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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282857

RESUMO

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) are two major vectors of arthropod-borne pathogens in Grenada, West Indies. As conventional vector control methods present many challenges, alternatives are urgently needed. Manipulation of mosquito microbiota is emerging as a field for the development of vector control strategies. Critical to this vector control approach is knowledge of the microbiota of these mosquitoes and finding candidate microorganisms that are common to the vectors with properties that could be used in microbiota modification studies. Results showed that bacteria genera including Asaia, Escherichia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Serratia are common to both major arboviral vectors in Grenada and have previously been shown to be good candidates for transgenetic studies. Also, for the first time, the presence of Grenada mosquito rhabdovirus 1 is reported in C. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Culex/genética , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Metagenômica , Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Culex/microbiologia , Culex/virologia , Feminino , Granada , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004323

RESUMO

Arboviruses cause diseases of significant global health concerns. Interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiota as well as the important role of this interaction in the mosquito's capacity to harbor and transmit pathogens have emerged as important fields of research. Aedes aegypti is one of the most abundant mosquitoes in many geographic locations, a vector capable of transmitting a number of arboviruses such as dengue and Zika. Currently, there are few studies on the metavirome of this mosquito particularly in the Americas. This study analyzes the metavirome of A. aegypti from Grenada, a Caribbean nation with tropical weather, abundant A. aegypti, and both endemic and arboviral pathogens transmitted by this mosquito. Between January and December 2018, 1152 mosquitoes were collected from six semi-rural locations near houses in St. George Parish, Grenada, by weekly trapping using BG-Sentinel traps. From these, 300 A. aegypti were selected for analysis. The metavirome was analyzed using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 for deep sequencing. The generation sequencing library construction protocol used was NuGEN Universal RNA with an average read length of 125 bp. Reads were mapped to the A. aegypti assembly. Non-mosquito reads were analyzed using the tools FastViromeExplorer. The NCBI total virus, RNA virus, and eukaryotic virus databases were used as references. The metagenomic comparison analysis showed that the most abundant virus-related reads among all databases and assemblies was Phasi Charoen-like virus. The Phasi Charoen-like virus results are in agreement to other studies in America, Asia and Australia. Further studies using wild-caught mosquitoes is needed to assess the impact of this insect-specific virus on the A. aegypti lifecycle and vector capacity.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Arbovirus , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus de Insetos , Metagenoma , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/genética , Granada , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007940, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961893

RESUMO

Bats can harbor zoonotic pathogens, but their status as reservoir hosts for Leptospira bacteria is unclear. During 2015-2017, kidneys from 47 of 173 bats captured in Grenada, West Indies, tested PCR-positive for Leptospira. Sequence analysis of the Leptospira rpoB gene from 31 of the positive samples showed 87-91% similarity to known Leptospira species. Pairwise and phylogenetic analysis of sequences indicate that bats from Grenada harbor as many as eight undescribed Leptospira genotypes that are most similar to known pathogenic Leptospira, including known zoonotic serovars. Warthin-Starry staining revealed leptospiral organisms colonizing the renal tubules in 70% of the PCR-positive bats examined. Mild inflammatory lesions in liver and kidney observed in some bats were not significantly correlated with renal Leptospira PCR-positivity. Our findings suggest that Grenada bats are asymptomatically infected with novel and diverse Leptospira genotypes phylogenetically related to known pathogenic strains, supporting the hypothesis that bats may be reservoirs for zoonotic Leptospira.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Granada , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/patologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Filogenia
4.
Am Heart J ; 220: 20-28, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is increasing globally, with a disproportionate burden in the low and low-middle income countries (L/LMICs). Peer support, as a low-cost lifestyle intervention, has succeeded in managing chronic illness. For global CV risk reduction, limited data exists in LMICs. AIM: The GHP-CHANGE was designed as a community-based randomized trial to test the effectiveness of peer support strategy for CV risk reduction in the island of Grenada, a LMIC. METHODS: We recruited 402 adults from the Grenada Heart Project (GHP) Cohort Study of 2827 subjects with at least two CV risk factors. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to a peer-group based intervention group (n = 206) or a self-management control group (n = 196) for 12 months. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in a composite score related to Blood pressure, Exercise, Weight, Alimentation and Tobacco (FBS, Fuster-BEWAT Score), ranging from 0 to 15 (ideal health = 15). Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for intervention effects. RESULTS: Participants mean age was 51.4 years (SD 14.5) years, two-thirds were female, and baseline mean FBS was 8.9 (SD 2.6) and 8.5 (SD 2.6) in the intervention and control group, respectively (P = .152). At post intervention, the mean FBS was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group [9.1 (SD 2.7) vs 8.5 (SD 2.6), P = .028]. When balancing baseline health profile, the between-group difference (intervention vs. control) in the change of FBS was 0.31 points (95% CI: -0.12 to 0.75; P = .154). CONCLUSIONS: The GHP-CHANGE trial showed that a peer-support lifestyle intervention program was feasible; however, it did not demonstrate a significant improvement in the FBS as compared to the control group. Further studies should assess the effects of low-cost lifestyle interventions in LMICs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Países em Desenvolvimento , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Alimentos , Granada , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779141

