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1.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(4): 493-497, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented veterinary emergency hospitals with unique challenges. Rapid online surveys represent an efficient way of collating responses to rapidly shifting circumstances. METHODS: Fifty, 24-h small animal emergency veterinary hospital representatives were recruited to participate in weekly surveys in April 2020 to catalog changes due to COVID-19 pandemic. KEY FINDINGS: The majority of emergency veterinary hospitals surveyed reported significant changes to day-to-day operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. SIGNIFICANCE: Reporting of weekly survey results provides useful information on how emergency veterinary hospitals with similar challenges are responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitais Veterinários/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Gatos , Cães , Emergências/veterinária , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Feminino , Furões , Hospitais Veterinários/economia , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(4): 309-316, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement in results obtained with an MRI-based grading scheme and a macroscopic observation-based grading scheme when used to assess intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration in cats. SAMPLE: 241 MRI and 143 macroscopic images of singular IVDs in 44 client-owned cats (40 cadaveric and 4 live). PROCEDURES: Singular images of IVDs were obtained of live cats admitted for treatment of suspected neurologic disease (MRI images of IVDs) and of cadavers of cats euthanized for reasons unrelated to spinal disease (MRI and macroscopic images of IVDs) at the Small Animal Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich, Switzerland, between January 12, 2015, and October 19, 2015. The IVD images were randomized and evaluated twice by 4 observers for each grading scheme. Inter- and intraobserver reliability for the grading schemes was assessed with Cohen weighted κ analysis. Agreement and correlation between results obtained with the 2 grading schemes were determined with Cohen weighted κ and Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Inter- and intraobserver agreement between results was substantial to almost perfect (mean weighted κ, 0.66 to 0.83 and 0.71 to 0.86, respectively) for the MRI-based grading scheme and moderate to substantial (mean weighted κ, 0.42 to 0.80 and 0.65 to 0.79, respectively) for the macroscopic observation-based grading scheme. Between the 2 grading schemes, agreement in results was moderate (mean ± SE weighted κ, 0.56 ± 0.05), and the correlation was strong (ρ = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that the MRI-based and macroscopic observation-based grading schemes used in the present study could be used reliably for classifying IVD degeneration in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Disco Intervertebral , Animais , Cadáver , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Hospitais Veterinários , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(1): 146-150, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The problem of occupational biohazards is very important, especially in the field of agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. The aim of the study was to determine the potential sources of infection in veterinary professionals with selected zoonotic agents, including: Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia duodenalis, Leptospira spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Coxiella burnetii. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 air samples from barns, piggeries and veterinary surgeries were examined for the presence of Leptospira spp. and C. burnetii DNA. Serum samples of 86 pigs and 80 cows were tested for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira spp. and to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens. Serum of 70 cats were tested for the presence of antibodies to T. gondii and 65 samples of cat faeces for the presence of T. gondii oocysts. The presence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were examined in 50 of dog faeces and 50 of bovine faeces samples. RESULTS: DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 2 air samples from the piggeries (4%). C. burnetii DNA was not found in any sample. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies were detected in 51 (59.3%) of examined pigs. Neither anti-Leptospira spp. nor anti-C. burnetii antibodies were found among samples of bovine serum. Anti-T. gondii antibodies was found in 52 cat serum samples (74.3%). Among samples of cat faeces, no T. gondii oocysts were detected. In one sample of cattle stool (2%), G. duodenalis was detected and in another (2%) - Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis was detected in 7 samples (14%) and Cryptosporidium spp. in 2 samples (2%) of dog faeces. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the potential risk of infection with Leptospira spp. in veterinarians working with pigs. Veterinarians could be also be at risk of infection with T. gondii and G. duodenalis.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Gatos , Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA de Protozoário , Cães , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Hospitais Veterinários , Abrigo para Animais , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Projetos Piloto , Polônia/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Suínos , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(7): 808-813, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of tubular genital tract neoplasia in does evaluated at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals; describe the main clinical, surgical, and histopathologic or necropsy findings in affected does; and assess factors potentially associated with short-term prognosis in these animals. ANIMALS: 42 does. PROCEDURES: Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify does with neoplasia of the tubular genital tract. Signalment; history; physical and diagnostic imaging results; biopsy, surgery, and necropsy findings; and short-term outcome were recorded. Age and breed frequencies for the sample were compared with those of the overall hospital population, and variables of interest were tested for associations with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and with short-term outcome by statistical methods. RESULTS: Median age at hospital admission (10 years) was greater for the study sample than for the general hospital population (2 years). Pygmy goats were overrepresented (22/42 [52%]). Common reasons for evaluation were bloody vaginal discharge or hematuria and abdominal straining. Adenocarcinoma (13/42 [31%]), leiomyoma (13 [31%]), and leiomyosarcoma (11 [26%]) were the most common tumors. Does with distant metastasis had greater odds of a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (OR, 40.5) than does without distant metastasis. In the analysis adjusted for hemorrhagic discharge, odds of euthanasia for does with straining were 13 times those for does without straining. In the analysis adjusted for straining status, does with hemorrhagic discharge had almost 7 times the odds of euthanasia for does without this finding. The survival-to-discharge rate was low (13/42 [31%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The frequency of adenocarcinomas in the study sample was unexpectedly high. Further research is needed to confirm the study findings.


