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1.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 466-468, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880554

RESUMO

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is key to protecting healthcare workers from COVID-19 infection, but the pandemic has disrupted supply chains globally and necessitated rapid review of the scientific evidence for PPE re-use. In South Africa, where the COVID-19 epidemic is still developing, healthcare facilities have a short window of opportunity to improve PPE supply chains, train staff on prudent PPE use, and devise plans to track and manage the inevitable increases in PPE demand. This article discusses the available PPE preservation strategies and addresses the issue of decontamination and re-use of N95 respirators as a last-resort strategy for critical shortages during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111130, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741761

RESUMO

Exfoliated bentonite sheets admixed with nano-cellulose fibers (EXB/CF) were prepared as advanced bio-composite of enhanced decontamination properties for different species of water pollutants (Cd2+, safranin dye, and phosphate). The composite achieved promising adsorption capacities with experimental values of 206.8 mg/g (Cd2+), 336 mg/g (safranin), and 296 mg/g (phosphate); and predicted maximum capacities of 212.9 mg/g (Cd2+), 341 mg/g (safranin), and 305 mg/g (phosphate). The adsorption systems for the three species follow the Freundlich isotherm model and Pseudo-First order as kinetic model considering both the linear and nonlinear fitting demonstrating heterogeneous and multilayer uptake properties of physisorption type. The operation of physisorption mechanisms was supported by the obtained adsorption energies from D-R model that are less than 8 kJ/mol as well as the calculated free energies and enthalpies. The thermodynamic investigation revealed the nature of the adsorption reactions of the three pollutants by EXB/CF as exothermic, favorable, and spontaneous reactions. The EXB/CF composite also is of significant recyclability value and applied in five decontamination reusing runs for Cd2+, safranin dye, and phosphate achieving promising removal percentages.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes da Água , Adsorção , Bentonita , Cádmio , Celulose , Descontaminação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Fenazinas , Fosfatos , Termodinâmica
4.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 17(9): 390-397, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795221

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to a global decrease in personal protective equipment (PPE), especially filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Ultraviolet-C wavelength is a promising way of decontamination, however adequate dosimetry is needed to ensure balance between over and underexposed areas and provide reliable results. Our study demonstrates that UVGI light irradiance varies significantly on different respirator angles and propose a method to decontaminate several masks at once ensuring appropriate dosage in shaded zones. An UVGI irradiator was built with internal dimensions of 69.5 × 55 × 33 cm with three 15 W UV lamps. Inside, a grating of 58 × 41 × 15 cm was placed to hold the masks. Two different flat fold respirator models were used to assess irradiance, four of model Aura 9322 3 M of dimensions 17 × 9 × 4 cm (tri-fold), and two of model SAFE 231FFP3NR (bi-fold) with dimensions 17 × 6 × 5 cm. An STN-SilverNova spectrometer was employed to verify wavelength spectrum and surface irradiance. A simulation was performed to find the irradiance pattern inside the box and the six masks placed inside. These simulations were carried out using the software DIALUX EVO 8.2. The data obtained reveal that the irradiance received inside the manufactured UVGI-irradiator depends not only on the distance between the lamps' plane and the base of the respirators but also on the orientation and shape of the masks. This point becomes relevant to assure that all the respirators inside the chamber receive the correct dosage. Irradiance over FFR surfaces depend on several factors such as distance and angle of incidence of the light source. Careful irradiance measurement and simulation can ensure reliable dosage in the whole mask surface, balancing overexposure. Closed box systems might provide a more reliable, reproducible UVGI dosage than open settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Betacoronavirus , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Doses de Radiação
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039454, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are widespread shortages of personal protective equipment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reprocessing filtering facepiece particle (FFP)-type respirators may provide an alternative solution in keeping healthcare professionals safe. DESIGN: Prospective, bench-to-bedside. SETTING: A primary care-based study using FFP-2 respirators without exhalation valve (3M Aura 1862+ (20 samples), Maco Pharma ZZM002 (14 samples)), FFP-2 respirators with valve (3M Aura 9322+ (six samples) and San Huei 2920V (16 samples)) and valved FFP type 3 respirators (Safe Worker 1016 (10 samples)). INTERVENTIONS: All masks were reprocessed using a medical autoclave (17 min at 121°C with 34 min total cycle time) and subsequently tested up to three times whether these respirators retained their integrity (seal check and pressure drop) and ability to filter small particles (0.3-5.0 µm) in the laboratory using a particle penetration test. RESULTS: We tested 33 respirators and 66 samples for filter capacity. All FFP-2 respirators retained their shape, whereas half of the decontaminated FFP-3 respirators showed deformities and failed the seal check. The filtering capacity of the 3M Aura 1862 was best retained after one, two and three decontamination cycles (0.3 µm: 99.3%±0.3% (new) vs 97.0±1.3, 94.2±1.3% or 94.4±1.6; p<0.001). Of the other FFP-2 respirators, the San Huei 2920 V had 95.5%±0.7% at baseline vs 92.3%±1.7% vs 90.0±0.7 after one-time and two-time decontaminations, respectively (p<0.001). The tested FFP-3 respirator (Safe Worker 1016) had a filter capacity of 96.5%±0.7% at baseline and 60.3%±5.7% after one-time decontamination (p<0.001). Breathing and pressure resistance tests indicated no relevant pressure changes between respirators that were used once, twice or thrice. CONCLUSION: This small single-centre study shows that selected FFP-2 respirators may be reprocessed for use in primary care, as the tested masks retain their shape, ability to retain particles and breathing comfort after decontamination using a medical autoclave.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Máscaras/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Filtros de Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(6): 1119-1123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study the effectiveness of chronic apical periodontitis treatment by the combined use of ultrasonic treatment of root canals and multicomponent antimicrobial gel according to the results of clinical and microbiological researches. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 64 patients with chronic apical periodontitis at the age of 18-56 years were treated. Patients were divided into two groups: the main and control. In the main group the root canals of 36 teeth were sonicated in combination with multicomponent antimicrobial gel, in the control - 35 teeth were treated by a standard method. The content of the root canals for microbiological studies was obtained before endodontic treatment and before permanent obturation. Frequency of content and number of bacteria in the samples were evaluated. RESULTS: Results: All samples before treatment were positive for the presence of variable bacterial flora, among which Staphylococcus epidermidis (43.9%), Enterococcus faecalis (37.9%), Streptococcus spp. (24.8%), Candida albicans (24.4%), Fusibacterium (9.4%) were the most dominant, their number was 7.4-4.8 lg CFU/ml. Repeated research after the proposed and standard method of root canal decontamination has shown a significant decrease in microflora. According to the data of clinical and microbiological examination, the method which was developed by us revealed a positive result in 86% of cases compared with 63% when treated by the standard method. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The effectiveness of a complex treatment method with combined use of the ultrasonic irrigation and multicomponent antimicrobial gel for root canals decontamination in chronic apical periodontitis is demonstrated. Significant reduction of microflora growth and destruction of microbial associations, good penetration of multicomponent antimicrobial gel into endodontic structures due to ultrasound compared with a standard method were achieved.


