Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.196
Filtrar
1.
Med Hypotheses ; 141: 109781, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361528

RESUMO

The world is facing a pandemic of unseen proportions caused by a corona virus named SARS-CoV-2 with unprecedent worldwide measures being taken to tackle its contagion. Person-to-person transmission is accepted but WHO only considers aerosol transmission when procedures or support treatments that produce aerosol are performed. Transmission mechanisms are not fully understood and there is evidence for an airborne route to be considered, as the virus remains viable in aerosols for at least 3 h and that mask usage was the best intervention to prevent infection. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) are used as a primary infection disease control measure. However, if not correctly used, they may contribute to the transmission/spreading of airborne diseases as proposed in the past for SARS. The authors believe that airborne transmission is possible and that HVAC systems when not adequately used may contribute to the transmission of the virus, as suggested by descriptions from Japan, Germany, and the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship. Previous SARS outbreaks reported at Amoy Gardens, Emergency Rooms and Hotels, also suggested an airborne transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our hypotheses but the assumption of such way of transmission would cause a major shift in measures recommended to prevent infection such as the disseminated use of masks and structural changes to hospital and other facilities with HVAC systems.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Ambiente Controlado , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ventilação , Aerossóis , Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Fômites/virologia , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Calefação/instrumentação , Calefação/métodos , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Sanitária/instrumentação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Esgotos/virologia , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ventilação/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330135

RESUMO

Dynamic solar shading has the potential to dramatically reduce the energy consumption in buildings while at the same time improving the thermal and visual comfort of its occupants. Many new typologies of shading systems that have appeared recently, but it is difficult to compare those new systems to existing typologies due to control algorithm being rule-based as opposed to performance driven. Since solar shading is a design problem, there is no single right answer. What is the metric to determine if a system has reached its optimal kinematic design? Shading solutions should come from a thorough iterative and comparative process. This paper provides an original and flexible framework for the design and performance optimization of dynamic shading systems based on interpolation of simulations and global minimization. The methodology departs from existing rule-based strategies and applies to existing and to complex shading systems with multiple degree-of-freedom mobility. The strategy for control is centered on meeting comfort targets for work plane illuminance while minimizing the energy needed to operate space. The energy demand for thermal comfort and work plane daylight quantity (illuminance) are evaluated with Radiance and EnergyPlus based on local weather data. Applied to a case study of three typologies of dynamic shading, the results of the methodology inform the usefulness and quality of each degree-of-freedom of the kinematic systems. The case study exemplifies the iterative benefits of the methodology by providing detailed analytics on the behavior of the shades. Designers of shading systems can use this framework to evaluate their design and compare them to existing shading systems. This allows creativity to be guided so that eventually building occupants benefit from the innovation in the field.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Luz Solar , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910230

RESUMO

A multiplex real-time PCR method based on fluorescent TaqMan® probes was developed for the simultaneous detection of the tomato pathogenic bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads. The specificity of the multiplex assay was validated on 44 bacterial strains, including 32 target pathogen strains as well as closely related species and nontarget tomato pathogenic bacteria. The designed multiplex real-time PCR showed high sensitivity when positive amplification was observed for one pg of bacterial DNA in the cases of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato bacteria and 100 pg for bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads. The reliability of the developed multiplex real-time PCR assay for in planta detection was verified by recognition of the target pathogens in 18 tomato plants artificially inoculated by each of the target bacteria and tomato samples from production greenhouses.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Xanthomonas/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/fisiologia , Ambiente Controlado , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Xanthomonas/genética , Xanthomonas/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226912, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923217

RESUMO

The target spraying effect of spray robots mainly depends on the control performance of the spraying arm during the processes of aiming and tracking. To further improve the robustness of the endpoint control and positioning accuracy of the spray arm, an improved potential field algorithm for the motion planning and control of the spray arm is proposed based on prophase research. The algorithm introduces a velocity potential field, visual field constraints and joint position limit constraints into the traditional artificial potential field method. The velocity potential field is used to ensure that the target state of the spraying arm is at the same velocity as the target crop (relative velocity) to achieve stable target tracking. The visual field constraints and joint position limit constraints are utilized to ensure the efficiency of the visual servo control and the movement of the spray arm. The algorithm can plan a feasible trajectory for the spraying arm in Cartesian space and image space, and use the speed controller to control the spraying arm movement along the trajectory for aiming and tracking. Simulation analysis shows that the algorithm can plan better motion trajectories than the servo controller based on image moments in previous studies. In addition, the experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the robustness of targeting and tracking control for the spray robot.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Movimento (Física) , Robótica/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Gravitação
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 71-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622233

