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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111431, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736205

RESUMO

Since 2011, huge amounts of Sargassum algae are detected in the equatorial Atlantic, causing large strandings events on the coasts of the West Indies, Brazil and West Africa. The distribution of this stock shows strong annual and interannual variability, whose drivers are not settled yet. Here we use satellite Sargassum observations from MODIS and currents from an ocean reanalysis to simulate the passive transport of algae in 2017. Wind effect was necessary to fit the observed distribution. Simulations reasonably reproduce the satellite monthly distribution for up to seven months, confirming the prominent role of transport in the distribution cycle. Annual cycle appears as a zonal exchange between eastern (EAR) and western accumulation regions (WAR). EAR is well explained by advection alone, with sharp meridional distribution controlled by converging currents below the inter-tropical Convergence Zone. Instead, WAR is not explained by advection alone, suggesting local growth.


Assuntos
Sargassum , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Índias Ocidentais , Vento
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111387, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827871

RESUMO

Coral reef ecosystems are declining due to multiple interacting stressors. A bioassessment framework focused on stressor-response associations was developed to help organize and communicate complex ecological information to support coral reef conservation. This study applied the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG), initially developed for freshwater ecosystems, to fish assemblages of U.S. Caribbean coral reef ecosystems. The reef fish BCG describes how biological conditions changed incrementally along a gradient of increasing anthropogenic stress. Coupled with physical and chemical water quality data, the BGC forms a scientifically defensible basis to prioritize, protect and restore water bodies containing coral reefs. Through an iterative process, scientists from across the U.S. Caribbean used fishery-independent survey data and expert knowledge to develop quantitative decision rules to describe six levels of coral reef ecosystem condition. The resultant reef fish BCG provides an effective tool for identifying healthy and degraded coral reef ecosystems and has potential for global application.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Região do Caribe , Ecossistema , Peixes , Índias Ocidentais
3.
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1130-1137, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous obesity prevention studies in preschool-age children have included non-Hispanic Black (NHB) children, but few have investigated between-subgroup differences even though there may be cultural risk and protective practice differences, challenging the generalizability of findings. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in early childhood obesity-related factors in NHB subgroups (Haitian, other Caribbean Islander and African-American [AA]) children. METHODS: Baseline data from two randomized controlled trials in 52 childcare centers of which 35 had data to test a preschool-based obesity prevention intervention was analyzed. The sub-sample included 370 caregiver-child dyads; 209 self-identified as AA, 120 as Haitian and 41 as Caribbean Islander/West Indian or mixed race. Multilevel regression models generated outcome estimates for group differences in body mass index (BMI) percentile, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation and duration, bottle feeding duration and age when solid foods were introduced. RESULTS: Mean BMI percentile was similar for AA, Haitian and Caribbean Islander/West Indian/Multiracial (60.1th percentile, 60.8th percentile, 62.8th percentile, respectively) as was birthweight (6.3, 6.8, and 6.6 lb, respectively). Children of US-born caregivers had significantly lower BMI percentiles (9.13 percentile points) versus foreign-born caregivers. Haitian women were significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding (64.9%) versus AA (47.6%) and Caribbean Islander/West Indian/Multiracial (62.2%) (p < .01). No significant group differences were found in breastfeeding or bottle feeding duration or age solid foods were introduced. CONCLUSIONS: Findings here suggest that NHB race classification can identify important subgroup behavioral similarities which in turn may inform culturally sensitive strategies to promote early childhood healthy weight. Foreign-born caregivers may benefit from healthy weight promotion information, and as early as possible in their child's development.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Ganho de Peso/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3668, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699271

