profession is rated as one of the most stressful, were enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 100 healthy volunteers. The activity of the stressor system was assessed by the levels of stress hormones in serum (ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline). The functional state of the endothelium was assessed by secretion of nitric oxide and endothelin-1. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the linear velocity of blood flow in the cerebral vessels, the size of the intima-media complex of the common carotid artery, and the results of the endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Blood pressure was monitored daily. RESULTS: The action of CPSS is accompanied by the persistent increase in the serum cortisol levels. This process contributes to the development of vasoconstriction with the initiation of endothelial dysfunction with impaired production of nitric oxide and increased secretion of endothelin-1 and the formation of arterial hypertension. With progression of these processes, there is a decrease in cerebral blood flow. The observed increase in the size of the intima-media complex of the common carotid artery correlates with the severity of arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: CPSS leads to a decrease in cerebral blood flow and subsequent development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension, which are related to high levels of stress hormones circulating in the blood. These processes lead to functional failure of the vascular endothelium.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Vasodilatação , Encéfalo , Emprego , Endotélio Vascular , Humanos
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039334, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored UK public perceptions and experiences of social distancing and social isolation related to the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: This qualitative study comprised five focus groups, carried out online during the early stages of the UK's stay at home order ('lockdown'), and analysed using a thematic approach. SETTING: Focus groups took place via online videoconferencing. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n=27) were all UK residents aged 18 years and older, representing a range of gender, ethnic, age and occupational backgrounds. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis revealed four main themes: (1) loss-participants' loss of (in-person) social interaction, loss of income and loss of structure and routine led to psychological and emotional 'losses' such as loss of motivation, loss of meaning and loss of self-worth; (2) criticisms of government communication-participants reported a lack of trust in government and a lack of clarity in the guidelines around social distancing and isolation; (3) adherence-participants reported high self-adherence to social distancing guidelines but reported seeing or hearing of non-adherence in others; (4) uncertainty around social reintegration and the future-some participants felt they would have lingering concerns over social contact while others were eager to return to high levels of social activity.Most participants, and particularly those in low-paid or precarious employment, reported feeling that the social distancing and isolation associated with COVID-19 policy has had negative impacts on their mental health and well-being during the early stages of the UK's 'lockdown'. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid response is necessary in terms of public health programming to mitigate the mental health impacts of COVID-19 social distancing and isolation. Social distancing and isolation 'exit strategies' must account for the fact that, although some individuals will voluntarily or habitually continue to socially distance, others will seek high levels of social engagement as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Atitude , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Governo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Emprego , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Confiança , Reino Unido , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Adulto Jovem
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 7(22): 380-384, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common pain syndrome treated by physicians of many disciplines and presents with many co-morbidities. We reviewed the complexities in assessing disabilities in fibromyalgia patients and the complex interrelationships between patients, their working places, and the medical community regarding preserving productivity. Flexibility is essential to keep the patients functional and productive. Job loss is costly to both society and patients and joint measures are needed to prevent unemployment.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Eficiência/fisiologia , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
4.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 416-424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489144

RESUMO

Families and intergenerational relationships are important sources of risk for COVID-19 infection, especially for older adults who are at high risk of complications from the disease. If one family member is exposed to the virus they could serve as a source of transmission or, if they fall ill, the resources they provide to others could be severed. These risks may be especially heightened for family members who work outside the home and provide care, or for those family members who care for multiple generations. Policies have the potential to help families bear the burden of these decisions. This essay argues that policies that address health, employment, and other social issues have implications for families, and that policies aimed at families and caregivers can affect the health, employment, and the general well-being of the nation.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Políticas , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores/normas , Emprego/organização & administração , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Relação entre Gerações , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 297-309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583751

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of people throughout the world, either directly, due to exposure to the virus, or indirectly, due to measures taken to mitigate the virus' effects. Older adults have been particularly hard hit, dying in disproportionately higher numbers, especially in long-term care facilities. Local, regional, and national government actions taken to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 have thus served, in part, to shield older adults from the virus, though not without adverse side effects, including increased social isolation, enhanced economic risk, revealed ageism, delayed medical treatment, and challenges getting basic needs met. This special issue of the Journal of Aging & Social Policy explores the myriad ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic has affected older adults and their families, caregivers, and communities. It proposes policies and strategies for protecting and improving the lives of older people during the pandemic. It draws lessons for aging policy and practice more generally, given underlying challenges brought to the fore by government, provider, community, and individual responses to the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento , Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emprego , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110781, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560999