RESUMO

School burnout constitutes a current phenomenon which generates diverse negative consequences in the personal and academic lives of students. Given this situation, it is necessary to develop actions that permit us to regulate this harmful mental state and that are administered from within the school context. A descriptive and cross-sectional study is presented that pursues the objective of examining a structural equation model which brings together burnout and emotional regulation. The model assumes that students receive tutoring at school in order to tackle these types of problems. For this, the sample constituted a total of 569 students from the province of Granada (men = 52.3% (n = 298); women = 47.7% (n = 271)). Mean age was reported as 10.39 ± 0.95 years and the School Burnout Inventory (BMI) and the Emotional Regulation Scale were utilized as the principal instruments. As main findings it was observed that students who received one hour of weekly tutoring showed a positive relationship between expressive suppression as a strategy of emotional regulation, cynicism, and exhaustion as consequences of school burnout. In the same way, a direct association existed between burnout-related exhaustion and cognitive repair. Given that significant relationships could not be observed between these variables in students who do not receive tutoring, higher use of emotional regulation was confirmed amongst tutored students when faced with this negative mental state.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Regulação Emocional , Tutoria , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Granada , Humanos , Masculino , Organizações , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339964

RESUMO

Sunscreens and other personal care products use organic ultraviolet (UV) filters such as oxybenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, Padimate-O, and octyl methoxycinnamate to prevent damage to human skin. While these compounds are effective at preventing sunburn, they have a demonstrated negative effect on cells and tissues across taxonomic levels. These compounds have a relatively short half-life in seawater but are continuously re-introduced via recreational activities and wastewater discharge, making them environmentally persistent. Because of this, testing seawater samples for the presence of these compounds may not be reflective of their abundance in the environment. Bioaccumulation of organic ultraviolet filters in a high-trophic level predator may provide greater insight to the presence and persistence of these compounds. To address this, the present study collected seawater samples as well as muscle and stomach content samples from the invasive Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) in the nearshore waters of Grenada, West Indies to examine the use of lionfish as potential bioindicator species. Seawater and lionfish samples were collected at four sites that are near point sources of wastewater discharge and that receive a high number of visitors each year. Samples were tested for the presence and concentrations of oxybenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), Padimate-O, and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Oxybenzone residues were detected in 60% of seawater samples and OMC residues were detected in 20% of seawater samples. Seawater samples collected in the surface waters near Grenada's main beach had oxybenzone concentrations more than ten times higher than seawater samples collected in less frequently visited areas and the highest prevalence of UV filters in lionfish. Residues of oxybenzone were detected in 35% of lionfish muscle and 4-MBC residues were detected in 12% of lionfish muscle. Padimate-O was not detected in either seawater or lionfish samples. No organic UV filters were detected in lionfish stomach contents. Histopathologic examination of lionfish demonstrated no significant findings attributed to UV filter toxicity. These findings report UV filter residue levels for the first time in inshore waters in Grenada. Results indicate that lionfish may be bioaccumulating residues and may be a useful sentinel model for monitoring organic ultraviolet filters in the Caribbean Sea.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Água do Mar/química , Protetores Solares/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Benzofenonas/análise , Benzofenonas/farmacocinética , Região do Caribe , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Granada , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Perciformes/metabolismo , Espécies Sentinelas/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
7.
J Med Entomol ; 56(4): 1170-1175, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245825