Assuntos
Periodontite Periapical , Bactérias , Descontaminação , Cavidade Pulpar , Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 10-19, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and unprecedented global demand, clinicians are struggling to source adequate access to personal protective equipment. Respirators can be in short supply, though are necessary to protect workers from SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Rapid decontamination and reuse of respirators may provide relief for the strained procurement situation. METHOD: In this study, we investigated the suitability of 70°C dry heat and microwave-generated steam (MGS) for reprocessing of FFP2/N95-type respirators, and Type-II surgical face masks. Staphylococcus aureus was used as a surrogate as it is less susceptible than enveloped viruses to chemical and physical processes. RESULTS: We observed >4 log10 reductions in the viability of dry S. aureus treated by dry heat for 90 min at 70°C and >6 log10 reductions by MGS for 90 s. After 3 reprocessing cycles, neither process was found to negatively impact the bacterial or NaCl filtration efficiency of the respirators that were tested. However, MGS was incompatible with Type-II surgical masks tested, as we confirmed that bacterial filtration capacity was completely lost following reprocessing. MGS was observed to be incompatible with some respirator types due to arcing observed around some types of metal nose clips and by loss of adhesion of clips to the mask. CONCLUSION: Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, we propose a reprocessing personal protective equipment/face mask workflow for use in medical areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Temperatura Alta , Máscaras/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/virologia , Vapor , Betacoronavirus , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Micro-Ondas
8.
Acad Radiol ; 27(9): 1193-1203, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703648