RESUMO

Two Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming, aerobic strains, designated V44-8T and V47-23aT, were isolated from environmental air sampling at the vehicle assembly building at Cape Canaveral, Florida, where the Viking spacecraft were assembled. Growth was observed at pH 7-9 (optimum, pH 9) for strain V44-8T, and pH 5-10 (pH 9) for strain V47-23aT. Both strains displayed growth in 0-5 % NaCl with an optimum at 1 % for strain V44-8T; 0 % for strain V47-23aT. Strains V44-8T and V47-23aT grew optimally at 32 °C, (15-32 °C) and 25 °C (20-45 °C), respectively. The cell wall of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Both strains contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Strain V47.23aT shared its highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity with Bacillus cavernae DSM-105484T at 96.9%, and V44.8T with Bacillus zeae DSM-103964T at 96.6 %. Based on their phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as being a members of the genus Bacillus that forms a separate clade when compared to close relatives. Average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity values between strains V44-8T and DSM-103964T were 72.1% and 67.5 %; V47-23aT and DSM-105484T were 62.4% and 69.1%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, genomic and biochemical data, strains V44-8T and V47-23aT represent two novel species in the genus Bacillus for which the names Bacillus glennii sp. nov. [type strain, V44-8T (=ATCC BAA-2860T =DSM 105192T)], and Bacillus saganii sp. nov. [V47-23aT (=ATCC BAA-2861T=DSM 105190T)] are proposed.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Astronave , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ambiente Controlado , Ácidos Graxos/química , Florida , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Food Chem ; 310: 125799, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711809

RESUMO

In this study we explore the effects of multi-colour LED lighting spectrum on nutritive primary metabolites in green ('Lobjoits green cos') and red ('Red cos') leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cultivated in controlled environment. The basal lighting, consisting of blue 455 nm, red 627 and 660 nm and far red 735 nm LEDs, was supplemented with UV-A 380 nm, green 510 nm, yellow 595 nm or orange 622 nm LED wavelengths at total photosynthetic photon flux density of 300 µmol m-2 s-1. Supplemental lighting colours did not affect lettuce growth; however had distinct impact on nitrite, amino acid, organic acid, and soluble sugar contents. Orange, green and UV-A light had differential effects on red and green leaf lettuce metabolism and interplay with nutritional value and safety of lettuce production. The metabolic response was cultivar specific; however green light had reasonable impact on the contents of nutritive primary metabolites in red and green leaf lettuce.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Alface/química , Alface/fisiologia , Nitratos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Ambiente Controlado , Iluminação , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Açúcares/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 104(3): 305-308, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of laminar flow (LAF) is contradictory with several studies failing to replicate risk reduction. The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines identified this lack of good comparative studies. AIM: To analyse the use of LAF and the incidence of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) in Asian patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: Patients who underwent standard cemented posterior-stabilized TKR from 2004 to 2014 were reviewed from a prospectively collected single-surgeon database. Revision, traumatic and/or inflammatory cases were excluded. The type of airflow used was identified. The technique and surgical protocol for all procedures were similar. Tourniquets and inserted drains were routinely used. Patellar resurfacing was not performed. Patients were followed up at the outpatient clinics at regular intervals up to two years. At each visit, the patient was assessed for the occurrence of PJI. FINDINGS: Of the 1028 procedures, 453 (44.1%) were performed in an LAF operating theatre (OT) whereas 575 (55.9%) were performed in a non-LAF OT. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, gender, or side of procedure. The overall incidence of PJI was 0.6% (N = 6). Three (50%) occurred in an LAF OT whereas three (50%) occurred in a non-LAF OT. This was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Laminar flow systems are costly to procure and maintain. With modern aseptic techniques, patient optimization, and use of prophylactic antibiotics, laminar flow does not appear to further reduce risk of PJI in Asian patients after TKR.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Movimentos do Ar , Ambiente Controlado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ventilação/instrumentação
10.
Talanta ; 208: 120384, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816756

