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1.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(3): e2020226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the evolution of indicators and capacity for health care in the initial phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS: this was a descriptive study based on COVID-19 case epidemiological bulletins released by the Ministry of Health up until April 1st, 2020. The incidence rate, lethality and number of cumulative daily cases were calculated. RESULTS: 1,005 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were identified, most of them in Ceará and Bahia states. The incidence rate was 1.8/100,000 inhabitants and lethality was 2.7%. Ceará was the state with the highest number of cases, with 29.6 new cases per day on average. Average intensive care bed availability in the Northeast region (1.04/10,000 inhab.) was below the national average (2.8/10,000 inhab.). CONCLUSION: the indicators suggest that COVID-19 impact is heterogeneous and signal the challenges for health systems in the Northeast Region.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 51, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477887

RESUMO

The developed countries of the world were ill-prepared for the pandemic that they have suffered. When we compare developed to developing countries, the sophisticated parameters we use do not necessarily address the weaknesses in the healthcare systems of developed countries that make them susceptible to crises like the present pandemic. We strongly suggest that better preparation for such events is necessary for a country to be considered developed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Países Desenvolvidos/classificação , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Defesa Civil/normas , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional/organização & administração , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional/normas , Saúde Pública/normas
7.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(3): 102-110, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495336

RESUMO

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), extolled as the founder of modern nursing, contributed greatly to the advancement of modern public health. Written 150 years ago, Nightingale's advice on infection control, addressing the importance of hand washing, environmental sanitation, ventilation, sunshine, statistical data, and health literacy, remains highly relevant in today's global fight against the coronavirus. In honor of Florence Nightingale's 200th birthday, World Health Organization declared 2020 the International Year of the Nurse and Midwife. The era of "Nurses: A Voice to Lead - Nursing the World to Health" is drawing near. This article addresses the profound impact of Nightingale's infection control and public health perspectives on measures currently being taken to contain coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, we call on governments throughout the world to invest proactively in nursing to assure the safety of patients and promote public health in order to achieve the pledge of the United Nations' sustainable development goals to leave no one behind.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503889

RESUMO

COVID-19 disproportionately affects the poor and vulnerable. Community health workers are poised to play a pivotal role in fighting the pandemic, especially in countries with less resilient health systems. Drawing from practitioner expertise across four WHO regions, this article outlines the targeted actions needed at different stages of the pandemic to achieve the following goals: (1) PROTECT healthcare workers, (2) INTERRUPT the virus, (3) MAINTAIN existing healthcare services while surging their capacity, and (4) SHIELD the most vulnerable from socioeconomic shocks. While decisive action must be taken now to blunt the impact of the pandemic in countries likely to be hit the hardest, many of the investments in the supply chain, compensation, dedicated supervision, continuous training and performance management necessary for rapid community response in a pandemic are the same as those required to achieve universal healthcare and prevent the next epidemic.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S52-S55, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515378

RESUMO

In a brief span of a few months, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought a major paradigm shift in operation of clinical services around the world. Infection may be mild, moderate or severe; many remain asymptomatic. High burden of non-communicable and communicable diseases theoretically puts Pakistani population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Considering the universal risk of infection, the outpatient services in Pakistan need to be redesigned. Starting with risk assessment of the facility and provision of a dedicated telephone connection, structure and workflow need to be redesigned in order to minimise risk of exposure to healthcare professionals, staff and patients. Patients with COVID-19 patients should be identified before they arrive in the facility and should be served expeditiously, in an environment which prevents cross-transmission of infection. Tele-consultation is assuming an important role. Changes which are taking place in response to Covid-19 pandemic will have far reaching effects on clinical services in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Paquistão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Consulta Remota , Medição de Risco
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S113-S117, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515391

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has rendered the world completely unaware and off-balance. Most of the countries of the world are in a lockdown of varying severity to break the chain of transmission. Many non-essential healthcare practices have been shut down to impose social distancing against a population whose slogan has been freedom of movement. Several healthcare providers have also been caught off guard. Many are not well-versed in the use of transmission-based safeguards, and the dental community, is no different. In this article, we identify the challenges faced by the oral and dental care providers, whose procedures generate a significant amount of aerosol, which can be a significant source of disease transmission within the community. It further describes the dynamics of aerosol spread and various strategies to minimise aerosol generation. Guidelines for the delivery of emergency dental treatment are formulated based on different guidelines from various international dental associations and organisations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S136-S140, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515396