RESUMO

Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes affect the transmission and maintenance of arboviral diseases. In the Caribbean, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes are the dominant mosquito species in developed areas. However, no information is available on the bloodmeal hosts of these invasive vectors in Grenada, where arboviral pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses cause significant human suffering. To this end, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were investigated from five semirural locations near houses in St. George's Parish, from 2017 to 2018. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on DNA extracted from individual blood-fed mosquitoes using vertebrate-specific cytochrome b primers. The 32 Ae. aegypti bloodmeals included humans (70%), mongooses (18%), domestic dogs (6%), a domestic cat (3%), and an unidentified bird (3%). Thirty-seven Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes took bloodmeals from seven species of birds (51%), humans (27%), domestic cats (8%), iguanas (5%), a domestic dog (3%), a rat (3%), and a common opossum (3%). The high percentage of human bloodmeal hosts in our study, especially by the normally anthropophilic Ae. aegypti, is expected. The bloodmeal sources and the percentage of nonhuman bloodmeals (30%) taken by Ae. aegypti are comparable to other studies. The large range of hosts may be explained in part by the semirural nature of most local housing. Accordingly, this may contribute to an exchange of pathogens between domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic transmission cycles.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , DNA/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Gatos , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Granada , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100262, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929939

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. is a protozoan parasite that causes enteric infection in a wide range of hosts, including livestock and humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in small ruminants in Grenada, West Indies. Fecal samples were collected from 100 sheep and 202 goats from 32 farms. The fecal samples were tested using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for qualitative detection of antigens in feces (Diagnostic Automation Inc., USA). The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.4% to 24.4%] in both sheep and goats. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats was 14% (95% CI: 8.4% to 22.3%) and 22.3% (95% CI: 17.1% to 28.5%), respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection between sheep and goats (p = .42, Fisher's exact test) in Grenada. Of the 32 farms visited, 19 (59.4%) had at least one Cryptosporidium spp. positive animal.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Granada/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Prevalência , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007079, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While Grenada attained a zero-human-rabies case status since 1970, the authors conducted the first study to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices that may contribute to this status as well as to receive feedback on the rabies control program in Grenada. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in July, 2017 with 996 households on the mainland. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on knowledge of rabies and prevention, vaccination practices, perception of institutional responsibilities for rabies control, and evaluation of the anti-rabies program. RESULTS: Of the 996 households, 617 (62%) had owners of animals that can be infected with rabies and were included in the analysis. Respondents were very aware of rabies as a disease that can infect animals and humans. The rate of participation in the vaccination program was 51.6% for pets and 38.0% for livestock. About 40% of respondents were knowledgeable about the extent of protection from the rabies vaccine. Respondents did not demonstrate exceptionally high levels of knowledge about animals that were likely to be infected with rabies, neither the anti-rabies programs that were conducted in Grenada. The three most frequent recommendations made to improve the rabies-control programs were: increase education programs, control the mongoose population, and expand the vaccination period each year. CONCLUSIONS: Conducting a comprehensive national rabies education program, expanding the vaccination program, and increasing the rate of animal vaccination are important steps that need to be taken to maintain the current zero-human-case status.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Granada/epidemiologia , Humanos , Animais de Estimação , Raiva/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Parasitol ; 104(5): 571-573, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986158

RESUMO

Rodents are known to be reservoir hosts of Toxoplasma gondii infection for other animals, such as cats and pigs. From February to July 2017, 167 rats ( Rattus norvegicus) were trapped in Grenada, and serum, heart, skeletal muscle, and brain were examined for T. gondii infection by serological examination (modified agglutination test, 1:25) for T. gondii antibodies and for viable parasites by bioassay in mice. Samples of heart, skeletal muscle, and brain of all rats were bioassayed in Swiss Webster (SW) outbred albino mice and interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from heart and brain from 1 rat; this was the only seropositive rat. The T. gondii strain was avirulent for SW mice but killed KO mice. Tissue cysts were detected in the brains of SW mice, and tachyzoites were detected in the lungs of KO mice that died of acute toxoplasmosis. The strain was propagated in cell culture, and DNA derived from cell-cultured tachyzoites was genotyped using the 10 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphisms (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The strain was a clonal Type III (ToxoDB genotype no. 2) strain. Although the prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals in Grenada is high, rats seem to have little importance in the transmission of T. gondii on this island.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bioensaio , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Fibroblastos/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Granada/epidemiologia , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Perna (Membro) , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ratos , Toxoplasma/imunologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(22): e10869, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851801

