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1.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115083, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806431

RESUMO

Marine and freshwater plastic pollution is a challenging issue receiving large amounts of research and media attention. Yet, few studies have documented the impact of microplastic ingestion to aquatic organisms. In the Pacific Northwest, Chinook salmon are a culturally and commercially significant fish species. The presence of marine and freshwater microplastic pollution is well documented in Chinook salmon habitat, yet no research has investigated the impacts to salmon from microplastic ingestion. The majority of the marine microplastics found in the Salish Sea are microfibers, synthetic extruded polymers that come from commonly worn clothing. To understand the potential impacts of microfiber ingestion to fish, we ran a feeding experiment with juvenile Chinook salmon to determine if ingested fibers are retained or digestion rates altered over a 10 day digestion period. The experiment was completed in two trials, each consisted of 20 control and 20 treatment fish. Treatment fish were each fed an amended ration of 12 food pellets spiked with 20 polyester microfibers and control fish were fed the same ration without added microfibers. Fish were sampled at day 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 to assess if fibers were retained in their gastrointestinal tract and to determine the rate of digestion. Fibers for the experiment came from washing a red polyester fleece jacket in a microfiber retention bag. Fibers had a mean length of 4.98 mm. Results showed fish were able to clear up to 94% of fed fibers over 10 days. Differences in mean gastrointestinal mass were not statistically significant at any sampled time between treatment and controls, suggesting that the ingestion of microfibers did not alter digestion rates. Further work is needed to understand if repeated exposures, expected in the environment, alter digestion or food assimilation for growth.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Veículos Automotores , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Plásticos/análise , Poliésteres , Salmão
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520961

RESUMO

The illegal import of wildlife and wildlife products is a growing concern, and the U.S. is one of the world's leading countries in the consumption and transit of illegal wildlife and their derivatives. Yet, few U.S. studies have analyzed the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) on a national or local scale. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have specifically examined the trends associated with IWT moving through personal baggage. This work aimed to better understand the magnitude of illegal wildlife importation into U.S. ports of entry by determining trends associated with illegal wildlife products from personal baggage seizures, using the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a specific case study. To identify the most influential factors determining the numbers and types of personal baggage seizures into PNW, we analyzed 1,731 records between 1999 and 2016 from the Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Law Enforcement Management Information System (LEMIS) database. We found five significant contributors: taxonomic classification of wildlife, categorical import date, wildlife product, source region, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) status. While wildlife seizures across taxonomic categories have generally decreased in the PNW since 2008, other findings provide a reason for concern. More specifically, mammals were identified as the largest animal group of seized wildlife, and temporal trends indicate increases in seizures for this and several other taxonomic groups. Many of the seizures originated from overseas, with East Asia serving as the largest source. Our PNW case study can be a model for how large-scale geographical seizure data can be used to inform about the major factors that have historically and presently contribute to IWT, with conservation implications globally.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Comportamento Criminoso , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Mamíferos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 138926, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402963

RESUMO

Seasonal changes in the magnitude and duration of streamflow can have important implications for aquatic species, drinking water supplies, and water quality. In many regions, including the Pacific Northwest (U.S. and Canada), seasonal low flow is declining, primarily due to a changing climate, but is also influenced by urbanization, agriculture, and forestry. We review the responses of seasonal low flow, catchment storage, and tree-water relations to forest harvest over long timescales and discuss the potential implications of these responses for current forest practices and aquatic biota. We identify three distinct periods of expected low flow responses as regrowth occurs following forest harvest: in the first period an initial increase in low flow can occur as replanted stands regenerate, in the second period low flow is characterized by mixed and variable responses as forests become established, and in the third period, which follows canopy closure, low flow declines may occur over long timescales. Of 25 small catchments with ≥10 years post-harvest data, nine catchments had no change or variable low flow and 16 catchments experienced reduced low flow years after harvest. The retention of riparian buffers, limited size of harvest units, and adherence to reforestation requirements have altered the contemporary forest landscape relative to historical forest practices, but data documenting multi-decadal hydrological responses to current harvest practices is limited. Our review suggests that the magnitude of low flow responses attenuates downstream as a broader mosaic of stand ages occurs and multiple hydrological periods are represented. Declines were not observed in the seven large catchments reviewed. The consequences of low flow declines for aquatic biota are not well understood, but where data do exist aquatic biota have not been adversely affected. We identify priorities for future research that will aid in improving predictions of low flow responses to harvest as forests regenerate.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Canadá , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estações do Ano , Árvores
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(6): 1841-1850, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370604