RESUMO

Restoration is becoming a vital tool to counteract coastal ecosystem degradation. Modifying transplant designs of habitat-forming organisms from dispersed to clumped can amplify coastal restoration yields as it generates self-facilitation from emergent traits, i.e. traits not expressed by individuals or small clones, but that emerge in clumped individuals or large clones. Here, we advance restoration science by mimicking key emergent traits that locally suppress physical stress using biodegradable establishment structures. Experiments across (sub)tropical and temperate seagrass and salt marsh systems demonstrate greatly enhanced yields when individuals are transplanted within structures mimicking emergent traits that suppress waves or sediment mobility. Specifically, belowground mimics of dense root mats most facilitate seagrasses via sediment stabilization, while mimics of aboveground plant structures most facilitate marsh grasses by reducing stem movement. Mimicking key emergent traits may allow upscaling of restoration in many ecosystems that depend on self-facilitation for persistence, by constraining biological material requirements and implementation costs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Hydrocharitaceae/fisiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Zosteraceae/fisiologia , Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Biomimética/métodos , Ecologia/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/instrumentação , Florida , Países Baixos , Água do Mar , Suécia , Clima Tropical , Índias Ocidentais
7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2337-2342, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500371

RESUMO

Philornis flies Meinert (Diptera: Muscidae) have been documented parasitizing over 250 bird species, some of which are endemic species threatened with extinction. Philornis parasitism is hypothesized to affect nestlings disproportionately more than adult birds because limited mobility and exposed skin of nestlings increase their vulnerability to parasitism. We used a comprehensive literature review and our recent fieldwork in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Grenada to challenge the idea that parasitism by subcutaneous Philornis species is a phenomenon primarily found in nestlings, a fact that has not been quantified to date. Of the 265 reviewed publications, 125 (49%) reported incidences of parasitism by subcutaneous Philornis, but only 12 included the sampling of adult breeding birds. Nine of these publications (75%) reported Philornis parasitism in adults of ten bird species. During fieldwork in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Grenada, we documented 14 instances of parasitism of adult birds of seven avian species. From literature review and fieldwork, adults of at least fifteen bird species across 12 families and four orders of birds were parasitized by at least five Philornis species. In both the published literature and fieldwork, incidences of parasitism of adult birds occurred predominantly in females and was frequently associated with incubation. Although our findings indicate that Philornis parasitism of adult birds is more common than widely presumed, parasite prevalence is still greater in nestlings. In the future, we recommend surveys of adult birds to better understand host-Philornis relationships across life stages. This information may be essential for the development of effective control measures of Philornis to ensure the long-term protection of bird species of conservation concern.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Muscidae/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/classificação , Feminino , Incidência , Larva/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Muscidae/classificação , Comportamento de Nidação , Prevalência , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4741(1): zootaxa.4741.1.1, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230226

RESUMO

This paper presents an updated catalog of all taxa of Leiodidae (s.lat.) reported from the Neotropical Region. Keys are presented for the identification of all subfamilies, tribes, and 62 described genera. Three undescribed genera are included in the keys. A total of 600 valid named species are listed, with type localities, type depositories, synonyms, distributions, and biologies where known, and some unnamed species as recorded in the literature. Many species remain to be described. In this work we formally establish no new synonyms and no new combinations although we may indicate the existence of these; but we add new records for described species, and we make spelling corrections of scientific names, when appropriate. A brief review of distribution patterns is given. The fauna has been derived partly from some Nearctic elements that have penetrated as far south as Bolivia. A few genera in the Neotropical element have penetrated the Nearctic Region as far north as the northern U.S.A. or southeastern Canada. Most of the Neotropical genera are autochthonous. In southern South America there is a diverse Neo-Austral fauna with clear "Transantarctic" relationships to Australia and New Zealand and weakly to southern Africa. Some genera variously occur on other continents.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , América Latina , México , América do Sul , Índias Ocidentais
9.
Zootaxa ; 4742(1): zootaxa.4742.1.1, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230388

RESUMO

Detection of previously unknown, dimorphic setal patterns on the carpus of the fifth thoracic endopod in types of Parvimysis bahamensis Brattegard, 1969, representing the type species of the genus Parvimysis Brattegard, 1969, required revision of this genus together with taxonomic verification of materials previously assigned to this species from all around the Caribbean. Study of this material together with new samples from marine waters of Curaçao led to the detection of five new species. Four of these species have a dimorphic carpus of the fifth endopod and are here described as P. pricei sp. nov., P. laminata sp. nov., P. brattegardi sp. nov., and P. ornata sp. nov. One species with non-dimorphic setal patterns is described as P. nuda sp. nov. Two species groups are defined based on structural differences of the carapace, mandibular and maxillary palpus, oostegites and telson: the P. bahamensis group with six species from marine waters of the Caribbean and an additional one from brackish-freshwaters of Surinam, versus the P. amazonica group with seven species from freshwaters of Amazonia. A key to the 14 species currently known from the genus Parvimysis is provided.


