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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111356, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658705

RESUMO

The cartography of shallow water macroalgal assemblages allows the assessment of water quality in coastal water bodies through the application of CARLIT. In this study, we have applied CARLIT to assess the ecological status of Algerian coastal water bodies for the first time. The surveyed zone is still in a good ecological status since 52% have a good to a high ecological Status. CARLIT index is well correlated with anthropogenic pressures and has proved suitable for the evaluation of the ecological status of coastal waters. Comparison between EQR values and EEI-c shows a similar pattern of change. CARLIT method allowed the collection of accurate information on the distribution and abundance of shallow-water communities. We also provide a cartographic baseline of the coastal assemblages useful for further evaluations on their geographic extension and for the implementation of a monitoring project on water quality in Algerian coast.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Argélia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Qualidade da Água
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111231, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510377

RESUMO

Freshwater and dissolved nutrient inputs that entered the lower Seybouse River estuary were assessed in 2012 through a fortnightly surface water sampling both at a lower river station and at the estuary outlet. The Seybouse estuary delivered annually 950 × 106 m3 of freshwater yielding 83 kg N km-2 yr-1 of N-NH4 and 12 kg P km-2 yr-1 of P-PO4. More than 2/3 of the annual inputs of freshwater, Si(OH)4 and NO3 entered the sea during the flooding event of late February 2012. Si-Si(OH)4 and N-NO3 yields in the Seybouse estuary represented <1/3 those of the Mediterranean rivers. Annaba Bay is subjected to highly polluted waters from the Seybouse estuary, with significant NH4 (72 ± 37 µmol L-1) and PO4 (7 ± 4 µmol L-1) amounts. However it is characterized by low Si(OH)4 (104 ± 43 µmol L-1) amounts. Alteration of Si:N:P ratios at this bay suggest potential risk of eutrophication, except during and weeks after flood episodes.


Assuntos
Baías , Rios , Argélia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes
3.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 324-333, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measuring the attitudes of health professionals in two Maghreb countries (Tunisia and Algeria) with regard to the response to COVID-19 during the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: This scoping study was based on a "Google Form" covering three constituents of the response plan against COVID-19: responders, activities and crisis communication. The attitudes of health professionals who are working in Tunisia and Algeria were measured through the Likert scale with four propositions, grouped in pairs, during the analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 280 health professionals, 170 of whom are Tunisians along with 110 Algerians. The medians of age and that of professional seniority are, respectively, 37 and 10 years. The role of "health workers", "Mass Media" and "civil society associations" was found to be satisfactory according, respectively, to 92%, 71%, and 55% of the respondents. As far as 72% of health professionals are concerned, the "barrier measures" were respected by the population. Approximately, seven in ten respondents were satisfied with the quality of communication occuring between the Ministries of Health and its epidemiological structures. CONCLUSION: Health professionals of the Maghreb working in Tunisia and Algeria had a generally positive perception of the role of population responders, community engagement, and the quality of official communication in regards to the response plan against COVID- 19. This perception would be a prerequisite for the success of community participation and multisectoral action as well as essential in the strategy of prevention and control of this pandemic and of possible other health emergencies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Tunísia/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455550

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread in countries around the world. The impact of this virus is very great on populations following the application of total and partial containment measures. Our study aims to study the psychological impact of total and partial containment applied in Algeria, on 23 March 2020, following the spread of the virus COVID-19 and also studied the habits and behaviors of the Algerian population during this new way of life and this through a cross-sectional survey launched after three days from the start of confinement to quickly assess the impacts over the period from 23 March to 12 April 2020, by an online questionnaire which allowed us to obtain 678 responses from Internet users, who live in confinement in Algeria. According to the gender variable, our sample includes 405 men, or 59.7%, and 273 women, representing 40.3%. The results of the statistical analysis carried out using SPSS version 22.0 software showed that 50.3% of the respondents were in an anxious situation during these first three weeks of confinement. In addition, 48.2% feels stressed, 46.6% of the respondents confirmed to be feeling in a bad mood, and 47.4% do not stop thinking throughout the day about this epidemic and how to protect themselves. In addition, the study shows that 87.9% of the respondents in Algeria found it difficult to follow the confinement instructions. A significant change in the habits of the population was noted especially for the time of going to bed, the time of waking up, and the use of the Internet as well as the hours devoted to daily reading.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(8): 2149-2157, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452752