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the association between high-risk sexual behavior in relation to HIV transmission and prevalence among different groups of people in Grenada. In addition, this study intends to increase the involvement and improved services by Grenadian chapter of the Caribbean HIV/AIDS Partnership (GrenCHAP).A cross-sectional study was conducted over a 2-month period in Grenada, West Indies, to measure the responsive nature of different populations to an inquiry about HIV and sexual behavior. The 2 methods used to collect the data were online (via social media) and through an in-person interaction with local NGO GrenCHAP personnel. Survey responses were recorded via SurveyMonkey ending on April 11, 2014.The findings of the study were that there was an increased degree of frankness and demographic diversity in participants who responded online as opposed to in-person.People who responded online were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior. GrenCHAP has the opportunity to contribute in the collection of invaluable data concerning HIV and other STIs because of its NGO status and anonymity.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Granada/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eval Program Plann ; 69: 61-67, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704778

RESUMO

To date, there have been a plethora of punitive and diversion programs to address domestic violence around the world. However, the evaluative scholarship of such programs overwhelmingly reflects studies in developed countries while barely showcasing the realities of addressing domestic violence in developing countries. This paper features a multi-year (2008-2011) evaluation study that measured the fidelity of the United Nations Partnership for Peace (PfP) domestic violence diversion program in the Eastern Caribbean country of Grenada. Our findings illuminate organic engagement strategies that were built within existing multi-sectoral partnerships that included magistrate court judges, law enforcement officials, and social service agencies. Furthermore, we documented how the locally-devised implementation strategies ensured the program's fidelity within a resource-limited context. This paper contributes to the global evaluative scholarship, highlighting the lessons learned about implementing culturally-adapted and theoretically-driven domestic violence diversion within a developing country.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Terapia de Controle da Ira/métodos , Animais , Região do Caribe , Currículo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Granada , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais , Nações Unidas
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 216: 119-122, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519505

RESUMO

Many mammals are established hosts for the vector borne bacterial genus, Bartonella. Small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) have only been reported as a possible host for Bartonella henselae in southern Japan. Confirming Bartonella presence in mongooses from other regions in the world may support their role as potential reservoirs of this human pathogen. Specifically, documenting Bartonella in Caribbean mongooses would identify a potential source of zoonotic risk with mongoose-human contact in the New World. Using serological and molecular techniques, we investigated B. henselae DNA and specific antibody prevalence in 171 mongooses from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Almost a third (32.3%, 54/167) of the tested mongooses were B. henselae seropositive and extracted DNA from 18/51 (35.3%) blood pellets were PCR positive for the citrate synthase (gltA) and/or the ß subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. All sequences were identical to B. henselae genotype I, as previously reported from Japan. This study confirms the role of small Indian mongooses as a natural reservoir of B. henselae in the New World.


Assuntos
Angiomatose Bacilar/epidemiologia , Bartonella henselae/isolamento & purificação , Herpestidae/microbiologia , Angiomatose Bacilar/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella henselae/genética , Bartonella henselae/fisiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Genótipo , Granada/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
14.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(5): 505-511, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575672

RESUMO

Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Two species of fruit bats were sampled, Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus, all roosting in or within 1,000 m of human settlements. Fifteen (36%) of the 42 bats tested for neutralizing antibodies to CHIKV were positive. The CHIKV-seropositive bats lived in localities spanning five of the six parishes. All 43 bats tested for epitope-blocking ELISA antibody to the other alphaviruses were negative, except one positive for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. All 50 bats tested for neutralizing antibody to flaviviruses were negative, except one that had a BSQV PRNT80 titre of 20. The CHIKV serology results indicate that bats living close to and within human settlements were exposed to CHIKV in multiple locations. Importantly, bats for this study were trapped a year after the introduction and peak of the human CHIKV epidemic in Grenada. Thus, our data indicate that bats were exposed to CHIKV possibly during a time of marked decline in human cases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Quirópteros/sangue , Testes Sorológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Granada , Humanos
15.
Child Abuse Negl ; 79: 245-258, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486347