Assuntos
Moluscos , Animais , Região do Caribe , Índias Ocidentais
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282845

RESUMO

The historic use of chlordecone (C10Cl10O) as a pesticide to control banana weevil infestations has resulted in pollution of large land areas in the French West Indies. Although currently banned, chlordecone persists because it adsorbs strongly to soil and its complex bis-homocubane structure is stable, particularly under aerobic conditions. Abiotic chemical transformation catalyzed by reduced vitamin B12 has been shown to break down chlordecone by opening the cage structure to produce C9 polychloroindenes. More recently these C9 polychloroindenes were also observed as products of anaerobic microbiological transformation. To investigate the anaerobic biotransformation of chlordecone by microbes native to the French West Indies, microcosms were constructed anaerobically from chlordecone impacted Guadeloupe soil and sludge to mimic natural attenuation and eletron donor-stimulated reductive dechlorination. Original microcosms and transfers were incubated over a period of 8 years, during which they were repeatedly amended with chlordecone and electron donor (ethanol and acetone). Using LC-MS, chlordecone and degradation products were detected in all the biologically active microcosms. Observed products included monohydro-, dihydro- and trihydrochlordecone derivatives (C10Cl10-nO2Hn; n = 1,2,3), as well as "open cage" C9 polychloroindene compounds (C9Cl5-nH3+n n = 0,1,2) and C10 carboxylated polychloroindene derivatives (C10Cl4-nO2H4+n, n = 0-3). Products with as many as 9 chlorine atoms removed were detected. These products were not observed in sterile (poisoned) microcosms. Chlordecone concentrations decreased in active microcosms as concentrations of products increased, indicating that anaerobic dechlorination processes have occurred. The data enabled a crude estimation of partitioning coefficients between soil and water, showing that carboxylated intermediates sorb poorly and as a consequence may be flushed away, while polychlorinated indenes sorb strongly to soil. Microbial community analysis in microcosms revealed enrichment of anaerobic fermenting and acetogenic microbes possibly involved in anaerobic chlordecone biotransformation. It thus should be possible to stimuilate anaerobic dechlorination through donor amendment to contaminated soils, particularly as some metabolites (in particular pentachloroindene) were already detected in field samples as a result of intrinsic processes. Extensive dechlorination in the microcosms, with evidence for up to 9 Cl atoms removed from the parent molecule is game-changing, giving hope to the possibility of using bioremediation to reduce the impact of CLD contamination.


Assuntos
Clordecona/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Guadalupe , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Índias Ocidentais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In September 2017, the Hurricane Irma devastated the islands of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy (French West Indies). This was a particularly distressing time for the local healthcare staff in charge of rescuing the population. The aim of this study was to identify the explanatory factors of post-traumatic distress and burnout in hospital staff. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all 509 hospital workers of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy. Post-traumatic distress and burnout was assessed using the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-S) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) scales. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the explanatory variables for these two psychological disorders. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed (response rate of 51.7%). The explanatory factors of post-traumatic distress were female gender (OR = 12.93, 95% CI: 2.70-232.10), electricity shortages (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.13-8.19) and home damage (OR = 1.16, 95% CI [1.02-1.33]). In parallel, the explanatory factors of burnout were post-traumatic distress (OR: 10.42, 95% CI: 4.72-25.58), female gender (OR = 2,41, 95% CI: 1.24-5.02) and paramedical staff (OR = 2,53, 95% CI: 1.15-6.21). In the multivariate analysis, only burnout was significantly associated with post-traumatic distress (OR = 9.26, 95% CI: 4.11-23.14). CONCLUSIONS: Six months after Irma, post-traumatic distress among hospital staff was strongly linked to burnout. This study revealed the lack of electricity as a new factor related to post-traumatic distress. It also suggested that psychological intervention should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
12.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126151, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092563