RESUMO

Although environmental training program has become a vital solution to minimize environmental challenges, the existing literature has paid little attention to (1) the connection between environmental training and employee in-role green performance (EIGP), (2) the mediating role of employee environmental commitment in this environmental training-EIGP connection, and (3) the cultural perspective (Western and Local) influences on interrelationships between environmental training, EIGP, and employee environmental commitment. Drawing on the social exchange theory and cultural perspective, a quantitative study based on survey data collected from 301 respondents at hotels in Vietnam was employed to fill these research gaps. Findings reveal that environmental training program is as an important tool to drive EIGP directly, and this environmental training-EIGP relationship is significantly mediated by employee environmental commitment. Interestingly, the study indicates support for our prediction that the mediating role of employee environmental commitment on the environmental training-EIGP link is stronger at hotels managed by Western hospitality companies. However, unexpectedly, cultural influence does not moderate the effect of environmental training on EIGP. Other than theoretical contributions, our study carries important practical implications that can help organizations reduce their carbon footprint. Limitations and further research directions have also been discussed.


Assuntos
Emprego , Organizações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S183-S185, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538650

RESUMO

Psychological aspects that accompany employment instability because of the COVID-19 quarantine (lockdown) policy were investigated. Two hundred ninety-three Israeli participants completed a Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, a Distress Thermometer, and a Perceived Stress Scale. People placed on furlough (unpaid leave of absence) by their employers demonstrated significantly higher distress (M = 5.34) than those who were unemployed prior to the pandemic (M = 3.79). The implications and coping modes with these results are detailed herein. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Emprego/psicologia , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Downsizing Organizacional/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S230-S232, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538655

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is highlighting some important sources of health disparities that assail our society's most vulnerable people, particularly undocumented immigrants and asylum seekers. The focus of this commentary is on uncovering those sources of health disparities and making a call for action. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Emprego/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Imigrantes Indocumentados/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Refugiados/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Risco , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
9.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S186-S187, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551757

RESUMO

An examination of the trajectory of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its subsequent economic impacts has revealed that this crisis will impact low-wage workers more severely than all others. The present commentary highlights the unique factors associated with low-wage work that make these workers particularly vulnerable to the effects of the pandemic, identifies potential adverse effects on the mental health of this population, and provides recommendations to maintain the safety, wellbeing, and dignity of low-wage workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Emprego , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Segurança , Salários e Benefícios , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/normas , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Trauma Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Risco , Segurança/normas , Licença Médica , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
12.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 90-97, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490743

RESUMO

We consider various types of litigation that may follow the Covid-19 pandemic, including: claims against National Health Service (NHS) Trusts by patients who have contracted the coronavirus (or by their bereaved families), claims by NHS staff against their employer for a failure to provide any or adequate personal protective equipment or testing, commercial claims arising from the procurement of medical supplies, the potential liabilities to those who suffer adverse reactions to any vaccine and the guidance issued by the regulators in relation to subsequent disciplinary action.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Responsabilidade Legal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Contratos/legislação & jurisprudência , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/legislação & jurisprudência , Disciplina no Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(692): 911-914, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374536

RESUMO

One part of the population of neurolesioned patients is the transition of young patients with neurodisabilities to adult life. To guarantee favourable social and professional reinsertion is a major challenge, requiring inter-professional care. For this reason, in 2006 the CHUV, Lausanne created a transition-consultation framework with neuro-paediatricians and adult neurologists specialised in neuro-rehabilitation linked to a Swiss pilot social and professional reinsertion project collaborating with the invalidity insurance. As a model of the follow up of neurolesioned patients, this article reports the results of the reinsertion project that aims to bring awareness to the general practitioner of an inter-disciplinary care method adaptable to individuals. The holistic service saves time and improves the rate of successful reinsertion of young adults into social and professional life.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Emprego , Medicina Geral/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451595