Assuntos
Cabras , Hospitais Veterinários , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Can Vet J ; 61(3): 294-300, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165754

RESUMO

A prospective, observational, cross-sectional study documenting the prevalence of pain in dogs presented to the emergency service of a veterinary teaching hospital and their handling (times to triage, examination, treatment) was conducted. Pain was assessed and compared using a validated and an unvalidated pain assessment scale. Sedation was monitored using a validated scale. A first evaluation was completed in 109 dogs. A second evaluation was completed for 95 dogs: 36 (38%) were identified as painful and 53% (19/36) were provided analgesia in the clinic. The remainder either did not receive analgesia (6/36, 17%) or were prescribed an analgesic for administration at home (11/36, 31%). Of dogs receiving analgesia in the clinic, most showed a decrease in pain score (15/19, 79%). Pain assessment scales were positively correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) but the unvalidated scale was insensitive in discriminating changes. Between painful and non-painful dogs, progression did not differ: admission to treatment [P = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): -23 to 22 minutes] and examination to treatment (P = 0.73, 95% CI: 14 to 20 minutes). Suboptimal analgesic use suggests focused training in pain assessment and analgesic use guided by a validated pain assessment scale, is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Can Vet J ; 61(3): 274-280, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165751

RESUMO

The utilization of meropenem in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital over a 7-year period was retrospectively analyzed, and culture (CBD) versus empiric-based decisions (EBD) were compared. Meropenem was infrequently prescribed at a rate of 0.50 prescriptions/1000 admissions in cats and 0.58/1000 in dogs. The most common condition for meropenem prescription in both cats and dogs was septic peritonitis (15/52, 28.8%). Overall 65.4% of meropenem prescriptions were initiated without, or prior to, culture results indicating a need for the drug. Based on retrospective analysis of culture and susceptibility results, only 2.9% of empirical meropenem selections were indicated, while the majority were not indicated (52.9%), or of questionable indication (44.2%).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Meropeném , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935277