RESUMO

The use of chlordecone (CLD), a chlorinated polycyclic pesticide used in the French West Indies banana fields between 1972 and 1993, resulted in a long-term pollution of agricultural areas. It has been observed that this persistent organic pollutant (POP) can transfer from contaminated soils to food chain. Indeed, CLD is considered almost fully absorbed after involuntary ingestion of contaminated soil by outdoor reared animals. The aim of this study was to model toxicokinetics (TKs) of CLD in growing pigs using both non-compartmental and nonlinear mixed-effects approaches (NLME). In this study, CLD dissolved in cremophor was intravenously administrated to 7 Creole growing pigs and 7 Large White growing pigs (1 mg kg-1 body weight). Blood samples were collected from time t = 0 to time t = 84 days. CLD concentrations in serum were measured by GCMS/MS. Data obtained were modeled using Monolix (2019R). Results demonstrated that a bicompartmental model best described CLD kinetics in serum. The influence of covariates (breed, initial weight and average daily gain) was simultaneously evaluated and showed that average daily gain is the main covariate explaining inter-individual TKs parameters variability. Body clearance was of 76.7 mL kg-1 d-1 and steady-state volume of distribution was of 6 L kg-1. This modeling approach constitutes the first application of NLME to study CLD TKs in farm animals and will be further used for rearing management practices in contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Clordecona/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Clordecona/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Poluentes Ambientais , Inseticidas/análise , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Musa , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos , Toxicocinética , Índias Ocidentais
13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106244

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a neglected disease causing severe infections in humans and animals. Due in part to misdiagnosis, this infectious disease results in nearly 60,000 deaths per year around the globe. This study represents the first effort to describe the diversity of pathogenic Leptospira in Cuba based on whole-genome sequencing. We have collected nineteen whole-blood samples from patients that were diagnosed as having leptospirosis between 2008 and 2012 in Cuba. In addition, we have enhanced our sample set by three historical strains that were used for the development of a human vaccine in 1990s. The Leptospira strains were grown and serotyped by the microscopic agglutination test, and the draft genomes were generated by NGS (Illumina). Subsequently, the core genomes were analyzed and compared to the genetic data available from other Caribbean islands and countries in Central America. Core genome Multi-locus Sequence Typing (cgMLST) revealed four different core genome clonal groups (cgCGs), with the highest number of samples belonging to L. interrogans, followed by L. borgpetersenii and L. kirschneri. All cgCGs that were found in Cuba have been also identified from multiple origins across the globe, except in neighbor countries and Central America. Serotyping divided the samples into the serogroups Canicola, Ballum and Pomona. The most frequent cgCGs, cgCG28, associated with serogroup Canicola, and cgCG15, associated with serogroup Ballum, have also been identified from samples isolated from dogs, rodents, and pigs; suggesting that these hosts represent the major source of human infection in Cuba. The vaccine strains did not significantly differ from the recent patient isolates. However, the increasing prevalence of samples belonging to the serogroup Ballum combined with the fact that the available vaccine in Cuba represents inactivated Leptospira belonging to serogroups other than Ballum, should be a valuable information for the National and Regional Leptospirosis Control Programs.