RESUMO

Elucidation of Cannabis composition is required to evaluate the potential of this plant for pharmacological uses, but also for implementation in breeding programs with agronomical purposes. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for untargeted analysis of polar and non-polar Cannabis extracts. For this purpose, extracts from 17 cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. were analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS/MS) in high resolution mode. One hundred sixty-nine compounds were identified in the extracts by searching MS and MS/MS information. Among identified families, there were mainly cannabinoids, terpenoids, lipids and flavonoids, but also some interesting compounds such as amino and organic acids, among others. Relative contents of terpenoids and cannabinoids in the same cultivars grown in greenhouse and field were compared. Compositional differences in the profile of terpenoids and cannabinoids between both types of grown conditions were found.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Canabinoides/análise , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ambiente Controlado , Terpenos/análise
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(5): 1503-1513, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858659

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes carried out with the use of endoscope washer-disinfector EndoCleaner and evaluation of the endoscope storage cabinet providing a controlled environment. METHODS AND RESULTS: The efficacy evaluation of endoscope cleaning and disinfection using the endoscope washer-disinfector EndoClener (AORT) was carried out in accordance with the PN-EN ISO 15883 standard, and the validity of endoscope storage cabinet (TRIBO LLC) was evaluated in accordance with the PN-EN 16442 standard. The micro-organism tested used in the study were as follows: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC® 15442™, Enterococcus faecium ATCC® 12952™, Clostridium sporogenes ATCC® 19404™ (spores), Candida albicans ATCC® 90028™ and Aspergillus brasiliensis DSM® 1988™ (surrogate for Asperigllus niger ATCC® 16404™). It was demonstrated that the endoscope reprocessing carried out in the washer-disinfector EndoCleaner guaranteed the elimination of the micro-organism tested, and the tested endoscope storage cabinet met the microbiological criteria defined by the Polish standard PN-EN 16442 in the scope of tests. CONCLUSION: The obtained results showed that usage of washer-disinfector EndoCleaner and endoscope storage cabinet ensures the microbiological safety of using endoscopes. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The increase in the frequency of procedures applying endoscopes contributes to the increased risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms remaining after insufficient cleaning and disinfection of these devices. Research allows assessing the effectiveness of antimicrobial cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes and the safety of storing this equipment in an endoscope cabinet. A particularly innovative aspect is equipping the cabinet with a module generating the phenomenon of radiant catalytic ionization, which is a unique solution on the market. This is one of the very few works involving the assessment of each stage, that is contamination, washing and disinfection, drying and storage of endoscopes.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/instrumentação , Endoscópios/microbiologia , Ambiente Controlado , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Radiação Ionizante
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226559, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841559

RESUMO

Iodine biofortification has been gaining interest in recent years as a sustainable and innovative approach to eradicate iodine deficiency disorders. Studying the impact of iodine biofortification on plant phenotype, biochemical and physiological parameters is crucial to leverage the expertise and best practices for the agro-food industry and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate iodine biofortification on the main quantitative and qualitative traits of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants cultivated both in open field and in growth chamber. The impact of KI and KIO3 treatments was evaluated on biomass production, as well as on the synthesis of phenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid and other caffeic acid derivatives, and on the essential oil (EO) composition. These compounds are typically accumulated in basil leaves and strongly contribute to the plant nutraceutical value and aroma. In open field, the use of increasing concentrations of both iodine salts gradually enhanced iodine accumulation in leaves, also determining an increase of the antioxidant power, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid and cinnamic acid accumulation. The composition of EO was only slightly affected by the treatments, as all the samples were characterized by a linalool chemotype and a minor alteration in their relative content was observed. A growth chamber experiment was performed to test EO variation in controlled conditions, broadening the range of iodine concentrations. In this case, plant chemotype was significantly affected by the treatments and large EO variability was observed, suggesting that iodine form and concentration can potentially influence the EO composition but that in open field this effect is overcome by environmental factors.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Iodo/farmacologia , Ocimum basilicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum basilicum/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Depsídeos/análise , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Iodo/análise , Iodo/deficiência , Ocimum basilicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775298