RESUMO

Rhododendron root rot is a severe disease that causes significant mortality in rhododendrons. Information is needed about the incidence and identity of soilborne Phytophthora and Pythium species causing root rot in Pacific Northwest nurseries in order to better understand the disease etiology and to optimize disease control strategies. The last survey focusing solely on soilborne oomycete pathogens in rhododendron production was conducted in 1974. Since then, advances in pathogen identification have occurred, new species may have been introduced, pathogen communities may have shifted, and little is known about Pythium species affecting this crop. Therefore, a survey of root-infecting Phytophthora and Pythium species was conducted at seven nurseries from 2013 to 2017 to (i) document the incidence of root rot damage at each nursery and stage of production, (ii) identify soilborne oomycetes infecting rhododendron, and (iii) determine whether there are differences in pathogen diversity among nurseries and production systems. Rhododendrons from propagation, container, and field systems were sampled and Phytophthora and Pythium species were isolated from the roots and collar region. Root rot was rarely evident in propagation systems, which were dominated by Pythium species. However, severe root rot was much more common in container and field systems where the genus Phytophthora was also more prevalent, suggesting that Phytophthora species are the primary cause of severe root rot and that most contamination by these pathogens comes in after the propagation stage. In total, 20 Pythium species and 11 Phytophthora species were identified. Pythium cryptoirregulare, Pythium aff. macrosporum, Phytophthora plurivora, and Phytophthora cinnamomi were the most frequently isolated species and the results showed that Phytophthora plurivora has become much more common than in the past. Phytophthora diversity was also greater in field systems than in propagation or container systems. Risks for Phytophthora contamination were commonly observed during the survey and included placement of potting media in direct contact with field soil, the presence of dead plants that could serve as continuous sources of inoculum, and the presence of excess water as a result of poor drainage, overirrigation, or malfunctioning irrigation equipment. In the past, research on disease development and root rot disease control in rhododendron focused almost exclusively on Phytophthora cinnamomi. More research is needed on both of these topics for the other root-infecting species identified in this survey.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Pythium , Rhododendron , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Doenças das Plantas
7.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114345, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443194