RESUMO

A comprehensive survey was performed to assess fungal populations associated with crown and root rot of wheat throughout the main wheat-growing areas of Azerbaijan. Samples were taken from 76 fields; 630 fungal strains were isolated, identified, and evaluated for pathogenicity. The identification was conducted with morphological and molecular tools such as species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) loci. The fungus found in the greatest number of fields (44) was Fusarium culmorum with 192 isolates, followed by F. acuminatum. Other Fusarium spp. isolates were identified: F. equiseti, F. pseudograminearum, F. graminearum, F. incarnatum, F. avenaceum, F. hostae, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. algeriense, and F. brachygibbosum. Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia spicifera, Exserohilum pedicellatum, Nigrospora oryzae, and Rhizoctonia spp. isolates were also identified, associated with underground parts of wheat. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and EF1-α sequences of the isolates showed that the isolates belonging to the same species were clearly separated in the dendrogram. Pathogenicity assays revealed that F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, and F. graminearum were most aggressive; F. avenaceum, F. hostae, F. algeriense, B. sorokiniana, C. spicifera, and R. solani isolates were moderately aggressive; C. inaequalis, E. pedicellatum, and N. oryzae were weakly aggressive; and others were nonpathogenic. The result of this study exhibited the existence of a wide range of species associated with crown and root rot of wheat in Azerbaijan. Additionally, this is the first report of F. hostae, F. algeriense, C. spicifera, C. inaequalis, and N. oryzae as pathogens on wheat in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is the second country after Algeria in which F. algeriense was detected.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Argélia , Azerbaijão , Filogenia , Virulência
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433708

RESUMO

Several Botryosphaeriaceae species are known to occur worldwide, causing dieback, canker and fruit rot on various hosts. Surveys conducted in ten commercial citrus orchards in the northern region of Algeria revealed five species of Botryosphaeriaceae belonging to three genera associated with diseased trees. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α) identified Diplodia mutila, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella viticola, Lasiodiplodia mediterranea and a novel species which is here described as Lasiodiplodia mithidjana sp. nov.. Of these, L. mithidjana (14.1% of the samples) and L. mediterranea (13% of the samples) were the most widespread and abundant species. Pathogenicity tests revealed that L. mediterranea and D. seriata were the most aggressive species on citrus shoots. This study highlights the importance of Botryosphaeriaceae species as agents of canker and dieback of citrus trees in Algeria.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Argélia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29512-29529, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445139

RESUMO

Fifty-five samples were collected from topsoils around a petrochemical industrial area at the east of Algiers (Algeria) and analyzed for 16EPA priority PAHs in the aim to determine the concentrations, the distributions, and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results of the quantification are then devoted to the assessment of the potential risks as the toxicity, the risk for the ecosystem, and the risk for the human health. The sampling sites were classified into four categories: rural, suburban, urban, and industrial-urban. A new extraction method based on the insertion of a preliminary step, using hot water, was proposed to improve the extraction efficiency. Principal component analysis (PCA) and selected diagnostic ratio of PAHs were used to investigate the source apportionment of these PAHs. The potential toxicity, the ecological, and human health risk of PAHs in soil were estimated using the toxic equivalent quotient, the risk quotient, and the total lifetime cancer risk (TLCR) methods, respectively. The proposed new protocol gave improved recovery rates for the sixteen EPA PAHs particularly for low molecular weight PAHs, with satisfactory repeatability (RSD < 10%). The Σ16PAHs concentrations were varied from 143.73 to 4575.65 µg kg-1 with a mean value of 1209.56 µg kg-1. Σ16PAH concentrations found for the industrial areas would be 2 times higher than for urban soils and 3 times higher than for the rural soils. The biplots of PCA and the five diagnostic ratios suggested that the most sources of PAHs in the rural, the suburban, and the urban areas are traffic emissions, biomass burning, and coal combustion sources. Some points of the urban-industrial area are from the petroleum source. The found Σ16PAH concentrations and theirs calculated TEQs showed the following trend: industrial-urban > urban > suburban >rural. The potential cancer of human health risks calculated through TLCR results indicated that the exposure to the 7EPA PAH-contaminated soils produces negligible cancer risk to human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Argélia , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30001-30019, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445152