RESUMO

The effect of seasonal variation on hospital admissions and outcomes in humans with cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure (CHF) has been described. This study evaluates the effect of temperature variation on admissions and outcomes in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and first onset CHF. Ninety-three client-owned dogs with MMVD and a first occurrence of pulmonary edema were included in this retrospective clinical cohort study. Recorded clinical and echocardiographic variables were accumulated and analyzed with dogs allocated into groups in a temperature-wise manner that considered the mean of the average (Tave) and maximum ambient temperature (Tmax) of the 14 days preceding hospital admission. A survival analysis was also performed. No difference was found in the percentage of dogs decompensating in three different temperature periods (i.e., cold, intermediate, and hot temperature) according to both Tave and Tmax. Dogs developing CHF during the intermediate temperatures according to Tmax died earlier from cardiac-related causes (median survival time 280 days, 95% CI = 147-486 days) compared to those decompensating during hot temperatures (median survival time 518 days, 95% CI = 344-819 days, P = 0.039). However, an effect of the ambient temperature on survival was not confirmed by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In conclusion, this study failed to show that ambient temperature has an effect on the first occurrence of CHF and outcomes in dogs with MMVD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Edema Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(2): 103-115, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize antimicrobial prescribing patterns of clinicians and clinical services at a large animal veterinary teaching hospital and identify factors associated with antimicrobial prescribing. ANIMALS: All large animals (ie, equids, bovids, sheep, goats, camelids, swine, and cervids) evaluated at the New Bolton Center hospital at the University of Pennsylvania from 2013 through 2018. PROCEDURES: In a cross-sectional study design, data on antimicrobial use by clinicians and clinical services were collected from administrative and billing records. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to identify factors associated with antimicrobial prescribing patterns. RESULTS: Antimicrobials and critically important antimicrobials of the highest priority were dispensed in 42.1% (9,853/23,428) and 24.0% (2,360/9,853) of visits, respectively, and these proportions differed significantly among clinicians. Per visit, the median (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range) number of animal-defined daily doses dispensed was 3.6 (0.8 to 11.1) and the mean (SD) number of antimicrobial classes dispensed was 2.0 (1.3). Patient species, age, affected body system, and duration of hospitalization as well as submission of specimens for bacterial culture were significantly associated with prescribing patterns. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The frequency and quantity of antimicrobials prescribed differed significantly among clinicians within and across services, even for animals with clinical signs affecting the same body system. Patient- and visit-level factors explained some but not all of the heterogeneity in prescribing patterns, suggesting that other clinician-specific factors drove such practices. More research is needed to better understand antimicrobial prescribing patterns of clinicians, particularly in situations for which no antimicrobial use guidelines have been established.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Hospitais Veterinários , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais de Ensino , Ovinos , Suínos
10.
Can Vet J ; 61(1): 69-74, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892758

RESUMO

The efficacies of 3 disinfectant wipes at reducing bacterial contamination on keyboards in a veterinary teaching hospital were studied. Thirty common-use keyboards were randomized into "dirty" and "clean" halves. Cultures were obtained from the "dirty" halves. The "clean" halves were disinfected with a randomly assigned wipe [peroxygen (AHP)-, alcohol-, quaternary ammonium (QAC)-based] or untreated (NT) and cultured. Colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated after 48 hours. Mean reduction in CFU was 91.5%, 65.3%, 94.9%, and 78.8% for the AHP, alcohol, QAC, and NT groups, respectively. There was a significant reduction in CFUs between the dirty and clean keyboard halves within each group but no statistically significant differences were noted between groups. The reduction in CFUs in the NT group was attributed to the mechanical action of wiping the keyboard surface for culture. The use of disinfectant wipes reduced CFUs on keyboards and may be a useful component of veterinary infection control programs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Hospitais Veterinários , Animais
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(24)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835550

RESUMO

Monitoring the cardiopulmonary signal of animals is a challenge for veterinarians in conditions when contact with a conscious animal is inconvenient, difficult, damaging, distressing or dangerous to personnel or the animal subject. In this pilot study, we demonstrate a computer vision-based system and use examples of exotic, untamed species to demonstrate this means to extract the cardiopulmonary signal. Subject animals included the following species: Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), African lions (Panthera leo), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), alpaca (Vicugna pacos), little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor), Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas). The study was done without need for restriction, fixation, contact or disruption of the daily routine of the subjects. The pilot system extracts the signal from the abdominal-thoracic region, where cardiopulmonary activity is most likely to be visible using image sequences captured by a digital camera. The results show motion on the body surface of the subjects that is characteristic of cardiopulmonary activity and is likely to be useful to estimate physiological parameters (pulse rate and breathing rate) of animals without any physical contact. The results of the study suggest that a fully controlled study against conventional physiological monitoring equipment is ethically warranted, which may lead to a novel approach to non-contact physiological monitoring and remotely sensed health assessment of animals. The method shows promise for applications in veterinary practice, conservation and game management, animal welfare and zoological and behavioral studies.