RESUMO

The interpretation of large air pollution datasets involves a great deal of complexity. To gain a better understanding of the complicated relationships and patterns within datasets, we perform factor analysis. Between December 2015 and December 2017, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected at a suburban site northeast of the Houston metropolitan area, TX. A total of 233 filter samples were analyzed for chemical composition. The average of all PM2.5 samples consisted of 38.1% inorganic ions, 28.9% elements, 29.1% organic carbon, and 3.7% elemental carbon and other organic materials. Principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization were utilized to identify eight factors: regional aerosols, biomass burning, gasoline combustion, industry, crustal material, incineration, marine dust, and fireworks. The first three contributed more than 70% of the total PM2.5 mass. The receptor models also captured the impact of fireworks and classified it as a source of PM2.5 over Houston. To identify the origins of air masses transporting PM2.5 to the site, we applied the NOAA hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model and performed a cluster analysis of back trajectories and determined six cluster source regions: the Gulf of Mexico, the Southeast, two midwestern clusters, the Pacific Northwest, and the Southwest. The results of our analysis show that during the summer months, marine and crustal sources were often associated with an onshore flow from the Gulf of Mexico and that four clusters covering 38% of the West Liberty area were strongly influenced by trajectories originating from biomass burning. The results of this study represented a variety of sources that affect the PM2.5 over the Houston metropolitan area. The quantified contributions of these sources could provide policymakers with useful information for developing more efficient control systems and making more effective decisions to cope with the harmful effects of ambient air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise Fatorial , Golfo do México , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Appl Clin Inform ; 11(2): 265-275, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-50899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UW Medicine was one of the first health systems to encounter and treat COVID-19 patients in the United States, starting in late February 2020. OBJECTIVE: Here we describe the rapid rollout of capabilities by UW Medicine Information Technology Services (ITS) to support our clinical response to the COVID-19 pandemic and provide recommendations for health systems to urgently consider, as they plan their own response to this and potentially other future pandemics. METHODS: Our recommendations include establishing a hospital incident command structure that includes tight integration with IT, creating automated dashboards for incident command, optimizing emergency communication to staff and patients, and preparing human resources, security, other policies, and equipment to support the transition of all nonessential staff to telework.We describe how UW Medicine quickly expanded telemedicine capabilities to include most primary care providers and increasing numbers of specialty providers. We look at how we managed expedited change control processes to quickly update electronic health records (EHR) with new COVID-19 laboratory and clinical workflows. We also examine the integration of new technology such as tele-intensive care (ICU) equipment and improved integration with teleconferencing software into our EHR. To support the rapid preparation for COVID-19 at other health systems, we include samples of the UW Medicine's COVID-19 order set, COVID-19 documentation template, dashboard metric categories, and a list of the top 10 things your health care IT organization can do now to prepare. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 response requires new and expedited ways of approaching ITS support to clinical needs. UW Medicine ITS leadership hope that by quickly sharing our nimble response to clinical and operational requests, we can help other systems prepare to respond to this public health emergency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia da Informação , Informática Médica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde , Humanos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina , Fluxo de Trabalho
9.
Appl Clin Inform ; 11(2): 265-275, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UW Medicine was one of the first health systems to encounter and treat COVID-19 patients in the United States, starting in late February 2020. OBJECTIVE: Here we describe the rapid rollout of capabilities by UW Medicine Information Technology Services (ITS) to support our clinical response to the COVID-19 pandemic and provide recommendations for health systems to urgently consider, as they plan their own response to this and potentially other future pandemics. METHODS: Our recommendations include establishing a hospital incident command structure that includes tight integration with IT, creating automated dashboards for incident command, optimizing emergency communication to staff and patients, and preparing human resources, security, other policies, and equipment to support the transition of all nonessential staff to telework.We describe how UW Medicine quickly expanded telemedicine capabilities to include most primary care providers and increasing numbers of specialty providers. We look at how we managed expedited change control processes to quickly update electronic health records (EHR) with new COVID-19 laboratory and clinical workflows. We also examine the integration of new technology such as tele-intensive care (ICU) equipment and improved integration with teleconferencing software into our EHR. To support the rapid preparation for COVID-19 at other health systems, we include samples of the UW Medicine's COVID-19 order set, COVID-19 documentation template, dashboard metric categories, and a list of the top 10 things your health care IT organization can do now to prepare. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 response requires new and expedited ways of approaching ITS support to clinical needs. UW Medicine ITS leadership hope that by quickly sharing our nimble response to clinical and operational requests, we can help other systems prepare to respond to this public health emergency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Tecnologia da Informação , Informática Médica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde , Humanos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina , Fluxo de Trabalho
10.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(5): 873-880, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112132

RESUMO

Anthropogenic warming's effects on phenology across environmental and temporal gradients are well recognized. Long-term phenological monitoring data are often limited in duration and geographic scope, but recent efforts to digitize herbaria collections make it possible to reliably reconstruct historic flowering phenology across broad geographic scales and multiple species, lending to an increased understanding of community response to climate change. In this study, we examined collection dates (1901 to 2015) of 8540 flowering specimens from 39 native species in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of North America. We hypothesized that flowering phenology would be sensitive to temperature but that sensitivity would vary depending on blooming season and geographic range position. As expected, we found that early-season bloomers are more sensitive to temperature than later-season bloomers. Sensitivity to temperature was significantly greater at low elevations and in the maritime (western) portion of the PNW than at higher elevations and in the eastern interior, respectively. The elevational and longitudinal effects on flowering sensitivity reflect spring "arriving" earlier at low elevations and in the maritime portion of the PNW. These results demonstrate that phenological responses to warming vary substantially across climatically diverse regions, warranting careful and nuanced consideration of climate warming's effects on plant phenology.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Flores , América do Norte , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
11.
Phytopathology ; 110(5): 1105-1116, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091314