RESUMO

This paper provides the context of COVID-19 outbreak with special reference to hospital-based neurorehabilitation services in the UK and transferrable lessons for similar services globally. While the COVID-19 pandemic has created numerous challenges at all levels and forced us to confront our own vulnerabilities as individuals, teams, services, communities and on the global stage, it has also simultaneously offered us opportunities for transformation. Converting catastrophe into opportunity requires creativity, diligence, innovation, strategy and vision. This reflection serves to identify the challenges we encountered, the solutions we applied and the opportunities that we have taken. In the wake of an information avalanche, service and clinical practice challenge, service capacity challenge and above all, a unique and timely reminder of our own humanity and the inter-connectedness and fragility of human societies, we have endeavoured to identify and describe some crucial leadership facets, which are supporting our journey through this global health crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Reabilitação Neurológica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecção Hospitalar , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/reabilitação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Reabilitação Neurológica/organização & administração , Reabilitação Neurológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S145-S148, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515398

RESUMO

In a short span of a few weeks, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world like no other event in modern history. Healthcare institutions and providers have been at the forefront of containing the ravages of this disease, and are experiencing unprecedented challenges. Medical decision making has become all the more complex because of the moral weight of difficult decisions that need to be made. This paper discusses three areas where ethical decision making is extremely important: dealing with those patients with COVID-19 who no longer have access to their doctors; following ethical criteria for assigning risky duties to healthcare professionals; and in making life and death decisions while allocating scarce resources. This paper describes a national level guidance document for the COVID-19 pandemic that is designed to facilitate ethical decision-making.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Humanos , Paquistão , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S149-S152, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515400

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has shocked the world to a standstill. Routine healthcare has been severely disrupted. Healthcare service is a finite resource and in the current pandemic situation the risks of providing care to individual patients, whether they be confirmed, probable or suspected cases, should be balanced against the ability to provide safe routine long-term care to others. But how far can the healthcare system protect itself and fear the unknown, before it starts causing harm by omission? Herein we provide a review of cases that were misdiagnosed, left stranded in the system or had to face unnecessary delays due to the lack of an organised pathway.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481547

RESUMO

This paper describes the evolving role of robotics in healthcare and allied areas with special concerns relating to the management and control of the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prime utilization of such robots is to minimize person-to-person contact and to ensure cleaning, sterilization and support in hospitals and similar facilities such as quarantine. This will result in minimizing the life threat to medical staff and doctors taking an active role in the management of theCOVID-19 pandemic. The intention of the present research is to highlight the importance of medical robotics in general and then to connect its utilization with the perspective of COVID-19 management so that the hospital management can direct themselves to maximize the use of medical robots for various medical procedures. This is despite the popularity of telemedicine, which is also effective in similar situations. In essence, the recent achievement of the Korean and Chinese health sectors in obtaining active control of the COVID-19 pandemic was not possible without the use of state of the art medical technology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Administração Hospitalar , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Robótica/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Telemedicina
19.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S211-S216, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496257

RESUMO

Health systems' responsiveness is the key to addressing infectious disease threats such as pandemics. The article outlines an assessment of health systems based on World Health Organization's building blocks for select countries. It also compares these with the findings from a more comprehensive analysis of Global Health Security (GHS) Index, which assesses the preparedness of the health system for such pandemics. The GHS report (2019) spelt out very objectively that none of the countries of the world was prepared to effectively handle such emergencies, should they arise. Observations emerging from different countries highlight these findings although some of them seem to be discordant. Overall, it appears that Asian countries could fight the battle better than most developed nations in the Europe and America during the current pandemic, despite having poor GHS scores. Experiences of these countries in facing similar crisis in the past probably sensitized their strained health systems for a greater good. There are several lessons to be learned from such countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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