Assuntos
Abdome/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Monitorização Fisiológica , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Leões/fisiologia , Macropodidae/fisiologia , Papio/fisiologia , Phascolarctidae/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Tigres/fisiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia
12.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 37: 100365, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837751

RESUMO

The goals of the Veterinary Committee on Trauma (VetCOT) trauma registry are to (1) inform improvement of veterinary and human trauma patient care and (2) design clinical and preclinical trials that could inform go/no go decisions for interventional strategies and tools. The VetCOT registry was established in 2013, and includes all trauma cases that present to Veterinary Trauma Centers. Veterinary Trauma Centers are well-resourced veterinary hospitals that are initially identified, then subsequently verified, by the American College of Veterinary and Emergency Critical Care VetCOT (http://vetcot.org/index.php/home/identification-and-verification-process/). As of June 2019, there are > 40,000 dog and cat cases in the registry, 3 publications and 9 ongoing projects utilizing data from the registry. Application materials to utilize VetCOT registry data is available on the VetCOT website (http://vetcot.org/index.php/home/registry-use-materials/).


Assuntos
Gatos/lesões , Cães/lesões , Sistema de Registros , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Animais , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To curb increasing resistance rates, responsible antimicrobial use (AMU) is needed, both in human and veterinary medicine. In human healthcare, antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) have been implemented worldwide to improve appropriate AMU. No ASPs have been developed for and implemented in companion animal clinics yet. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of an ASP in 44 Dutch companion animal clinics. The objectives of the ASP were to increase awareness on AMU, to decrease total AMU whenever possible and to shift AMU towards 1st choice antimicrobials, according to Dutch guidelines on veterinary AMU. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective, stepped-wedge, intervention study, which was performed from March 2016 until March 2018. The multifaceted intervention was developed using previous qualitative and quantitative research on current prescribing behaviour in Dutch companion animal clinics. The number of Defined Daily Doses for Animal (DDDAs) per clinic (total, 1st, 2nd and 3rd choice AMU) was used to quantify systemic AMU. Monthly AMU data were described using a mixed effect time series model with auto-regression. The effect of the ASP was modelled using a step function and a change in the (linear) time trend. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease of 15% (7%-22%) in total AMU, 15% (5%-24%) in 1st choice AMU and 26% (17%-34%) in 2nd choice AMU was attributed to participation in the ASP, on top of the already ongoing time trends. Use of 3rd choice AMs did not significantly decrease by participation in the ASP. The change in total AMU became more prominent over time, with a 16% (4%-26%) decrease in (linear) time trend per year. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that, although AMU in Dutch companion animal clinics was already decreasing and changing, AMU could be further optimised by participation in an antimicrobial stewardship programme.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Hospitais Veterinários , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11291-11297, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606214