RESUMO

Powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera macularis, is one of the most important diseases of hop. The disease was first reported in the Pacific Northwestern United States, the primary hop-growing region in this country, in the mid-1990s. More recently, the disease has reemerged in newly planted hopyards of the eastern United States, as hop production has expanded to meet demands of local craft brewers. The spread of strains virulent on previously resistant cultivars, the paucity of available fungicides, and the potential introduction of the MAT1-2 mating type to the western United States, all threaten sustainability of hop production. We sequenced the transcriptome of 104 isolates of P. macularis collected throughout the western United States, eastern United States, and Europe to quantify genetic diversity of pathogen populations and elucidate the possible origins of pathogen populations in the western United States. Discriminant analysis of principal components grouped isolates within three to five geographic populations, dependent on stringency of grouping criteria. Isolates from the western United States were phenotyped and categorized into one of three pathogenic races based on disease symptoms generated on differential cultivars. Western U.S. populations were clonal, irrespective of pathogenic race, and grouped with isolates originating from Europe. Isolates originating from wild hop plants in the eastern United States were genetically differentiated from all other populations, whereas isolates from cultivated hop plants in the eastern United States mostly grouped with isolates originating from the west, consistent with origins from nursery sources. Mating types of isolates originating from cultivated western and eastern U.S. hop plants were entirely MAT1-1. In contrast, a 1:1 ratio of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 was observed with isolates sampled from wild plants or Europe. Within the western United States a set of highly differentiated loci were identified in P. macularis isolates associated with virulence to the powdery mildew R-gene R6. The weight of genetic and phenotypic evidence suggests a European origin of the P. macularis populations in the western United States, followed by spread of the pathogen from the western United States to re-emergent production regions in the eastern United States. Furthermore, R6 compatibility appears to have been selected from an extant isolate within the western United States. Greater emphasis on sanitation measures during propagation and quarantine policies should be considered to limit further spread of novel genotypes of the pathogen, both between and within production areas.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Europa (Continente) , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Doenças das Plantas , Estados Unidos
12.
Harmful Algae ; 91: 101591, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057339

RESUMO

Time series now have sufficient duration to determine harmful algal bloom (HAB) responses to changing climate conditions, including warming, stratification intensity, freshwater inputs and natural patterns of climate variability, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Against the context of time series, such as those available from phytoplankton monitoring, dinoflagellate cyst records, the Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys, and shellfish toxin records, it is possible to identify extreme events that are significant departures from long-term means. Extreme weather events can mimic future climate conditions and provide a "dress rehearsal" for understanding future frequency, intensity and geographic extent of HABs. Three case studies of extreme HAB events are described in detail to explore the drivers and impacts of these oceanic outliers that may become more common in the future. One example is the chain-forming diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and its response to the 2014-16 northeast Pacific marine heat wave. The other two case studies are pelagic flagellates. Highly potent Alexandrium catenella group 1 dinoflagellate blooms (up to 150 mg/kg PST in mussels; 4 human poisonings) during 2012-17 created havoc for the seafood industry in Tasmania, south-eastern Australia, in a poorly monitored area where such problems were previously unknown. Early evidence suggests that changes in water column stratification during the cold winter-spring season are driving new blooms caused by a previously cryptic species. An expansion of Pseudochattonella cf. verruculosa to the south and A. catenella to the north over the past several years resulted in the convergence of both species to cause the most catastrophic event in the history of the Chilean aquaculture in the austral summer of 2016. Together, these two massive blooms were colloquially known as the "Godzilla-Red tide event", resulting in the largest fish farm mortality ever recorded worldwide, equivalent to an export loss of USD$800 million which when combined with shellfish toxicity, resulted in major social unrest and rioting. Both blooms were linked to the strong El Niño event and the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode, the latter an indicator of anthropogenic climate change in the southeastern Pacific region. For each of these three examples, representing recent catastrophic events in geographically distinct regions, additional targeted monitoring was employed to improve the understanding of the climate drivers and mechanisms that gave rise to the event and to document the societal response. Scientists must be poised to study future extreme HAB events as these natural experiments provide unique opportunities to define and test multifactorial drivers of blooms.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Chile , Humanos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Oceanos e Mares
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(4): 1026-1031, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994984