Assuntos
Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Animais , América Central , Cuba/epidemiologia , Cães , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Suínos , Índias Ocidentais , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1920): 20192806, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075529

RESUMO

By their past and present diversity, rodents are among the richest components of Caribbean land mammals. Many of these became extinct recently. Causes of their extirpation, their phylogenetic affinities, the timing of their arrival in the West Indies and their biogeographic history are all ongoing debated issues. Here, we report the discovery of dental remains from Lower Oligocene deposits (ca 29.5 Ma) of Puerto Rico. Their morphology attests to the presence of two distinct species of chinchilloid caviomorphs, closely related to dinomyids in a phylogenetic analysis, and thus of undisputable South American origin. These fossils represent the earliest Caribbean rodents known thus far. They could extend back to 30 Ma the lineages of some recently extinct Caribbean giant rodents (Elasmodontomys and Amblyrhiza), which are also retrieved here as chinchilloids. This new find has substantial biogeographic implications because it demonstrates an early dispersal of land mammals from South America to the West Indies, perhaps via the emergence of the Aves Ridge that occurred ca 35-33 Ma (GAARlandia hypothesis). Considering both this new palaeontological evidence and recent molecular divergence estimates, the natural colonization of the West Indies by rodents probably occurred through multiple and time-staggered dispersal events (chinchilloids, then echimyid octodontoids (spiny rats/hutias), caviids and lastly oryzomyin muroids (rice rats)).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Roedores , Animais , Fósseis , Paleontologia , Índias Ocidentais
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1587-1595, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907312

RESUMO

Many large-bodied marine fishes that form spawning aggregations, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have suffered regional overfishing due to exploitation during spawning. In response, marine resource managers in many locations have established marine protected areas or seasonal closures to recover these overfished stocks. The challenge in assessing management effectiveness lies largely in the development of accurate estimates to track stock size through time. For the past 15 y, the Cayman Islands government has taken a series of management actions aimed at recovering collapsed stocks of Nassau grouper. Importantly, the government also partnered with academic and nonprofit organizations to establish a research and monitoring program (Grouper Moon) aimed at documenting the impacts of conservation action. Here, we develop an integrated population model of 2 Cayman Nassau grouper stocks based on both diver-collected mark-resight observations and video censuses. Using both data types across multiple years, we fit parameters for a state-space model for population growth. We show that over the last 15 y the Nassau grouper population on Little Cayman has more than tripled in response to conservation efforts. Census data from Cayman Brac, while more sparse, show a similar pattern. These findings demonstrate that spatial and seasonal closures aimed at rebuilding aggregation-based fisheries can foster conservation success.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pesqueiros , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Oceanos e Mares , Densidade Demográfica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índias Ocidentais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2243-2244, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969450
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 28-39, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyse the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported human angiostrongyliasis in Europe. METHODS: A systematic literature review of cases of human angiostrongyliasis in Europe was performed. Seven databases were searched. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics were extracted from included records and simple summary statistics were performed on extracted data. RESULTS: Twenty-two cases reported between 1988 and 2019 were identified. They were mainly from French Polynesia, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean Islands. The dominant suspected mode of transmission was ingestion of prawns, shrimp, or salad. For patients with data, 90% had a history of headache, often lasting, and half had paresthesia. Eighty-nine percent had eosinophilia, 93% had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia, and 92% had elevated CSF protein. Central nervous system (CNS) imaging was normal in most cases. Two-thirds received albendazole or mebendazole treatment, although this is not currently recommended. CONCLUSIONS: We have increased previous numbers to 22 reported cases in total since 1988. Angiostrongyliasis should generally be suspected in patients with a lasting headache who have returned from Southeast Asia, China, the Caribbean Islands, Australia, or French Polynesia, as well as parts of North America and Tenerife, Spain, although one autochthonous case from mainland Europe has also been reported. A dietary history should focus on prawns, shrimp, and salad, whilst also including slugs and snails and other paratenic hosts where relevant. The clinical diagnosis is supported by the presence of blood eosinophilia, CSF eosinophilia, and elevated CSF protein. A definitive laboratory diagnosis should be sought, and CNS imaging should be used to support, not to rule out the diagnosis. The most up-to-date evidence should always be consulted before initiating treatment. Current recommendations include analgesics, corticosteroids, and periodic removal of CSF for symptom relief, while antihelminthic treatment is debated.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Meningite/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningite/diagnóstico , Meningite/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polinésia , Alimentos Marinhos , Caramujos , Infecções por Strongylida/complicações , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Índias Ocidentais
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 947-955, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926527