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a pathogen that has shown an ability for sustained community transmission. To ensure utmost safety, radiology services will need to adapt to this disease in the coming months and possibly years ahead. This will include learning how to perform radiographs and CT in a safe and sustainable manner. Due to the risk of nosocomial spread of disease, the judicious use and implementation of strict infection protocols is paramount to limit healthcare worker and patient transmission. Between 28 January 2020 and 8 June 2020, our institution performed 12,034 radiographs and 178 CT scans for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. As of 8 June 2020, there have been no documented instances of healthcare staff acquiring COVID-19 during the course of work. In this article, we present the indications and operational considerations used by our institution to safely image patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Alternative practices for imaging radiographs are also discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Descontaminação , Segurança de Equipamentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(7): 895-899, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited assessments with handheld ultrasound have found meaningful clinical use in the care of acutely ill patients. However, there are limited data on incorporating handheld-based limited echocardiography into the echocardiography laboratory. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of limited handheld tablet echocardiography as an alternative to traditional echocardiography during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a means to limit exposure while providing essential clinical information. METHODS: Ninety consecutive inpatients with known or suspected COVID-19 were scanned according to laboratory COVID-19 guidelines using a limited 11- to 20-clip protocol on a tablet sonograph. The primary assessment was length of study time. Comparison data were drawn from comprehensive echocardiographic examinations ordered on intensive care patients not under COVID-19 precautions. RESULTS: Over a 36-day time period, a total of 91 requests were deemed to be appropriate for echocardiography on patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (average age, 67 years; 64% men; mean body mass index, 32 kg/m2). Of these, 90 (99%) examinations were performed using a handheld device, and all were deemed diagnostic and provided sufficient information for the clinical care team. Sonographer scan time decreased from an average of 24 ± 6.8 min on a traditional platform to 5.4 ± 1.9 min on a tablet. CONCLUSIONS: Limited handheld echocardiography can be successfully implemented in the echocardiography laboratory for screening of COVID-19-related cardiac conditions. The protocol performed with handheld tablet ultrasound provides adequate diagnostic information of major cardiac complications of COVID-19 while decreasing sonographer contact and simplifying decontamination.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Computadores de Mão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Ecocardiografia/instrumentação , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 36-41, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629075

RESUMO

The study examined the degradation of riot control agents (RCAs): 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS), and capsaicin, using the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit (RSDL®) lotion and evaluated the the direct liquid phase reactivity of the RSDL lotion component with each RCA. RSDL lotion was mixed with the selected RCAs at different molar ratios. Reactivity of the active ingredient potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO) with the RCA was observed for one hour. Samples of 10 µL were taken and quenched, analyzed for residual RCA using LC-MS. CN, was degraded at molar ratios of two and above in less than 2 min. At a molar ratio of 1:1 KBDO:CN, ∼90 % of CN was degraded within 2 min, the remaining 10 % residual CN was observed for one hour without any change. CS, degradation of more than 68 % of CS was achieved at 20:1 M ratio of KBDO:CS within 1 h of reaction time. For capsaicin, no degradation was observed regardless of the higher molar ratios of up to 20:1 and longer reaction times of up to one hour. This study provides evaluation of neutralizing action of the RSDL lotion without assessment of the physical removal component by the RSDL Kit.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/isolamento & purificação , Descontaminação/métodos , Irritantes/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/isolamento & purificação , Pele/química , ômega-Cloroacetofenona/isolamento & purificação , Calibragem , Capsaicina/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Irritantes/análise , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/análise , ômega-Cloroacetofenona/análise
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730254

RESUMO

The injection of laboratory animals with pathogenic microorganisms poses a significant safety risk because of the potential for injury by accidental needlestick. This is especially true for researchers using invertebrate models of disease due to the required precision and accuracy of the injection. The restraint of the greater wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) is often achieved by grasping a larva firmly between finger and thumb. Needle resistant gloves or forceps can be used to reduce the risk of a needlestick but can result in animal injury, a loss of throughput, and inconsistencies in experimental data. Restraint devices are commonly used for the manipulation of small mammals, and in this manuscript, we describe the construction of two devices that can be used to entrap and restrain G. mellonella larvae prior to injection with pathogenic microbes. These devices reduce the manual handling of larvae and provide an engineering control to protect against accidental needlestick injury while maintaining a high rate of injection.


Assuntos
Injeções/instrumentação , Microbiologia/instrumentação , Mariposas/microbiologia , Prevenção de Acidentes , Animais , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Reutilização de Equipamento , Larva/microbiologia
12.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 45-49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621599

RESUMO

The gutta-percha cones used in endodontic treatment are produced in aseptic conditions and their composition includes zinc oxide, which is responsible for antibacterial activity. However, there is the possibility of microbial contamination by manipulation, aerosol or during storage. Although several chemical agents have been tested for their decontamination, there is no consensus on the best disinfection protocol to be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decontamination of gutta-percha cones contaminated with the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, by using chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations for short exposure times. For this purpose, gutta-percha cones (size 40) were selected at random from a sealed box and immersed for 1 min in a microbial suspension. Then they were immersed in specific Petri dishes for different groups containing: CHX 2%, NaClO 1% or NaClO 2.5% for 30 s or 1 min, and subsequently placed in tubes containing BHI broth. After incubating the tubes for 48 h, it was observed that 1% and 2.5% NaClO and 2% CHX were effective for decontaminating the cones at those exposure time intervals. Microbial growth was detected in one of the replicates of the group with CHX applied for 30 s. To prevent the possibility of failures at this stage, the exposure time of gutta-percha cones to the decontaminating agent should not be reduced.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterilização/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1744-1747, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673522