RESUMO

Pseudomonas brassicacearum and related species of the P. fluorescens complex have long been studied as biocontrol and growth-promoting rhizobacteria involved in suppression of soilborne pathogens. We report here that P. brassicacearum Q8r1-96 and other 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing fluorescent pseudomonads involved in take-all decline of wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States can also be pathogenic to other plant hosts. Strain Q8r1-96 caused necrosis when injected into tomato stems and immature tomato fruits, either attached or removed from the plant, but lesion development was dose dependent, with a minimum of 106 CFU ml-1 required to cause visible tissue damage. We explored the relative contribution of several known plant-microbe interaction traits to the pathogenicity of strain Q8r1-96. Type III secretion system (T3SS) mutants of Q8r1-96, injected at a concentration of 108 CFU ml-1, were significantly less virulent, but not consistently, as compared with the wild-type strain. However, a DAPG-deficient phlD mutant of Q8r1-96 was significantly and consistently less virulent as compared with the wild type. Strain Q8r1-96acc, engineered to over express ACC deaminase, caused a similar amount of necrosis as the wild type. Cell-free culture filtrates of strain Q8r1-96 and pure DAPG also cause necrosis in tomato fruits. Our results suggest that DAPG plays a significant role in the ability of Q8r1-96 to cause necrosis of tomato tissue, but other factors also contribute to the pathogenic properties of this organism.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Floroglucinol , Raízes de Plantas , Pseudomonas , Virulência
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136412, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927295

RESUMO

Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) transports polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) regionally and globally, influencing the air quality of communities around the planet. Concentrations of 130 PAHs extracted from PM2.5, collected on a Native American Tribal Reservation in the Northern Puget Sound region of the American Pacific Northwest, were used to assess the air quality impacts of regional and local PAH sources, atmospheric transport, and human health implications. Wind coming from the southeast of the sampling locations increased the overall PAH concentration of the PM2.5, while winds from the southwest decreased the PAH concentration. Concentrations of PAH subclasses increased or decreased independently at the two sampling locations with different changes in wind patterns, changing the excess lifetime cancer risk significantly. No long-range transport was measured, but emissions from local and regional PAH sources were measured. Samples collected during regional wildfires showed increased PAH concentrations. Samples collected during predicted weather inversions resulted in the highest PAH concentrations, and up to a ten-fold increase in excess lifetime cancer risk over the normal days.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Material Particulado , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Estações do Ano
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978057