RESUMO

Housing in hospital pens may be beneficial for lame cows due to soft flooring and less competition for resources. We compared recovery from lameness among dairy cows housed in designated hospital pens, with deep-litter straw, with recovery among cows housed together with the rest of the lactating cows in their home pens, with cubicles and slatted or solid concrete floors. Additionally, we compared lying behavior in the 2 groups of cows. A total of 168 lame dairy cows from 5 herds were included in the study. Each herd was visited once weekly, and lame cows (locomotion score 3 or 4 on a 5-point scale) were examined in a hoof-trimming chute, trimmed, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: housing in a hospital pen (termed "treatment"; 72 cows) or housing under the herds' standard conditions together with the rest of the lactating cows in the herd (termed "control"; 96 cows). Cows were locomotion scored weekly until they were no longer lame or until they had been part of the trial for 3 weeks (i.e., 2, 3, or 4 locomotion scorings per cow). We categorized cows to describe the progression of lameness over time: recovery (divided into fast, medium, or slow), improvement without recovery, constant lameness, or worsening of lameness. Lying behavior was recorded in a sample of 60 of the 168 cows for a period of 5 d. Overall, recovery from lameness was significantly different between treatment and control cows. The proportion of cows included in the study with locomotion score 4 and a subsequent improvement was significantly higher among treatment cows than among control cows. Among cows included with locomotion score 4, 40% of treatment cows also had a locomotion score 4 at the fourth locomotion scoring, 46% had improved to a score 3, and 14% were no longer lame. In comparison, 73% of control cows had a locomotion score 4 at the fourth locomotion scoring, 16% had improved to a score 3, and 11% were no longer lame. We found no differences between treatment and control cows for mean daily lying time, number of steps per day, number of daily lying bouts, or mean duration of lying bouts. Housing of lame dairy cows in a hospital pen with a soft surface, easier access to feed and water, a smaller group size, and reduced waiting time for milking may have positive effects on recovery from lameness. Typically, farmers have housed only severely lame cows in hospital pens. However, our results indicate that less severely lame cows may also benefit from a stay in a hospital pen.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Hospitais Veterinários , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal/terapia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Marcha , Hospitalização , Lactação , Locomoção , Leite , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2239-2248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of Salmonella in veterinary hospitals is typically associated with environmental contamination. Links between isolates recovered from hospitalized large animals and environment suggest animals as the likely source. Therefore, understanding factors influencing shedding is key in control. Shedding in hospitalized animals has been investigated, but many studies focused on subsets of animals limiting generalizability. OBJECTIVE: (1) Investigate factors associated with fecal shedding of Salmonella among hospitalized large animals at a veterinary hospital. (2) Compare results obtained using 2 comparison groups for risk factor analysis-large animals with high confidence in negative shedding status and those with potential for misclassification of shedding status. ANIMALS: Large animals admitted from March 2002 through December 2012. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among all hospitalized large animals that were routinely cultured as part of infection control efforts. Animal and hospital factors were evaluated. Data on factors of interest were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between animal factors and fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica. RESULTS: During the study period, 5.9% (648/11 061) of hospitalized large animals were culture positive for Salmonella, with the majority being cattle (72%; 467/648) and horses (22%; 143/648). Although the odds of shedding varied by comparison group, overall, 69.4% of animal shedding could be attributed to systemic illness (population attributable fraction) in this study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Findings of this study inform our understanding of factors affecting Salmonella shedding in hospitalized large animals, thus improving our ability for implementation of evidence-based control measures.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Artiodáctilos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 380, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine heartworm disease is a potentially fatal disease for which treatment is financially burdensome for many pet owners. Prevention is strongly advocated by the veterinary community along with routine testing for infection during annual wellness examinations. Despite the availability of efficacious chemoprophylaxis, recent reports have suggested that the incidence of heartworm disease in domestic dogs is increasing. RESULTS: Using data from tests for heartworm infection in the USA from January 2012 through September 2018, a Bayesian spatio-temporal binomial regression model was used to estimate the regional and local temporal trends of heartworm infection prevalence. The area with the largest increase in regional prevalence was found in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Regional prevalence increased throughout the southeastern states and northward into Illinois and Indiana. Local (county-level) prevalence varied across the USA, with increasing prevalence occurring along most of the Atlantic coast, central United States, and western states. Clusters of decreasing prevalence were present along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (a historically endemic area), Oklahoma and Kansas, and Florida. CONCLUSIONS: Canine heartworm infection prevalence is increasing in much of the USA, both regionally and locally, despite veterinarian recommendations on prevention and testing. Additional steps should be taken to protect dogs, cats and ferrets. Further work is needed to identify the driving factors of the locally decreasing prevalence present along the Mississippi Alluvial plain, Florida, and other areas.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Mississippi/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101332, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437674