RESUMO

This study investigates the temperature reduction capacity and water consumption of a fan-pad system installed in a greenhouse located in the coastal regions of Almería. The suitability of this system for coastal zones with high environmental humidity during the summer is analyzed. Historical temperature and relative humidity series are studied, obtaining the thermal difference and maximum, medium, and minimum monthly water consumption of the pads based on the operation data of the pads. Despite the high relative humidity of the air in the hottest hours of the day, a decrease of 5.92 °C in the mean temperature and a water consumption of 13.55 l/h per square meter of an evaporative cooling pad are obtained in the month of August. Additionally, the operation of a cellulose evaporative cooling pad installed for 3 years in a greenhouse is analyzed in a wind tunnel and compared with that of a new pad of the same model. Over time and with low maintenance, the porosity of the pad decreases due to salt incrustation. The salt incrustation makes airflow more difficult in the pad, increasing the pressure drop by 170.04%; however, the air saturation efficiency of the pad increases by 6.6% due to the greater contact time between the air and the water.


Assuntos
Agricultura/instrumentação , Celulose , Ambiente Controlado , Refrigeração , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Água
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756898

RESUMO

Airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important factor affecting indoor air quality and is significantly related to human health. A lot of research has been done on PM2.5 pollution control in buildings, but there is lack of systematic indoor PM2.5 pollution control for engineering applications. In this study, first, we propose an outdoor calculated concentration of PM2.5 in 74 cities, in China, using the "not guaranteed for five days" method, which is based on outdoor PM2.5 concentration monitoring data from 2016 to 2018. Then, different levels of indoor calculated concentrations of PM2.5 (25 µg/m3, 35 µg/m3, and 75 µg/m3) are put forward. Secondly, methods for selecting air purification equipment in centralized, semi-centralized, and decentralized air conditioning systems are proposed. Finally, PM2.5 pollution control measures and system energy-saving operation strategies in buildings are put forward. This study stipulates the calculation of PM2.5 concentration, unifies design methods, proposes control measures, and standardizes operations management. The aim of this study is to provide technical guidance for engineering design, construction and operation, and therefore to reduce the risk of indoor diseases caused by exposure to PM2.5.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Controlado , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 28775-28786, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377931

RESUMO

The use of industrial effluents for agricultural practices due to waste management properties, water scarcity, or cultural belief affects both the physiology and morphology of cultivated crops. This study reports the investigation of the agro-potentiality of the effluents from a beverage bottling company on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under a controlled environment. This greenhouse experiment was carried out within Obafemi Awolowo University. The effluents were applied at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% concentrations using untreated (A) and treated (B) effluents separately in two groups. Physicochemical properties of the effluents were determined using standard methods. Exchangeable cations present in the effluents were investigated via the ammonium acetate exchange way. Morphological and yield parameters were measured in ten replicates. Transverse sections of the leaf, petiole, and stem were also investigated under a light microscopy. General linear model was used for statistical analysis with means compared using Tukey's HSD test at p < 0.05. The effluents had pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids in the range of 7.4-7.5, 599.0-693.0 µS/cm, and 395.0-455.0 mg/l, respectively. The exchangeable calcium and potassium concentrations in the effluents range 1067.00-1937.50 and 190.0-343.50 mg/l. Application of effluent A had no significant effect on number of pods per group, seeds per pod, leaf length, leaf width, and leaf area of cowpea (p > 0.05). There was a significant effect of effluent A on the number of leaves and shoot height (p < 0.05). The application of effluent B had a significant effect on the mean number of leaves and seeds per pod at higher (40-50%) concentrations (p < 0.05). Amendment with effluent B showed no significant effect on the mean shoot height, leaf length, width and area, pods per group, pod length, and girth size (p > 0.05). The frequency of guard cells was observed to decrease with increasing effluents (A and B) concentration on the abaxial epidermis. Likewise, a "black deposit" was observed in the vessels in the stem taken from group amended with effluent A at high concentrations (30-50%). No anatomical differences were observed in the petiole and leaf transverse sections of the control and amended subgroups. The untreated and treated effluents showed agro-potentiality. However, crops grown need to be monitored for the health impacts on man and animal, as risk of crop cellular disruption exist.