RESUMO

Temperate grasslands are one of the most altered ecosystems on Earth. Consequently, conservation of important characteristics of such ecosystems (e.g., biodiversity) is uncertain even within grasslands that have been protected. Invasion by non-native plants is considered a primary threat to intact grasslands. Here, we evaluated native and non-native vegetation composition change over seven years in the largest Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass remnant. We sampled 124 permanent plots across the Zumwalt Prairie Preserve (northeastern Oregon, USA) twice, seven years apart. With data collected from three grassland community types (xeric prairie, mesic prairie, old fields), we asked: (1) how has species composition changed over time; (2) which species showed the greatest changes in abundance; and (3) how did abundance of Ventenata dubia (the most abundant non-native species) relate to patterns of native and non-native plant abundance? Vegetation composition changed in all three plant communities. Ventenata dubia, an annual non-native grass: (1) became the third most dominant species across the study area; (2) was the only non-native that increased in abundance substantially in all three communities; and (3) was negatively related to native perennial forb cover. Relative cover of non-native species decreased in old fields concomitant with increases in native bunchgrass (Festuca idahoensis) and V. dubia cover. Increased cover of native perennial grasses and non-native annual grasses in old fields were associated with loss of bare ground, but not with reductions in non-native perennial grass cover. Native species dominated in the mesic prairie; however, non-native cover (particularly V. dubia) increased (mean cover increased from 3 to 10%) while mean native perennial forb cover decreased (from 30 to 25%) over time. Continued shifts towards non-native annual grass dominance coupled with potentially declining native perennial forbs, may challenge conservation efforts in one of the last large tracts of Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairie.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Plantas/classificação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies Introduzidas , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Oregon
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135516, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806347

RESUMO

Understanding the spatial extent, magnitude, and source of contaminant exposure in biota is necessary to formulate appropriate conservation measures to reduce or remediate contaminant exposure. However, obtaining such information for migratory animals is challenging. Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a threatened species throughout the US Pacific Northwest, are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in many developed rivers and estuaries. This study used three types of complementary chemical tracer data (contaminant concentrations, POP fingerprints, and stable isotopes), to determine the location and source of contaminant exposure for natural- and hatchery-origin Chinook salmon migrating seaward through a developed watershed with multiple contaminant sources. Concentration data revealed that salmon were exposed to and accumulated predominantly PBDEs and PCBs in the lower mainstem region of the river, with higher PBDEs in natural- than hatchery-origin fish but similar PCBs in both groups, associated with differences in contaminant inputs and/or habitat use. The POP fingerprints of the natural-origin-fish captured from this region were also distinct from other region and origin sample groups, with much higher proportions of PBDEs in the total POP concentration, indicating a different contaminant source or habitat use than the hatchery-origin fish. Stable isotopes, independent tracers of food sources and habitat use, revealed that natural-origin fish from this region also had depleted δ15N signatures compared to other sample groups, associated with exposure to nutrient-rich wastewater. The PBDE-enhanced POP fingerprints in these salmon were correlated with the degree of depletion in nitrogen stable isotopes of the fish, suggesting a common wastewater source for both the PBDEs and the nitrogen. Identification of the location and source of contaminant exposure allows environmental managers to establish conservation measures to control contaminant inputs, necessary steps to improve the health of Chinook salmon and enhance their marine survival.


Assuntos
Salmão , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais , Estuários , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(2): 180-188, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855485

RESUMO

Objectives. To develop a set of indicators to guide and monitor climate change adaptation in US state and local health departments.Methods. We performed a narrative review of literature on indicators of climate change adaptation and public health service capacity, mapped the findings onto activities grouped by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Ten Essential Services, and drafted potential indicators to discuss with practitioners. We then refined the indicators after key informant interviews with 17 health department officials in the US Pacific Northwest in fall 2018.Results. Informants identified a need for clarity regarding state and local public health's role in climate change adaptation, integration of adaptation into existing programs, and strengthening of communication, partnerships, and response capacity to increase resilience. We propose a set of climate change indicators applicable for state and local health departments.Conclusions. With additional context-specific refinement, the proposed indicators can aid agencies in tracking adaptation efforts. The generalizability, robustness, and relevance of the proposed indicators should be explored in other settings with a broader set of stakeholders.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Planejamento em Saúde , Governo Local , Saúde Pública/normas , Comunicação , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos
18.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1): 66-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons are commonly misclassified in epidemiologic and administrative data sets. The race-corrected hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related mortality rate among AI/AN persons in the Northwest United States (Idaho, Oregon, and Washington State) is unknown. We quantified the disparity in HCV-related mortality between AI/AN persons and non-Hispanic white (NHW) persons in the Northwest during 2006-2012 after correcting misclassified AI/AN race. METHODS: After conducting probabilistic record linkage between death records and the Northwest Tribal Registry, we calculated HCV-related mortality rates for AI/AN and NHW persons by using National Center for Health Statistics bridged-race estimates standardized to the US 2000 standard population. RESULTS: The 2006-2012 aggregate age-adjusted HCV-related mortality rate per 100 000 population in the Northwest was 19.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.3-22.2) for AI/AN persons and 5.9 (95% CI, 5.7-6.1) for NHW persons (rate ratio [RR] = 3.3; 95% CI, 3.0-3.8). The disparity was larger among females (RR = 4.6; 95% CI, 3.8-5.5) than among males (RR = 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4). CONCLUSION: The disproportionate rate of HCV-related mortality among AI/AN persons in the Northwest highlights the need to expand HCV education, screening, and treatment among this population.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/etnologia , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
19.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225610, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774866