RESUMO

The current study used latent class analysis to uncover groups of youths with specific abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) profiles in and outside the family, and identify how membership in each abuse group is associated with behavioral outcomes. Data were collected among a sample of male (n = 662; Mage = 13.02 years) and female (n = 689; Mage = 12.95 years) children and adolescents (9-17 years old) from Barbados and Grenada. Self-report surveys were completed by participants in school settings. Three latent classes of child abuse were distinguished among boys, including 'low abuse' (39.2% of the sample), 'physical and emotional abuse high outside/medium in the family' (43.2%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.6%). Among girls, four unique classes were recovered: 'low abuse' (40.7%), 'high physical and emotional abuse outside the family' (7.6%), 'high emotional and moderate physical abuse' (33.9%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.8%). Compared with members of low abuse groups, youths who reported having experienced high/moderate levels of various forms of violence, including those who were abused in multiple ways and across the two settings ('high overall abuse'), were significantly more likely to engage in violent and hostile behavior. Abused and non-abused youths did not differ on non-violent conflict resolution skills. The significance of present findings for future research and practice is discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Barbados , Criança , Emoções , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Feminino , Granada , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Parasitol Res ; 117(4): 1195-1204, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460140

RESUMO

Rodents are intermediate hosts for many species of Sarcocystis. Little is known of Sarcocystis cymruensis that uses the Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) as intermediate hosts and the domestic cat (Felis catus) as experimental definitive host. Here, we identified and described Sarcocystis cymruensis in naturally infected R. norvegicus from Grenada, West Indies. Rats (n = 167) were trapped in various locations in two parishes (St. George and St. David). Microscopic, thin (< 1 µm) walled, slender sarcocysts were found in 11 of 156 (7.0%) rats skeletal muscles by squash examination. A laboratory-raised cat fed naturally infected rat tissues excreted sporocysts that were infectious for interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to Swiss Webster outbred albino mice. All inoculated mice remained asymptomatic, and microscopic S. cymruensis-like sarcocysts were found in the muscles of KO mice euthanized on day 70, 116, and 189 post inoculation (p.i.). Sarcocysts from infected KO mice were infective for cats at day 116 but not at 70 days p.i. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was "type 1a." Detailed morphological description of the cyst wall, metrocytes, and bradyzoites is given for the first time. Additionally, molecular data on S. cymruensis are presented also for the first time. Molecular characterization of sarcocysts 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA, ITS-1, and cox1 loci showed the highest similarity with S. rodentifelis and S. muris. In conclusion, the present study described the natural infection of S. cymruensis in Brown rat for the first time in a Caribbean country and provided its molecular characteristics.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/genética , Músculos/parasitologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , DNA Intergênico/genética , Granada , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Ratos , Sarcocystis/classificação
17.
J Environ Manage ; 210: 146-161, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339333

RESUMO

Coastal communities in tropical environments are at increasing risk from both environmental degradation and climate change and require urgent local adaptation action. Evidences show coral reefs play a critical role in wave attenuation but relatively little direct connection has been drawn between these effects and impacts on shorelines. Reefs are rarely assessed for their coastal protection service and thus not managed for their infrastructure benefits, while widespread damage and degradation continues. This paper presents a systematic approach to assess the protective role of coral reefs and to examine solutions based on the reef's influence on wave propagation patterns. Portions of the shoreline of Grenville Bay, Grenada, have seen acute shoreline erosion and coastal flooding. This paper (i) analyzes the historical changes in the shoreline and the local marine, (ii) assess the role of coral reefs in shoreline positioning through a shoreline equilibrium model first applied to coral reef environments, and (iii) design and begin implementation of a reef-based solution to reduce erosion and flooding. Coastline changes in the bay over the past 6 decades are analyzed from bathymetry and benthic surveys, historical imagery, historical wave and sea level data and modeling of wave dynamics. The analysis shows that, at present, the healthy and well-developed coral reefs system in the southern bay keeps the shoreline in equilibrium and stable, whereas reef degradation in the northern bay is linked with severe coastal erosion. A comparison of wave energy modeling for past bathymetry indicates that degradation of the coral reefs better explains erosion than changes in climate and historical sea level rise. Using this knowledge on how reefs affect the hydrodynamics, a reef restoration solution is designed and studied to ameliorate the coastal erosion and flooding. A characteristic design provides a modular design that can meet specific engineering, ecological and implementation criteria. Four pilot units were implemented in 2015 and are currently being field-tested. This paper presents one of the few existing examples available to date of a reef restoration project designed and engineered to deliver risk reduction benefits. The case study shows how engineering and ecology can work together in community-based adaptation. Our findings are particularly important for Small Island States on the front lines of climate change, who have the most to gain from protecting and managing coral reefs as coastal infrastructure.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Antozoários , Ecossistema , Inundações , Granada , Hidrodinâmica
18.
J Med Screen ; 25(1): 49-50, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183229