RESUMO

The spread of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections worldwide has raised concerns about the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. Devices that rapidly inactivate viruses can reduce the chance of infection through aerosols and contact transmission. This in vitro study demonstrated that irradiation with a deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED) of 280 ± 5 nm wavelength rapidly inactivates SARS-CoV-2 obtained from a COVID-19 patient. Development of devices equipped with DUV-LED is expected to prevent virus invasion through the air and after touching contaminated objects.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Descontaminação , Humanos , Pandemias , Raios Ultravioleta , Células Vero , Inativação de Vírus
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609741

RESUMO

A lack of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators (FFRs) during the COVID-19 crisis has placed healthcare workers at risk. It is important for any N95 reuse strategy to determine the effects that proposed protocols would have on the physical functioning of the mask, as well as the practical aspects of implementation. Here we propose and implement a method of heating N95 respirators with moisture (85°C, 60-85% humidity). We test both mask filtration efficiency and fit to validate this process. Our tests focus on the 3M 1860, 3M 1870, and 3M 8210 Plus N95 models. After five cycles of the heating procedure, all three respirators pass both quantitative fit testing (score of >100) and show no degradation of mask filtration efficiency. We also test the Chen Heng V9501 KN95 and HKYQ N95 finding no degradation of mask filtration efficiency, however even for unheated masks these scored <50 for every fit test. The heating method presented here is scalable from individual masks to over a thousand a day with a single industrial convection oven, making this method practical for local application inside health-care facilities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Calefação/métodos , Umidade , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
16.
A A Pract ; 14(8): e01263, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643908

RESUMO

Some patients infected with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) require endotracheal intubation, an aerosol-generating procedure that is believed to result in viral transmission to personnel performing the procedure. Additionally, donning and doffing personal protective equipment can be time consuming. In particular, doffing requires strict protocol adherence to avoid exposure. We describe the Emory Healthcare intubation team approach during the COVID-19 pandemic. This structure resulted in only 1 team member testing positive for COVID-19 despite 253 patient intubations over a 6-week period with 153 anesthesia providers on service.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descontaminação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491983

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has created worldwide shortages of N95 respirators. We analyzed 4 decontamination methods for effectiveness in deactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus and effect on respirator function. Our results indicate that N95 respirators can be decontaminated and reused, but the integrity of respirator fit and seal must be maintained.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ventiladores Mecânicos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587063

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused a severe, international shortage of N95 respirators, which are essential to protect health care providers from infection. Given the contemporary limitations of the supply chain, it is imperative to identify effective means of decontaminating, reusing, and thereby conserving N95 respirator stockpiles. To be effective, decontamination must result in sterilization of the N95 respirator without impairment of respirator filtration or user fit. Although numerous methods of N95 decontamination exist, none are universally accessible. In this work, we describe a microwave-generated steam decontamination protocol for N95 respirators for use in health care systems of all sizes, geographies, and means. Using widely available glass containers, mesh from commercial produce bags, a rubber band, and a 1,100-W commercially available microwave, we constructed an effective, standardized, and reproducible means of decontaminating N95 respirators. Employing this methodology against MS2 phage, a highly conservative surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 contamination, we report an average 6-log10 plaque-forming unit (PFU) (99.9999%) and a minimum 5-log10 PFU (99.999%) reduction after a single 3-min microwave treatment. Notably, quantified respirator fit and function were preserved, even after 20 sequential cycles of microwave steam decontamination. This method provides a valuable means of effective decontamination and reuse of N95 respirators by frontline providers facing urgent need.IMPORTANCE Due to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an increasing shortage of protective gear necessary to keep health care providers safe from infection. As of 9 April 2020, the CDC reported 9,282 cumulative cases of COVID-19 among U.S. health care workers (CDC COVID-19 Response Team, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69:477-481, 2020, https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e6). N95 respirators are recommended by the CDC as the ideal method of protection from COVID-19. Although N95 respirators are traditionally single use, the shortages have necessitated the need for reuse. Effective methods of N95 decontamination that do not affect the fit or filtration ability of N95 respirators are essential. Numerous methods of N95 decontamination exist; however, none are universally accessible. In this study, we describe an effective, standardized, and reproducible means of decontaminating N95 respirators using widely available materials. The N95 decontamination method described in this work will provide a valuable resource for hospitals, health care centers, and outpatient practices that are experiencing increasing shortages of N95 respirators due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Máscaras , Vapor , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descontaminação/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Filtração , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esterilização , Estados Unidos
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