RESUMO

Records of all Diagnostic laboratory submissions from 2012 to 2015 were examined and subjected to analysis according to species, location of infection, species of bacteria, and antibiotic resistance/susceptibility. A total of 23.8% of all culture isolates were Staphylococcus sp. Of those Staphylococcus, 43% were isolated from surgical site infections. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius accounted for approximately 28% of all staphylococcus cultures, while methicillin-resistant (MR) S. pseudintermedius accounted for 8% of all staphylococcus cultures. Environmental samples were also collected by swabbing surfaces in the intensive care unit (ICU) and anesthesia prep room at the OSU VTH. Isolated bacterial colonies were subjected to PCR for species identification and for the presence of the mecA gene. Ability of horizontal transfer in vitro of the mecA gene was evaluated by incubating the mecA positive bacterium, with the mecA negative bacterium, and then plated onto agar plates infused with known concentration of oxacillin. Colonies were then subjected to PCR for species and mecA identification. Horizontal transfer of the mecA gene was demonstrated and confirmed via PCR from MR S. epidermidis to MS S. pseudintermedius in an in vitro model that mimicked the veterinary hospital environment. Biofilms were established using four Staphylococcus species isolated from swabbing the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and anesthesia prep room and were resistant when exposed to the current cleaning agent. Staphylococcus species makeup nearly » of all infections at OSU VDL during the four years of the study, and MS S. pseudintermedius was shown to acquire the mecA gene from an environmental strain.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Desinfecção/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/genética
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 289-294, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383315

RESUMO

Any antimicrobial use (AMU) in humans and animals selects for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and responsible AMU should therefore be promoted both in human and veterinary medicine. Insight into current AMU in companion animal clinics is necessary to be able to optimise antimicrobial (AM) prescribing behaviour. The objective of this study was to describe systemic AMU in 44 Dutch companion animal clinics over a 3-year time period (2012-2015), using retrospectively collected data. The number of Defined Daily Doses for Animals (DDDAs) per month and per clinic were calculated from prescription data for total, 1st, 2nd and 3rd choice AMU (classification according to Dutch policy on veterinary AMU). Time trends, seasonality and the influence of potential determinants (e.g., the number of dogs, cats and rabbits per clinic and other clinic characteristics) were explored using statistical modelling. Overall, the findings show that total AMU decreased over time and a shift in used classes of antimicrobials towards more 1st choice AMs was visible. Mean total AMU decreased from 1.82 DDDA/year in 2012-2013 to 1.56 DDDA/year in 2014-2015. Aminopenicillins, with and without clavulanic acid, accounted for the largest group of antimicrobials used; 38.7% (2012-2013), 40.2% (2013-2014) and 39.3% (2014-2015) of total AMU, respectively. Strong seasonal differences in AMU were found, with highest AMU in July-August and lowest in February-March. The distribution of different animal species per clinic appeared to affect AMU as well. In clinics with a larger proportion of dogs, 2nd choice AMU was significantly higher, whereas in clinics with a larger proportion of rabbits, 2nd choice AMU was significantly lower. Despite the decrease of AMU during the study period, there is still room for improvement left, especially with regard to the antimicrobial classes prescribed. According to Dutch classification of veterinary AMU, 1st choice AMs should be used as empirical therapy. A decrease in 2nd (might select for ESBL-producing bacteria) and 3rd choice AMU (i.e. fluoroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins) should be aimed for.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Veterinários/tendências , Animais de Estimação , Estações do Ano , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Coelhos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 268, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated changes over time in the epidemiology of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli within a single equine referral hospital in the UK. Faecal samples were collected from hospitalised horses in 2008 and 2017, processed using selective media and standard susceptibility laboratory methods. A novel real-time PCR with high resolution melt analysis was used to distinguish blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 within CTX-M-1 group. RESULTS: In 2008, 457 faecal samples from 103 horses were collected, with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 131 samples (28.7, 95% CI 24.6-33.1). In 2017, 314 faecal samples were collected from 74 horses with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 157 samples (50.0, 95% CI 44.5-55.5). There were 135 and 187 non-duplicate ESBL-producing isolates from 2008 and 2017, respectively. In 2008, 12.6% of isolates belonged to CTX-M-1 group, all carrying blaCTX-M-1, whilst in 2017, 94.1% of isolates were CTX-M-1 group positive and of these 39.2 and 60.8% of isolates carried blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of doxycycline, gentamicin and 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance increased significantly from 2008 to 2017 while a decreased prevalence of phenotypic resistance to potentiated sulphonamides was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time PCR proved a reliable and high throughput method to distinguish between blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, its use in this study demonstrated the emergence of faecal carriage of CTX-M-15 in hospitalised horses, with an increase in prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli as well as increased antimicrobial resistance to frequently used antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
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