RESUMO

Natural diets of leptocephalus larvae have been enigmatic. In this study, we collected DNA samples from the gut contents and body surface of leptocephali belonging to the five Anguilliform families (Anguillidae, Chlopsidae, Congridae, Muraenidae, and Serrivomeridae) from the northwest Pacific and performed next-generation 18S rDNA sequencing. Wide variety of eukaryotes was detected in both samples, from which eight eukaryotic groups (jellyfish, conoid parasite, tunicate, copepod, krill, segmented worm, fungi, and dinoflagellate) were selected on the basis of abundance. All groups except conoid parasites were common in both the samples. Cnidarian 18S rDNA reads were the most abundant in both the samples; however, the number of samples having cnidarian reads and the read counts were significantly higher in the body surface scraping samples than in the gut content samples, regardless of careful rinsing of the body surface. These results indicate that the cnidarian DNAs are most likely found because of cross contamination from the body surface and/or environment. 18S rDNA read counts of copepod and tunicate in the gut contents were greater than or comparable with those in the body surface scraping samples, which may correspond to the previous observations of fecal pellets and larvacean houses in the leptocephali gut. Thus, the present study supports previous implications that leptocephali utilize detritus materials, so called marine snow.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , DNA/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Enguias/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Larva/metabolismo , Animais , DNA/genética , Enguias/genética , Enguias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Filogenia
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 199, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary contact between closely related lineages can result in a variety of outcomes, including hybridization, depending upon the strength of reproductive barriers. By examining the extent to which different parts of the genome introgress, it is possible to infer the strength of selection and gain insight into the evolutionary trajectory of lineages. Following secondary contact approximately 8000 years ago in the Pacific Northwest, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus) formed a hybrid swarm along the Cascade mountain range despite substantial differences in body size (up to two times) and habitat preference. In this study, we examined genetic population structure, extent of introgression, and selection pressures in freely interbreeding populations of mule deer and black-tailed deer using mitochondrial DNA sequences, 9 microsatellite loci, and 95 SNPs from protein-coding genes. RESULTS: We observed bi-directional hybridization and classified approximately one third of the 172 individuals as hybrids, almost all of which were beyond the F1 generation. High genetic differentiation between black-tailed deer and mule deer at protein-coding genes suggests that there is positive divergent selection, though selection on these loci is relatively weak. Contrary to predictions, there was not greater selection on protein-coding genes thought to be associated with immune function and mate choice. Geographic cline analyses were consistent across genetic markers, suggesting long-term stability (over hundreds of generations), and indicated that the center of the hybrid swarm is 20-30 km to the east of the Cascades ridgeline, where there is a steep ecological transition from wet, forested habitat to dry, scrub habitat. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are consistent with a genetic boundary between mule deer and black-tailed deer that is porous but maintained by many loci under weak selection having a substantial cumulative effect. The absence of clear reproductive barriers and the consistent centering of geographic clines at a sharp ecotone suggests that ecology is a driver of hybrid swarm dynamics. Adaptive introgression in this study (and others) promotes gene flow and provides valuable insight into selection strength on specific genes and the evolutionary trajectory of hybridizing taxa.


Assuntos
Cervos/classificação , Cervos/genética , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecologia , Éxons , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
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