RESUMO

Feces (n = 226; 2004-2015) from healthy captive and wild blue iguanas (Cyclura lewisi) from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, were examined for endoparasites. Parasites identified included Nyctotherus sp. and Entamoeba sp. cysts and trophozoites, trichomonad trophozoites, and oxyurid and trichostrongylid eggs. Endoparasites from postmortem examinations (n = 13) included adult and larval nematodes: Ozolaimus megatyphlon, Ozolaimus monhystera, Alaeuris travassosi, Atractis mega, and an unidentified species of Oswaldocruzia. Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive juveniles of both sexes than captive or wild adults of either sex; Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive adult females than captive adult males; trichomonad trophozoites were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than in captive juveniles of either sex; and Nyctotherus spp. were more likely in juvenile captive males than captive adult males or females and more likely in adult wild males than captive juvenile males. Trichostrongylid eggs were more likely in adult wild females than adult captive females and more likely in captive and wild adults of both sexes than in captive juveniles of both sexes. Oxyurid eggs were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than captive juveniles of either sex. Blue iguanas have a variety of endoparasites regardless of age, sex, or captive vs wild status, with no type found exclusively in either captive or wild populations. Ectoparasites from wild adults included adult ticks (Amblyomma torrei) and a single adult mite (Hirstiella trombidiformis). All are new host records for this species and Grand Cayman. Knowledge of parasite status of captive and wild populations is important to evaluate the relative risk of introduction of captive animals into wild populations.


Assuntos
Iguanas/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
19.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991915

RESUMO

Ticks transmit a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, parasites and viruses. Over the last decade, numerous novel viruses have been described in arthropods, including ticks, and their characterization has provided new insights into RNA virus diversity and evolution. However, little is known about their ability to infect vertebrates. As very few studies have described the diversity of viruses present in ticks from the Caribbean, we implemented an RNA-sequencing approach on Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from cattle in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Among the viral communities infecting Caribbean ticks, we selected four viruses belonging to the Chuviridae, Phenuiviridae and Flaviviridae families for further characterization and designing antibody screening tests. While viral prevalence in individual tick samples revealed high infection rates, suggesting a high level of exposure of Caribbean cattle to these viruses, no seropositive animals were detected. These results suggest that the Chuviridae- and Phenuiviridae-related viruses identified in the present study are more likely tick endosymbionts, raising the question of the epidemiological significance of their occurrence in ticks, especially regarding their possible impact on tick biology and vector capacity. The characterization of these viruses might open the door to new ways of preventing and controlling tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Rhipicephalus/virologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flaviviridae/genética , Flaviviridae/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Martinica , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/imunologia , Índias Ocidentais
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(2): 404-411, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Decreased radiodensity of adipose tissue (AT) located in the visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and intermuscular AT (IMAT) abdominal depots is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance independent of AT volumes. These associations were sought in African-ancestry men, who have higher risk for type 2 diabetes and have been underrepresented in previous studies. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 505 nondiabetic men of African-Caribbean ancestry (median age: 61 years; median BMI: 26.8 kg/m2 ) from the Tobago Health Study. AT volumes and radiodensities were assessed using computed tomography, including abdominal (VAT and SAT) and thigh (IMAT) depots. Associations between AT radiodensities were assessed with fasting serum glucose and insulin and with insulin resistance (updated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR). RESULTS: Higher radiodensity in any AT depot was associated with lower log-insulin and log-HOMA2-IR (ß range: -0.16 to -0.18 for each; all P < 0.0001). No AT radiodensity was associated with glucose. Thigh IMAT radiodensity associations were independent of, and similar in magnitude to, VAT radiodensities. Model fit statistics suggested that AT radiodensities were a better predictor for insulin and insulin resistance compared with AT volumes in individuals with overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: AT radiodensities at multiple depots are significantly associated with insulin and insulin resistance in African-ancestry men.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
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