RESUMO

Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is profoundly crucial in crop modeling, sustainable management, hydrological water simulation, and irrigation scheduling, since it accounts for more than two-thirds of global precipitation losses. Therefore, ETo-based estimation is a major concern in the hydrological cycle. The estimation of ETo can be determined using various methods, including field measurement (the scale of the lysimeter), experimental methods, and mathematical equations. The Food and Agriculture Organization recommended the Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) method which was identified as the standard method of ETo estimation. However, this equation requires a large number of measured climatic data (maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) that are not always available on meteorological stations. Over the decade, the artificial intelligence (AI) models have received more attention for estimating ETo on multi-time scales. This research explores the potential of new hybrid AI model, i.e., support vector regression (SVR) integrated with grey wolf optimizer (SVR-GWO) for estimating monthly ETo at Algiers, Tlemcen, and Annaba stations located in the north of Algeria. Five climatic variables namely relative humidity (RH), maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin), solar radiation (Rs), and wind speed (Us) were used for model construction and evaluation. The proposed hybrid SVR-GWO model was compared against hybrid SVR-genetic algorithm (SVR-GA), SVR-particle swarm optimizer (SVR-PSO), conventional artificial neural network (ANN), and empirical (Turc, Ritchie, Thornthwaite, and three versions of Valiantzas methods) models by using root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), and Willmott index (WI), and through graphical interpretation. Through the results obtained, the performance of the SVR-GWO provides very promising and occasionally competitive results compared to other data-driven and empirical methods at study stations. Thus, the proposed SVR-GWO model with five climatic input variables outperformed the other models (RMSE = 0.0776/0.0613/0.0374 mm, NSE = 0.9953/ 0.9990/0.9995, PCC = 0.9978/0.9995/0.9998 and WI = 0.9988/0.9997/0.9999) for estimating ETo at Algiers, Tlemcen, and Annaba stations, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this research indicate the suitability of the proposed hybrid artificial intelligence model (SVR-GWO) at the study stations. Besides, promising results encourage researchers to transfer and test these models in other locations in the world in future works.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Redes Neurais de Computação , Argélia , Hidrologia , Vento
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2085-2091, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458117

RESUMO

The present study aims to perform comparative genetic characterization for R. sanguineus s.l. infesting Algerian dogs living in steppe and high plateau regions based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In total, 1043 ticks were collected from 147 infested dogs, including 756 ticks from 124 dogs in Djelfa and 287 ticks from 23 dogs in Bordj-Bou-Arreridj. All ticks were morphologically identified as R. sanguineus s.l., and 87 specimens were randomly selected for molecular analysis. Sequences obtained from selected ticks clustered with sequences of R. sanguineus s.l. from France, Germany, Portugal, and Spain, all of which belong to R. sanguineus s.s. The occurrence of R. sanguineus s.s. in Algeria is an interesting result given that most R. sanguineus in Africa cluster among the tropical lineage. This finding should prompt further investigation by exhaustive studies across Algerian territory. Such data can be useful to understand the dispersal route of R. sanguineus s.s. from Europe to North Africa, or whether their occurrence in Algeria is a result of historical biogeography.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/classificação , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/genética , Argélia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Europa (Continente)
10.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 266-282, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395789

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Maghreb Central, like all the countries of the world, was strongly mobilized (governments, ministries of health, population, civil society) in the response against COVID-19, immediately after the registration of the first cases on its territory (end of February, beginning of March) and according to pre-established control strategies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perceptions of health professionals in the Central Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) as to the Strengths/Opportunities and Weaknesses/Threats of the national response plans against COVID-19, during the first weeks of their execution, and report their proposals for optimizing the performance of control strategies. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the perceptions of health professionals in the Maghreb Central regarding their experience of the first six weeks of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected using the "Delphi" technique in one turn, based on an electronic form such as "Google Form", developed according to SWOT analysis. The respondents' verbatim was grouped into homogeneous groups of items, the occurrence of which was subsequently measured. RESULTS: A total of 382 health professionals from the Maghreb Central participated in this study, with a median age of 37 years and a median professional tenure of 10 years. The major force of the Maghreb response strategies, the most shared by the respondents, was the performance of the human resources mobilized (doctors, biologists, nurses, etc.) who succeeded in quickly learning from the international epidemiological expertise accumulated in Asia and in Europe. The fight against COVID-19 in the Central Maghreb was confronted with the general and chronic fragility of the national health systems and the low support of the general population for the recommendations of the steering committees of response, threatening the capacity of the Maghreb to confront new epidemics. CONCLUSION: The success of the national response plans against COVID-19 and of possible epidemics or pandemics in the Central Maghreb, is strongly attributed to the commitment of health professionals and to community participation, necessitating the launch of assistant motivation programs. and development of health personnel and mobilization and loyalty of civil society.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26594-26604, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372353

RESUMO

Medicinal and aromatic plants represent an outstanding source of green active ingredients for a broad range of real-world applications. In the present study, we investigated the insecticidal potential of the essential oils obtained from three medicinal and aromatic plants of economic importance in Algeria, Artemisia campestris, Pulicaria arabica, and Saccocalyx satureioides. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to study the essential oil chemical compositions. The three essential oils were tested against a mosquito vectoring filariasis and arboviruses, i.e., Culex quinquefasciatus, a fly pest acting also as pathogens vector, Musca domestica, and an agricultural moth pest, i.e., Spodoptera littoralis, using WHO and topical application methods, respectively. The essential oil from A. campestris, containing ß-pinene (15.2%), α-pinene (11.2%), myrcene (10.3%), germacrene D (9.0%) (Z)-ß-ocimene (8.1%) and γ-curcumene (6.4%), showed remarkable toxicity against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 of 45.8 mg L-1) and moderate effects (LD50 of 99.8 µg adult-1) against M. domestica. Those from P. arabica and S. satureioides, containing epi-α-cadinol (23.9%), δ-cadinene (21.1%), α-cadinol (19.8%) and germacrene D-4-ol (8.4%), and thymol (25.6%), α-terpineol (24.6%), borneol (17.4%) and p-cymene (11.4%), respectively, were more active on S. littoralis showing LD50 values of 68.9 and 61.2 µg larva-1, respectively. Based on our results, the essential oil from A. campestris may be further considered a candidate ingredient for developing botanical larvicides.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Culex , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Plantas Medicinais , Pulicaria , Argélia , Animais , Larva
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(16): 20427-20445, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240509

RESUMO

As part of the ChArMEx project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), one year of continuous filter sampling was conducted from August 2012 to August 2013 at a rural (coastal) site in Algeria aiming to better document fine aerosol seasonal variability and chemical composition in the Southern part of the Mediterranean. Over 350 filters have been collected, weighted, and analyzed for the main ions and organic and elemental carbon. The obtained mass concentrations varied between 2.5 and 50.6 µg/m3 for PM2.5. The annual modulations of PM2.5 showed higher concentrations in the end summer 2012 and the early summer 2013 (28.50 µg/m3 in August 2012, 20.23 µg/m3 in September 2012, 20.19 µg/m3 in July 2013, and 17.88 µg/m3in August 2013). The particulate organic matter (POM) presented the greatest contribution (50%), followed by the secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 27%). The average organic carbon OC concentrations ranged from 1.66 to 6.05 µgC/m3. The average elemental carbon EC concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 3.49 µgC/m3 and contributed 7% of the PM2.5 mass to Bou-Ismail. The average value of the OC /EC ratio was close to 5.1 in Bou-Ismail, and was close to that found in Finokalia 4 (Greece 2004, 2006) but was lower than that of Montseny 11 (Spain 2002-2007) Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The concentrations of water-soluble organic carbon WSOC in the PM2.5 ranging from 0.66 to 3.70 µg/m3 recorded the minimum level in March 2013, and the maximum level in August 2012, with an average of 2.02 µg/m3.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Argélia , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Grécia , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Espanha
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(19): 24145-24161, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304057

RESUMO

This study belongs to the biomonitoring program of soil qualities using a land snail, Cantareus aspersus, as bioindicator. The metal-soil contamination in some sites (National Park of El Kala (NPK), El Bouni, Sidi Amar, Nechmaya, and Guelma) located in Northeast Algeria were determined during two seasons (winter and spring 2015, 2016). Glutathione (GSH) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were significantly decreased in snails collected during spring as compared with those noticed during winter under bioclimate change. In addition, a significant difference between various sites was observed, depending on the proximity to pollution sources. The significant variation of biomarker levels is a function of the physic-chemical properties of soils when they positively correlated with EC, H, and OM, and negatively correlated with all metallic elements. Moreover, Fe and Al2O3 are the most abundant in all the sites, and the most polluted site was found as that of El Bouni, followed by Sidi Amar, Nechmaya, and Guelma, since NPK is the less polluted site and considered a reference site. The tested biomarkers are sensitive oxidative parameters in snails exposed to pollution correlated significantly with the soil physic-chemical properties and metallic element contents in soil. Indeed, C. aspersus could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Argélia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Monitoramento Ambiental , Física , Estações do Ano
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 792-798, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335690

RESUMO

In this study, the photodegradation of organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides in the honey medium was evaluated under sunlight irradiation. Some of the 22 samples collected at different sites contained OPs pesticides (Methyl parathion, Coumaphos and Fenitrothion) with an average of 8 ng/g. Moreover, three samples were found with pesticide residue levels exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL ≥ 50 ng/g) imposed by the standard water (WHO). Gas chromatography (GC) combined with a tritium electron capture detector system was used for the analysis of OPs pesticides in honey. Total degradation of the Methyl parathion was obtained in less than 60 min of irradiation. Moreover, the elimination of the other OPs found in the samples was also effective with a rate of 85% for Coumaphos and Fenitrothion after 50 min of sunlight irradiation. The kinetics of the photodegradation reaction of all OPs pesticides studied followed a pseudo-first order model.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Mel/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Luz Solar , Argélia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Mel/efeitos da radiação , Mel/normas , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fotólise
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25173-25185, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347479

RESUMO

This is the first study on the dinoflagellate cysts in Algerian waters and in Mellah Lagoon (South Western Mediterranean), located within a protected reserve. In total, 42 species of dinocysts belonging to 7 orders, 12 families and 23 genera, were identified in the 26 superficial sediment samples from Mellah Lagoon. The distribution of dinocysts in the sediment of this lagoon is heterogeneous. Indeed, their abundance oscillates between 1 and 315 cysts g-1 dry sediment (DS). Cyst morphotype assemblages were dominated by a few numbers of species: Alexandrium minutum (15.87%), Gonyaulax verior (9.81%), Protoperidinium spp. (7.74%), Alexandrium affine (7.05%), Scrippsiella trochoidea (6.67%), and Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (6.19%). There is a positive correlation between the density of cysts and the depth (r = 0.61; p < 0.05), organic matter (r = 0.70; p < 0.05), water content (r = 0.71; p < 0.05), and the fine fraction of sediment (r = 0.74; p < 0.05). Surprisingly, although the Mellah Lagoon is almost semi-closed, it holds an important specific richness in dinocysts (42 species) higher than others observed in Mediterranean lagoons. However, cyst abundances are low compared to other lagoons in the Mediterranean Sea. Finally, the presence of dinocysts of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense, A. minutum, and Gymnodinium catenatum associated to paralytic shellfish toxins, A. pseudogonyaulax which produces goniodomin A, also Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax spinifera complex which produce yessotoxins, needs to implement a monitoring program to prevent a potential human intoxication due to the consumption of contaminated sea products by these potent neurotoxins.


Assuntos
Cistos , Dinoflagelados , Argélia , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo
16.
Toxicon ; 180: 79-88, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289356

RESUMO

Physiological plasticity gives HABs species the ability to respond to variations in the surrounding environment. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and physiological variability in Alexandrium pacificum R.W. Litaker (Group IV) (former Alexandrium catenella) blooming in Annaba bay, Algeria. Monoclonal cultures of up to 30 strains of this neurotoxic dinoflagellate were established by the germination of single resting cysts from the surface sediment of this southern Mediterranean marine ecosystem. Ribotyping confirmed formally for the first time that A. pacificum is developing in Eastern Algerian waters. Toxin analyses of A. pacificum strains revealed substantial intraspecific variability in both the profile and toxin amount. However, the toxin profile of most strains is characterized by the dominance of GTX6 (up to 96 mol %) which is the less toxic paralytic molecule. The toxin concentrations in the isolated strains varied widely between 3.8 and 30.82 fmol cell-1. We observed an important variation in the growth rate of the studied A. pacificum strains with values ranging from 0.05 to 0.33 d-1. The lag time of the studied strains varied widely and ranged from 4 to 20 days. The intraspecific diversity could be a response to the selection pressure which may be exerted by different environmental conditions over time and which can be genetically and in turn physiologically expressed. This study highlights, for the first time, that the sediment of a limited area holds an important diversity of A. pacificum cysts which give when germinate populations with noticeable physiological plasticity. Consequently, this diversified natural populations allow an exceptional adaptation to specific environmental conditions to outcompete local microalgae and to establish HABs which could explain why this dinoflagellate is successful and expanding worldwide.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Argélia , Baías , Ecossistema , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Toxinas Biológicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
17.
Zootaxa ; 4743(1): zootaxa.4743.1.3, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230350

RESUMO

An inventory of Lepidoptera in the Theniet El Had National Park (PNTEH), Algeria, revealed 86 taxa, both butterflies and moths. The specimens were collected in 68 localities distributed over ten cantons within the park in the period 2015-2017. A preliminary faunistic list is compiled as a base-line contribution to the study of adult Lepidoptera in this park. In total, 3139 specimens were collected. The moths are clearly well diversified, with 14 families and 49 species obtained from a total of 1485 adult specimens. The butterflies are represented by 5 families with 37 species and 1654 specimens. A total of 8 families are reported for the first time from this park, in order of abundance: Zygaenidae, Hesperiidae, Crambidae, Alucitidae, Heterogynidae, Sesiidae, Oecophoridae, and Cossidae. Also 61 species are recorded here for the first time for the park. The most diverse family is Nymphalidae with 15 taxa (23% of the total species). On the other hand, the Erebidae are represented by 894 specimens (28.5% of the total number of specimens. Within the Erebidae, the genus Catocala contains the highest number of individuals (794 specimens). The canton of Pré-Ben Chouhra is quantitatively the best represented with 625 specimens (19.9% of the total number of specimens collected) and the Nursery canton as the richest in lepidopteran species with 72 species observed. The diversity indices (H' and Hmax.) and the equitability index (E), calculated for the 10 cantons indicate that lepidopteran species are diverse in each station.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Argélia , Animais , Parques Recreativos
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 278: 109035, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014829