RESUMO

Digitisation is increasingly finding its way into the world of work. Although it is unlikely that human work will be replaced by computers and machines in the near future, it can be assumed that human work will change. These changes are less expected at the sectoral and occupational level and more at the activity level. This article first discusses which requirements are, in general, gaining importance as digitalisation progresses. It is thereby assumed that technological change entails similar requirements as organisational restructuring processes. Subsequently, the requirements employees are increasingly confronted with are presented for the field of nursing, caring and curing. The analyses are based on an employment survey jointly carried out by the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and the German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), which allows a comparison of the years 2006, 2012 and 2018.The activities are characterised both by a high work intensity and by physically stressful activities. Although it is generally assumed that there will be a decline in physical stress, this has not yet been observed in the activity investigated. Job autonomy, as a psychological resource to cope with different work demands, is also considered in the analyses, with ambiguous results. Altogether, it can be stated that the field of activity of nursing, caring and healing is characterized by comparatively stable work demands. The design of good working conditions in the nursing, care and medical professions should take into account existing challenges as well as new factors that are gaining importance as a result of increasing digitalisation.


Assuntos
Emprego , Saúde do Trabalhador , Telenfermagem , Alemanha , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(5): 387-397, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss affects over 1.3 billion individuals worldwide, with the greatest burden among adults. Little is known regarding the association between adult-onset hearing loss and employment. METHODS: Seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ABI/Inform Collection, Business Source Ultimate, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched through to October 2018. The key word terms used related to hearing loss and employment, excluding paediatric or congenital hearing loss and deaf or culturally deaf populations. RESULTS: The initial search resulted in 13 144 articles. A total of 7494 articles underwent title and abstract screening, and 243 underwent full-text review. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were set in 10 predominantly high-income countries. Seven of the 25 studies analysed regionally or nationally representative datasets and controlled for key variables. Six of these seven studies reported associations between hearing loss and employment. CONCLUSION: The highest quality studies currently available indicate that adult-onset hearing loss is associated with unemployment. However, considerable heterogeneity exists, and more rigorous studies that include low- and middle-income countries are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emprego/economia , Perda Auditiva/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 471-476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436446

RESUMO

The rapid spread of COVID-19 has left many workers around the world - workers in food distribution, truckers, janitors, and home and personal health care workers - deeply concerned about contracting the virus from exposure at work. In particular, older workers in frontline occupations are vulnerable to illness and to the deadly and debilitating effects of COVID-19, especially with inadequate protective gear and inadequate sick leave. In the absence of strong unions, which ensure that employers provide workers with accurate information, robust training, adequate equipment, and paid leave in the event of quarantines or illness, the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for additional legislation to shore up worker protections and provide paid sick leave.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Equipamentos de Proteção/provisão & distribução
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29055-29067, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424757

RESUMO

Since the "5.12" Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, frequent geologic hazards along the Longmenshan fault zone have had significant impacts on the socioeconomic conditions in the earthquake-stricken areas. Therefore, from the perspective of earthquake-induced hazards, this paper focuses on analyzing the change rules of disaster resilience under the spatial and temporal aggregation effects of earthquake-induced hazards, and this analysis provides an important basis for understanding the developmental characteristics of earthquake-induced hazards and disaster prevention, and mitigation after earthquakes. This paper takes Wenchuan County as an example. By collecting the 2008-2018 landslide geological hazards data, the global autocorrelation coefficient and local autocorrelation coefficient are adopted to analyze the temporal trends and spatial patterns of earthquake-induced hazards. At the same time, from the socioeconomic perspective, two disaster resilience indexes, the compatibility coefficient of industrial and employment structure and per capita GDP growth rate, were constructed to analyze the disaster resilience under the spatial and temporal aggregation effect of landslide geological hazards. The results show that, on the temporal trend, the temporal aggregation effect of earthquake-induced hazards has periodically decayed with time; in the spatial distribution, the spatial clustering effect as a whole increases first and then decreases, and the scope of the aggregation effect tends to narrow spatially. Disaster resilience (Hxy and RGDP) showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and could not recover to the level before the earthquake in 2017, indicating that Wenchuan County was greatly affected by earthquake-induced hazards in the post-earthquake reconstruction process.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Deslizamentos de Terra , China , Emprego
20.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3267, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the intensity of nursing work in public hospitals. METHOD: cross-sectional, quantitative study, carried out in 22 public hospitals. The sample was composed of 265 nurses and 810 nursing technicians and assistants. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with Exploratory Factor Analysis. The calculation of the distribution of the work intensity by category was done using a score ranging from -1 to +1 standard deviation of the data. Fisher's exact test (0.05

Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Assistentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
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