RESUMO

Objective To establish the birth prevalence of sickle cell disease in Grenada, with a view to assess the requirement for a population-based neonatal screening programme. Methods A two-year pilot neonatal screening programme, involving the Ministry of Health of Grenada, the Sickle Cell Association of Grenada, and the diagnostic laboratory of hemoglobinopathies of the University Hospital of Guadeloupe, was implemented in 2014-2015 under the auspices of the Caribbean Network of Researchers on Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia. Results Analysis of 1914 samples processed identified the following abnormal phenotypes: 10 FS, 2 FSC, 183 FAS, 63 FAC. These data indicate ßs and ßc allele frequencies of 0.054 and 0.018, respectively. Conclusion Neonatal screening conducted in the framework of this Caribbean cooperation can allow rapid detection and earlier management of affected children.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Granada/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 13: 130-134, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014860

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal parasites are important in small ruminant farming because they can impact negatively on the productivity of animals. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and to assess mortality attributable to gastrointestinal parasite infection in sheep and goats. We collected fecal samples from 114 sheep and 292 goats from 34 farms for coprological examination. In addition, we evaluated necropsy records for sheep and goats that were submitted from 2002 to 2016 to the pathology diagnostic laboratory in the School of Veterinary Medicine at St. George's University, Grenada. Out of 406 small ruminant (292 goat and 114 sheep) fecal samples examined, 385 were positive for gastrointestinal parasites, giving an overall prevalence of 95% (95% confidence interval (CI) 92% to 97%). All the 34 farms visited were found to have positive animals to at least one type of gastrointestinal parasite; 100% herd prevalence (95% CI: 88% to 100%). Among the 292 goat fecal samples examined, 285 were positive for gastrointestinal parasites (98%; 95% CI: 95% to 99%) whereas the proportion of positive fecal samples in sheep was 88% (95% CI: 80% to 93%). There was a significant difference in prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites between sheep and goats (p = .0002). The proportion of infection with coccidia in goats and sheep was 76% and 75%, respectively. For helminthes, the proportions were as follows: Moniezia spp., 14% in goats and 4% in sheep; Strongyloides spp., 36% in goats and 21% in sheep; strongyle type eggs 89% in goats and 66% in sheep. Mixed infections in both sheep and goats were more common (92%) than single ones (8%). Out of 220 necropsy records evaluated, 29% of mortality was due to Haemonchus contortus infection. Moniezia spp and Oesophagostomum spp. were also commonly found.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Autopsia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Granada/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Parasitos/classificação , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 57(1): 40-45, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the associations of nationality, university program, donation history and gender, with blood donation barriers experienced by non-donating students on the day of a campus blood drive. This project focused particularly on nationality and the effect of the different blood donation cultures in the students' countries of origin. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 398 North American and Caribbean university students was conducted at St. George's University, Grenada, in 2010. Data were collected from non-donating students on campus while a blood drive was taking place. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate associations between the exposures of interest and donation barriers experienced by the students. RESULTS: North American (voluntary blood donation culture) students were more likely than Caribbean (replacement blood donation culture) students to experience "Lack of Time" (relative risk (RR) = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.07) and "Lack of Eligibility" (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.08-2.22) as barriers to donation. Conversely, Caribbean students were a third as likely to state "Lack of Incentive" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.20-0.50), "Fear of Infection" (RR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21-0.58), and "Fear of Needles" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21-0.48) were barriers than North American students. CONCLUSIONS: University students from voluntary blood donation cultures are likely to experience different barriers to donation than those from replacement cultures. Knowledge of barriers that students from contrasting blood donation systems face provides valuable information for blood drive promotion in university student populations that contain multiple nationalities.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Granada , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
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