Assuntos
Vigna/fisiologia , Águas Residuárias , Agricultura/métodos , Bebidas , Produtos Agrícolas , Ambiente Controlado , Folhas de Planta , Sementes , Vigna/anatomia & histologia
18.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(4): 271-278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315077

RESUMO

In pharmaceutical compounding, effective contamination control is based on a complete understanding of the impact, sources, mechanisms, and prevention of adulterants in the compounding suite. Only then do the multiple facets of designing, constructing, maintaining, cleaning, using, and monitoring controlled environments make sense. This article presents an overview of the types of contaminants likely to compromise the potency and for their eradication. The information provided also applies to the contamination of other sites such as surgery suites, hallways, bathrooms, and the home setting. In a series of upcoming articles, the importance of compounding techniques, primary and secondary engineering controls, personal protective equipment, environmental monitoring, cleaning processes, hazardous-drug considerations, and certification of the compounding suite will be discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Certificação , Composição de Medicamentos , Ambiente Controlado
19.
Cornea ; 38(10): 1266-1272, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356416

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our eyes are chronically exposed to airborne particulate matter shown to adversely affect the ocular surface. This research examines size, type (organic vs. inorganic), and elemental composition of particles recovered from the ocular surface in 2 environments and their associations with dry eye (DE) metrics. METHODS: Particles were recovered from the right eye using Schirmer strips obtained both in the clinic and home environments 9 ± 8 days apart. Particle size and elemental composition were assessed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The paired t test was used to evaluate the differences in the size and types of ocular surface particles recovered from the clinic and home settings. Associations of particle size and type with home environmental conditions and DE measures were evaluated using correlation analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the 15 patients was 56 years, standard deviation (±) 12 years; 93% were men and 53% self-identified as white. Size, type, and elemental composition did not vary significantly between clinic and home. Particle surface area was marginally associated with home indoor temperature (25 °C ± 2, ρ=-0.53, P = 0.06) and significantly associated with the select DE signs: tear osmolality (304 mOsm/L ± 14, ρ= -0.60, P = 0.02), inflammation (0.7 ± 0.8, ρ = 0.53, P = 0.04), and tear breakup time (7 seconds ± 3, ρ = 0.56, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Ocular surface particles were consistently detected across 2 different environments. Greater particle area detected on Schirmer strips correlated with some DE measures, suggesting that particles detected on the ocular surface may affect eye health.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Córnea/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Ambiente Controlado , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Lágrimas/química , Túnica Conjuntiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espectrometria por Raios X
20.
In Vivo ; 33(4): 999-1010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280188

RESUMO

Infrastructure in animal husbandry refers to fundamental facilities and services necessary for better living conditions of animals and its economy to function through better productivity. Mainly, infrastructure can be divided into two categories: hard infrastructure and soft infrastructure. Physical infrastructure, such as buildings, roads, and water supplying systems, belongs to hard infrastructure. Soft infrastructure includes services which are required to maintain economic, health, cultural and social standards of animal husbandry. Therefore, the proper management of infrastructure in animal husbandry is necessary for animal welfare and its economy. Among various technologies to improve the quality of infrastructure, non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology is an effectively applicable technology in different stages of animal husbandry. NTP is mainly helpful in maintaining better health conditions of animals in several ways via decontamination from microorganisms present in air, water, food, instruments and surfaces of animal farming systems. Furthermore, NTP is used in the treatment of waste water, vaccine production, wound healing in animals, odor-free ventilation, and packaging of animal food or animal products. This review summarizes the recent studies of NTP which can be related to the infrastructure in animal husbandry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Gases em Plasma , Poluição do Ar , Ração Animal , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ambiente Controlado , Água/análise , Água/química , Microbiologia da Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA