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1.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 9769267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565842

RESUMO

Since the epidemic of COVID-19 was declared in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, and other parts of the world, several studies have been carried out over several regions to observe the development of the epidemic, to predict its duration, and to estimate its final size, using complex models such as the SEIR model or the simpler ones such as the SIR model. These studies showed that the SIR model is much more efficient than the SEIR model; therefore, we are applying this model in the Kingdom of Morocco since the appearance of the first case on 2 March 2020, with the objective of predicting the final size of the epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Pandemias
3.
Waste Manag ; 113: 12-19, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502765

RESUMO

The Fusarium wilt of date palm caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis (Foa) is the most damaging disease in Morocco. It has destroyed more than 12 million trees in the country. Until now, there is no efficient approach to manage this disease. However, biocontrol of soil-borne phytopathogens with compost is currently an established horticultural approach. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of compost extracts in the biocontrol of Foa and their mechanism of action and to investigate parameters involved in compost maturity. Maturity (phytotoxicity test), sanitary quality (pathogen indicators) and in vitro suppressive effect of four composts were investigated. Date palm by-products compost produced with forced aeration composting system is not phytotoxic presenting a germination index of 83.78%. In contrast, two commercial composts were phytotoxic. The maturity was negatively correlated with salinity, C/N ratio and total soluble phenols. Concentrations of pathogen indicators were below suggested limits in all composts. The biocontrol test showed that the date palm wastes compost was more effective; from the sixth day of incubation, the unsterilized extract of this compost at 10% showed the highest antagonistic effect against the pathogen with an inhibition rate of 100%. The inhibition rate using microfiltrated extract didn't exceed 30%. All autoclaved extracts lost their antagonistic effect against the indicator fungus. Thus, the suppressive effect is mainly due to the indigenous microorganisms. Findings indicate the relevance of maturity in the evaluation of compost quality and the efficiency of date palm wastes compost in the suppression of Foa.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Fusarium , Phoeniceae , Marrocos , Solo
4.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 266-282, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395789

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Maghreb Central, like all the countries of the world, was strongly mobilized (governments, ministries of health, population, civil society) in the response against COVID-19, immediately after the registration of the first cases on its territory (end of February, beginning of March) and according to pre-established control strategies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perceptions of health professionals in the Central Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) as to the Strengths/Opportunities and Weaknesses/Threats of the national response plans against COVID-19, during the first weeks of their execution, and report their proposals for optimizing the performance of control strategies. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the perceptions of health professionals in the Maghreb Central regarding their experience of the first six weeks of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected using the "Delphi" technique in one turn, based on an electronic form such as "Google Form", developed according to SWOT analysis. The respondents' verbatim was grouped into homogeneous groups of items, the occurrence of which was subsequently measured. RESULTS: A total of 382 health professionals from the Maghreb Central participated in this study, with a median age of 37 years and a median professional tenure of 10 years. The major force of the Maghreb response strategies, the most shared by the respondents, was the performance of the human resources mobilized (doctors, biologists, nurses, etc.) who succeeded in quickly learning from the international epidemiological expertise accumulated in Asia and in Europe. The fight against COVID-19 in the Central Maghreb was confronted with the general and chronic fragility of the national health systems and the low support of the general population for the recommendations of the steering committees of response, threatening the capacity of the Maghreb to confront new epidemics. CONCLUSION: The success of the national response plans against COVID-19 and of possible epidemics or pandemics in the Central Maghreb, is strongly attributed to the commitment of health professionals and to community participation, necessitating the launch of assistant motivation programs. and development of health personnel and mobilization and loyalty of civil society.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139541, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445829

RESUMO

Covid-19 was first reported in Morocco on March 2, 2020. Since then, to prevent its propagation, the Moroccan government declared a state of health emergency. A set of rapid and strict countermeasures have taken, including locking down cities, limiting population's mobility and prohibiting almost all avoidable activities. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the changes in levels of some air pollutants (mainly PM10, NO2 and SO2) in Salé city (North-Western Morocco) during the lockdown measures. In this context, a continuous measurement of PM10, SO2 and NO2 was carried before and during the Covid-19 lockdown period. As a consequence of the security measures and control actions undertaken, the emissions from vehicle exhaust and industrial production were significantly reduced, which contribute to the decrease in the concentrations of the studied pollutants. The obtained results showed that the difference between the concentrations recorded before and during the lockdown period were respectively 75%, 49% and 96% for PM10, SO2 and NO2. PM10 levels were much less reduced than NO2. The three-dimensional air mass backward trajectories, using the HYSPLIT model, demonstrated the benefits of PM10 local emission reductions related to the lockdown were overwhelmed by the contribution of long-range transported aerosols outside areas. In addition, noteworthy differences in the air mass back trajectories and the meteorology between these two periods were evidenced.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Humanos , Marrocos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 265, 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248297

RESUMO

The object of our study is devoted to the Spermatophyta of the wetlands of Oued Lârbaa, the main river of the city of Taza, Morocco, and which is under strong anthropic pressure. Our work involved a floristic inventory, to define ecological types and groups of dominant plants in relation to seasonal factors and types of pollution, explaining the meaning of their presence. For this purpose, floristic sampling was carried out along the Oued during the dry periods (2017 and 2018) and the wet period (2018). A total of 66 plant species belonging to 54 genera and 30 families were identified, including 44 species during the wet period (2018) and 27 species during the dry periods (2017 and 2018). This difference is due to the favorable conditions for vegetation development during the period of precipitation and to the increase in pollution rates during the dry season. The inventoried flora shows the dominance of 10 ecological types characterized by the following plants: Cynodon dactylon, Arundo donax, Olea europaea, and Tamarix gallica (common between the two periods); Dittrichia viscosa, Visnaga daucoides, Typha angustifolia, and Ricinus communis (during the dry periods of 2017 and 2018); and Juncus maritimus and Populus nigra (during the wet period of 2018). The ecological types identified in this work decrease from the dry season to the rainy season, while specific richness increases. These dominant plants are all considered as bioindicators of the presence of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Sentinelas , Cidades , Marrocos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226040

RESUMO

Evidence for specialised bone tools has recently been reported for the Middle Stone Age of North Africa [one], which complements similar finds of slightly younger age in South Africa [two, three]. However, until now scant reference has been made to lesser known tools also made of bone ('bone retouchers') that were employed specifically as intermediaries for working or refining stone artefacts, that are sometimes present in these assemblages. In this paper we describe 20 bone retouchers from the cave of Grotte des Pigeons at Taforalt in north-east Morocco. This is the largest stratified assemblage of bone retouchers from a North African MSA site, and the biggest single collection so far from the African Continent. A total of 18 bone retouchers was recovered in securely dated archaeological levels spanning a period from ~ 84.5 ka to 24 ka cal BP. A further two bone retouchers were found in a layer at the base of the deposits in association with Aterian artefacts dating to around 85,000 BP and so far represent the earliest evidence of this type of tool at Taforalt. In this paper we present a first, detailed description of the finds and trace the stages of their production, use and discard (chaîne opératoire). At the same time, we assess if there were diachronic changes in their form and function and, finally, explore their presence in relation to stone tools from the same occupation layers of the cave.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , Tecnologia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Marrocos
10.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 47, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choreoacanthocytosis (ChAc), is a rare neurodegenerative disease, characterized by movement disorders and acanthocytosis in the peripheral blood smears, and various neurological, neuropsychiatric and neuromuscular signs. It is caused by mutations in VPS13A gene with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report two patients belonging to a consanguineous Moroccan family who present with movement disorder pathology. They were suspected to have choreoacanthocytosis according to biological, clinical and radiological finding. Thus, whole-exome sequencing was performed for precise diagnosis and identified a homozygous novel nonsense mutation c.337C > T (p.Gln113*) in exon 5 of VPS13A in the two affected siblings. CONCLUSION: Here, we report a novel nonsense p.Gln113* mutation in VPS13A identified by whole-exome sequencing, which caused ChAc in a Moroccan family. This is the first description of ChAc in Morocco with genetic confirmation, that expands the mutation diversity of VPS13A and provide clinical, neuroimaging and deep brain stimulation findings.


Assuntos
Neuroacantocitose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adulto , Códon sem Sentido , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Marrocos , Neuroacantocitose/patologia , Linhagem , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/genética , Irmãos , Espasmo/complicações , Espasmo/genética
11.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 109907, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148249

RESUMO

The Mediterranean aquaculture has been developed mostly in brackish environment in inactive coastal salt production areas. This study aims to utilise Technosols made with aquaculture sediments for Limonium algarvense Erben cultivation. This species that has nutraceutical potential thrives in halophilic environments in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco. A microcosm assay was set up with plants grown in bottom sediments (C+), commercial substrate (C-), and Technosols with amendments mixture application at 180 g/kg (Tec180) or at 360 g/kg (Tec360). These plants were irrigated with saline (assay 1) and/or with deionised water (assay 2). The bottom pond sediments, coffee wastes and the estuarine water were evaluated for diverse physicochemical parameters. Plant growth was characterised through a combined methodology using morphometric, SEM and physiological analysis. The Technosols were constructed with bottom sediments and a mixture of organic wastes used as amendments. Results revealed that the bottom sediments had low pH 3.2, Corg and extractable P and K contents, and high electroconductivity (EC) and N-NH4 concentration. The estuarine water had a neutral pH, high EC and high Cl-, HCO3-, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ but low N-NO3- content. The Technosols showed a significant increase of pH, Corg, K and P and a decrease in N-NH4 and EC in comparison with sediments. Principal component analysis separated the different experiments in three groups: C-, A1 and A2 assays. The C- was highly correlated with Corg, P, K, N-NO3 parameters and total ascorbate. The A1 assay showed a strong association with Na, Ca and EC parameters, whereas the A2 assay presented a strongly correlation with plant growth. Plants from Technosols had greater development when irrigated with deionised water than under salty irrigation as opposed to plants cultivated in unamend sediments. In conclusion, these results support that highly saline sediments could be valorised through Technosols construction to cultivate plants with saline water, with potential application in the agro-food and pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Tanques , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Aquicultura , Sedimentos Geológicos , Marrocos , Águas Salinas
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008139, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in the Mediterranean basin. However, large-scale comparative analyses of the commercial kits for the serological diagnosis of this neglected disease are lacking. This study compared the performances of four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and two immunochromatographic tests (ICT) as screening tests for the serodiagnosis of human VL in the Mediterranean region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum samples from 319 patients living in France, Tunisia or Morocco were tested using two ICT (IT LEISH and TruQuick LEISH IgG/IgM Meridian) and four ELISA reagents (NovaLisa Leishmania infantum IgG, Bordier Leishmania infantum, Ridascreen Leishmania IgG, and Vircell Leishmania). The population with proven VL (n = 181) included 65 immunocompromised patients. Significantly higher percentages of false-negative results were obtained with all assays in immunocompromised patients, compared with the immunocompetent population. In the whole population, sensitivity and specificity ranged from 80.7% to 93.9% and from 95.7% to 100%, respectively. The maximum accuracy was observed with the Bordier and Vircell ELISA kits (96.2%), and the lowest accuracy with Ridascreen reagent (88.7%). New thresholds of positivity are proposed for the Bordier, Vircell and NovaLisa ELISA kits to achieve 95% sensitivity with the highest possible specificity. Western blot (WB), used as a confirmation method, showed 100% sensitivity and identified 10.1% of asymptomatic carriers among the control population from the South of France. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that compared commercially available kits for VL serodiagnosis in the endemic region of the Mediterranean basin. It provides specific information about the tests' performance to help clinicians and biologists to select the right assay for VL screening.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114194, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113106

RESUMO

As in the rest of the world, plastics are the most dominant marine litter category in Moroccan Atlantic waters. This work aims to identify the presence of microplastics in the stomach contents of three small pelagic species of the Central zone of the Atlantic, located between Cape Cantin (33°N) and Cape Boujdor (26°N): Scomber spp., Truchurus truchurus and Sardina pilchardus; Also, to map the spatial distribution of the investigated species. A total of 251 individuals were examined, composed by 118 Scomber spp, 82 Sardina pilchardus and 51 Trachurus trachurus. The characterization of microplastics ingested by those species was identified by FTIR. The results showed the presence of three polymers: Polyamide (PA), Acrylic (PC) and Polystyrene (PS), in 26% of the individuals studied. The presence of polymers was accumulated in Atlantic horse mackerel (Truchurus truchurus) with 30%, then in mackerels (Scomber spp.) with 27%, and European pilchardus (Sardina pilchardus) (9%). Fish containing microplastics in their stomachs are concentrated, mainly in the northern part of the study area. This zone has significant artisanal fishing activity and large rivers that can be source of microplastics.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Perciformes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Microplásticos/análise , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Marrocos , Perciformes/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 63, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EQ-5D is generic measure of health-related quality of life. Studies using EQ-5D generate ordinal data that are interpreted as categories ordered by severity. New analytic approaches taking into account the ordinal nature of the health dimension severity and leading to a better interpretation of EQ-5D data are needed to better elucidate differences in health-related quality of life. We propose utilizing the Improved RIDIT statistical method to analyze EQ-5D outcomes. METHODS: 556 Moroccan participants aged over 18 years representing four chronic diseases: back pain (n = 158), renal insufficiency (n = 56), diabetes (n = 82) or hypertension (n = 80) and healthy subjects (n = 180). All participants received the two EQ-5D versions. Two other published data sets were included. The first was extracted from a diabetic Spain study and the second was extracted from a clinical trial study. The Improved RIDIT analyses were carried out using an R statistic program we developed. RESULTS: Applying the Improved RIDIT on the EQ-5D data allowed estimating for the first time the ordinal odds, the Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) or the Absolute Risk Increase (ARI) and the Number Needed to Treat. The ARI values estimated for Moroccan patients showed that (i) hypertension increased anxiety/depression by 66% and reduced mobility by 65%; (ii) back pain increased pain/discomfort by 69%; (iii) renal insufficiency impacts mobility (ARI = 57%, oddsordinal = 9.95) and usual activities (ARI = 44%, oddsordinal = 6.41) and (iv) diabetes acts only on anxiety/depression (ARI = 50%, oddsordinal = 4.8). Also, we demonstrated that the approach works well in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Improved RIDIT provides more intuitive and informative interpretation of the EQ-5D data by (1) taking into account the level severity; estimating (2) the odds ordinal, (3) the ARR/ARI and the NNT; (4) analyzing the five dimensions of the EQ-5D separately, which gives clinical teams more precision in understanding the treatment/pathology impacts on the health status and completes the EQ-5D data analysis based on score utilities.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Espanha
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 344, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection, identification, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B through screening is vital for those at increased risk, e.g. born in hepatitis B endemic countries. In the Netherlands, Moroccan immigrants show low participation rates in health-related screening programmes. Since social networks influence health behaviour, we investigated whether similar screening intentions for chronic hepatitis B cluster within social networks of Moroccan immigrants. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) where each participant ("recruiter") was asked to complete a questionnaire and to recruit three Moroccans ("recruitees") from their social network. Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse whether the recruiters' intention to request a screening test was similar to the intention of their recruitees. RESULTS: We sampled 354 recruiter-recruitee pairs: for 154 pairs both participants had a positive screening intention, for 68 pairs both had a negative screening intention, and the remaining 132 pairs had a discordant intention to request a screening test. A tie between a recruiter and recruitee was associated with having the same screening intention, after correction for sociodemographic variables (OR 1.70 [1.15-2.51]). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our pilot study show clustering of screening intention among individuals in the same network. This provides opportunities for social network interventions to encourage participation in hepatitis B screening initiatives.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Rede Social , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/etnologia , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092070

RESUMO

Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens causing various infections, including disseminated infections in severely immunocompromised patients. Preventive measures aiming to reduce the risk of exposure to these fungi require a better knowledge on their ecology and on the sources of contamination of the patients. In this context, 99 soil samples from the Rabat-Sale-Kenitra and Fez-Meknes regions in Morocco were analyzed. Samples were inoculated on the highly selective Scedo-Select III culture medium, and seven chemical parameters of the soils were measured. Scedosporium species were detected in 48 of the samples, with the highest density in soils from wastewater treatment plants and landfills, followed by those from roadsides and polluted riverbanks, thus confirming the impact of human activities on their ecology. Scedosporium apiospermum was the most common species, followed by S. boydii and S. aurantiacum. Analysis of the chemical parameters of the soils revealed the presence of Scedosporium species was mainly associated with a moderate electrical conductivity, a pH range of 7.0 to 7.6, a nutrient-rich content and a moderate phosphorus amount. Thereby, these results demonstrated the relatively high occurrence of Scedosporium in Morocco and highlighted the impact of phosphorus content on their ecology.


Assuntos
Scedosporium/genética , Scedosporium/isolamento & purificação , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Marrocos , Scedosporium/patogenicidade , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
BMC Dermatol ; 20(1): 1, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infection of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues that can be caused by filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma). It is the prerogative of young men between the third and fourth decade and is transmitted through any trauma causing an inoculating point. The classic clinical triad associates a painless hard and swelling subcutaneous mass, multiple fistulas, and the pathognomonic discharge of grains. Although endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries, mycetoma can also be found in non-endemic areas as in Morocco, and causes then diagnosis problems leading to long lasting complications. Therefore, we should raise awareness of this neglected disease for an earlier management. Under medical treatment however, mycetoma has a slow healing and surgery is often needed, and relapses are possible. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein we report a case of a 64 years old patient, with a history of eumycetoma occurring ten years ago treated with oral terbinafine coupled with surgery. A complete remission was seen after 2 years. He presented a relapse on the previous scar 6 months ago. There wasn't any bone involvement in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was put under oral terbinafine with a slow but positive outcome. CONCLUSION: Through this case report, we perform a literature review and highlight the importance of increase awareness of mycetoma in clinical practice especially in non-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Madurella/isolamento & purificação , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Pé/microbiologia , Pé/patologia , Doenças do Pé/microbiologia , Doenças do Pé/patologia , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Micetoma/microbiologia , Micetoma/patologia , Micetoma/terapia , Doenças Negligenciadas , Medicina Tropical
19.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 752-760, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910116

RESUMO

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Erikss., is globally the most widespread rust of wheat. Populations of P. triticina are highly diverse for virulence, with many different races found annually. The genetic diversity of P. triticina populations has been previously assessed using different types of DNA markers. Genotyping technologies that provide a higher density of markers distributed across the genome will be more powerful for analysis of genetic and phylogenetic relationships in P. triticina populations. In this study, we utilized restriction-associated DNA (RAD) genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) adapted for the Ion Torrent sequencing platform for the study of population diversity in P. triticina. A collection of 102 isolates, collected mainly from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, was used. The virulence phenotypes of the isolates were determined on 20 lines of Thatcher wheat near isogenic for leaf rust resistance genes. Seven races were found among 57 isolates collected from tetraploid wheat, and 21 races were observed among 40 hexaploid wheat type isolates. This is the first study to report durum wheat virulent races to Lr3bg in Tunisia, Lr14a in Morocco, and Lr3bg and Lr28 in Mexico. Ethiopian isolates with high virulence to durum wheat but avirulent on Thatcher (hexaploid wheat) were tested for virulence on a set of durum (tetraploid) differentials. A subset of 30 isolates representing most of the virulence phenotypes in the 102 isolates were genotyped using RAD-GBS. Phylogenetic analysis of 30 isolates using 2,125 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers showed nine distinct clusters. There was a general correlation between virulence phenotypes and SNP genotypes. The high bootstrap values between clusters of isolates in the phylogenetic tree indicated that RAD-GBS can be used as a new genotyping tool that is fast, simple, high throughput, cost effective, and provides a sufficient number of markers for the study of genetic diversity in P. triticina.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Genótipo , México , Marrocos , Filogenia
20.
J Educ Eval Health Prof ; 17: 4, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the educational environment of resident in Morocco and to compare the residents' perception depending on their specialties. METHODS: We applied the French version of the postgraduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM) to measure the educational environment in 6 hospitals in Rabat from January to June 2017. Internal reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Principal component analysis was conducted to assess the construct validity of the three subscales of the PHEEM questionnaire. Variance analysis (ANOVA test) was performed to compare means of PHEEM overall, subscale, and each item score among 6 specialties. RESULTS: The response of 255 resident was included. The 40 items PHEEM questionnaire showed reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Principal component analysis on all 40 items suggested three factors explaining 48% of the variance with better results for the teaching subscale. Moroccan resident perceived their educational environment as more positive than negative. There was a significant difference in the overall and subscales score among the 6 specialties. CONCLUSION: French version of the PHEEM score is a valid and reliable instrument in Morocco. Moroccan resident perceived their educational environment as more positive than negative but room for improvement of many challenges particularly the poor infrastructure, the suboptimal quality of supervision, and teaching and inadequate work regulation remained.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Hospitais Universitários , Internato e Residência/normas , Aprendizagem , Adulto , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Marrocos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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