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is a foodborne trematodosis characterised by a worldwide distribution. Various approaches have been developed for the study of the causative agents of this parasitic infection: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and the aspermic intermediated forms (hybrid and introgressed). In the present study, novel and common molecular markers (pepck and pold, ITS, CO1, ND1 and CO1-trnT-rrnL) were used to characterise Fasciola flukes from the Tunisian-Algerian border, to estimate the gene flow between these populations and to evaluate the reliability of different molecular markers. All nuclear and mitochondrial markers, apart from pepck, supported the monophyly of the studied flukes identified as F. hepatica. Multiplex PCR for pepck revealed three different genotypes corresponding to F. hepatica (pepck-Fh), F. gigantica (pepck-Fg) and the aspermic Fasciola flukes (pepck-Fh/Fg). Sequence analysis of pepck revealed high polymorphism, length variation, within this intronic marker. The observed inconsistencies were due to the position of the forward primer within the intronic region. Pepck sequences showed different level of heterozygosity and homozygosity with length polymorphisms in the introns. Pepck multiplex PCR patterns could not differentiate between Fasciola species. All studies based on only pepck multiplex PCR with mitochondrial markers should be revised. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed an important gene flow between Tunisian and Algerian populations of F. hepatica. The combination of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence analysis is still the best method to distinguish these taxa. Effective measures are needed in order to better control cross-country illegal trade of vector.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Marcadores Genéticos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Argélia , Animais , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Genótipo , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tunísia
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 15815-15823, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088819

RESUMO

This paper investigates the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and output growth among African OPEC countries (Libya, Nigeria, Angola, Algeria, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon) using the panel autoregressive distributed lag model (PARDL) estimated by means of mean group (MG) and pooled mean group (PMG) for the period 1970-2016. The paper estimated three panel models comprising the components of greenhouse gasses which includes nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane and examined their relationship with economic growth and energy consumption. The findings of the study showed evidence of a positive impact of economic growth on both CO2 and methane emissions in the long run. Its impact on nitrous oxide emissions although positive was found to be statistically insignificant. Energy consumption was also found to produce an insignificant positive impact on CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in the long run. In the short run, economic growth exerts a significant positive effect on methane emissions; however, its effect on CO2 and nitrous oxide emissions although positive was found to be statistically insignificant. Energy consumption produces an insignificant impact on all components of greenhouse gasses in the short run. In addition, our empirical results showed the presence of a non-linear relationship between methane emissions and economic growth, confirming the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) only in the case of methane emissions model.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Argélia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Líbia , Nigéria
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008024, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069279

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by various Leishmania spp., which are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. Algeria is one of the most affected countries, with thousands of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases registered every year. From March to November of 2016 and 2017, sand flies were collected in 12 municipalities in Setif province, North-Eastern Algeria. Sand flies were identified and females were tested by PCR for detecting Leishmania DNA. Additionally, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases notified during the study period were analysed. Out of 1804 sand flies collected, 1737 were identified as belonging to seven species, with Phlebotomus perniciosus (76.2%), Ph. papatasi (16.7%) and Ph. sergenti (5.0%) being the most common species, representing together 97.9% of the collected specimens. The remaining specimens were identified as Sergentomyia minuta, Se. fallax, Ph. longicuspis and Ph. perfiliewi. The number of sand flies collected monthly was positively correlated with temperature. Out of 804 females tested, nine Ph. perniciosus (1.1%) scored positive for Leishmania infantum (n = 5), L. major (n = 3) and L. tropica (n = 1), respectively. During the study period, 34 cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were notified in Setif, of which 58.8% were patients residing in two urban and peri-urban municipalities and 41.2% in rural areas. The finding of Ph. perniciosus as the most abundant species in Setif suggests that this sand fly may be adapted to different biotopes in the North-East region of Algeria. The detection of different Leishmania spp. in Ph. perniciosus suggests a complex epidemiological picture of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Setif, with the involvement of different etiological agents and possibly with different reservoir hosts and vectors.


Assuntos
Leishmania/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Umidade , Leishmania/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Phlebotomus/classificação , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
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