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1.
Nature ; 585(7824): 225-233, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908268

RESUMO

Isoprene is the dominant non-methane organic compound emitted to the atmosphere1-3. It drives ozone and aerosol production, modulates atmospheric oxidation and interacts with the global nitrogen cycle4-8. Isoprene emissions are highly uncertain1,9, as is the nonlinear chemistry coupling isoprene and the hydroxyl radical, OH-its primary sink10-13. Here we present global isoprene measurements taken from space using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder. Together with observations of formaldehyde, an isoprene oxidation product, these measurements provide constraints on isoprene emissions and atmospheric oxidation. We find that the isoprene-formaldehyde relationships measured from space are broadly consistent with the current understanding of isoprene-OH chemistry, with no indication of missing OH recycling at low nitrogen oxide concentrations. We analyse these datasets over four global isoprene hotspots in relation to model predictions, and present a quantification of isoprene emissions based directly on satellite measurements of isoprene itself. A major discrepancy emerges over Amazonia, where current underestimates of natural nitrogen oxide emissions bias modelled OH and hence isoprene. Over southern Africa, we find that a prominent isoprene hotspot is missing from bottom-up predictions. A multi-year analysis sheds light on interannual isoprene variability, and suggests the influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Butadienos/análise , Butadienos/química , Mapeamento Geográfico , Hemiterpenos/análise , Hemiterpenos/química , Imagens de Satélites , África , Austrália , Brasil , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Formaldeído/química , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Radical Hidroxila/química , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Estações do Ano , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
2.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2481-2488, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628091

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, is the most serious disease of watermelon in South Carolina and other southeastern U.S. states. Isolates of F. oxysporum collected from field-grown plants, greenhouse-grown seedlings, and field soil between 1999 and 2018 were inoculated onto three differential watermelon cultivars to identify races. Of 197 isolates obtained from plants, 12% were nonpathogenic, 2% were race 0, 23% were race 1, and 63% were race 2. One collection of isolates from greenhouse seedlings was exclusively race 1 and the other was exclusively race 2. Seventeen of 81 soil isolates were pathogenic: five were race 1 and 12 were race 2. Reactions of C. amarus PI 296341-FR, Carolina Strongback, and SP-6, cultigens with resistance to race 2, did not differ significantly among five highly virulent race 2 isolates and a standard race 2 isolate, indicating a lack of a race 3 phenotype. Forma specialis-specific primers matched phenotypic race identification for 74% of the isolates. Race-specific primers based on a secreted-in-xylem elicitor present in race 0 and 1 isolates matched phenotypic race identification for 66% of the isolates. Because a majority of the F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum isolates from South Carolina were race 2, integrated management practices should be used until commercial cultivars with resistance to race 2 are available.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Plântula , Solo , South Carolina , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603333

RESUMO

Urban development relies on many factors to remain viable, including infrastructure, services, and government provisions and subsidies. However, in situations involving federal or state level policy, development responds not just to one regulatory signal, but also to multiple signals from overlapping and competing jurisdictions. The 1982 U.S. Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CoBRA) offers an opportunity to study when and how development restrictions and economic disincentives protect natural resources by stopping or slowing urban development in management regimes with distributed authority and responsibility. CoBRA prohibits federal financial assistance for infrastructure, post-storm disaster relief, and flood insurance in designated sections (CoBRA units) of coastal barriers. How has CoBRA's removal of these subsidies affected rates and types of urban development? Using building footprint and real estate data (n = 1,385,552 parcels), we compare density of built structures, land use types, residential house size, and land values within and outside of CoBRA units in eight Southeast and Gulf Coast states. We show that CoBRA is associated with reduced development rates in designated coastal barriers. We also demonstrate how local responses may counteract withdrawal of federal subsidies. As attention increases towards improving urban resilience in high hazard areas, this work contributes to understanding how limitations on infrastructure and insurance subsidies can affect outcomes where overlapping jurisdictions have competing goals.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental , Financiamento Governamental , Reforma Urbana/economia , Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Seguro , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
4.
Plant Dis ; 104(7): 2014-2022, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484420

RESUMO

Peach scab, caused by Venturia carpophila, is a damaging disease of peach in the southeastern United States. Thus, fungicides are applied to reduce peach scab. Tractor speed was investigated as a variable affecting spray deposition and disease control in relation to volume applied. In experiments in 2015 and 2016, trees were sprayed with fungicide to control scab at petal fall to 1% shuck split and at shuck split to 10% shuck off. Speeds were 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 kph resulting in 1,403, 935, and 701 liters/ha, respectively, with the dose of active ingredient (a.i.) per ha kept constant. Deposition declined for all speeds with later spray dates. There was a negative linear relationship between tractor speed and spray coverage on three of four dates the experiment was repeated. Tractor speed (different volumes, equal doses) affected peach scab. In 2015 and 2016, mean incidence at 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 kph was 68.6, 59.2, and 38.3%, and 64.2, 53.0, and 40.4% of fruit scabbed, respectively. Effect of speed on lesion number per fruit depended on year: in 2015, lesions per fruit were reduced at 6.4 kph compared with 3.2 and 4.8 kph but were not different in 2016. Control trees had fewer lesions per fruit high in the canopy, but there was little effect of sample height in fungicide-treated trees. Concentration of a.i. in lower volumes applied at higher speed may provide some benefit in reducing incidence of peach scab, but there appeared to be less effect on severity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Prunus persica , Incidência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
5.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
6.
N C Med J ; 81(3): 149-156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Trauma-emotional, physical, and psychological-is common and associated with increased risk behaviors, low rates of care engagement and viral suppression, and overall poor health outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH). This article presents the results of 15 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with PLWH in the Southeastern United States in which participants identified a trauma and described its long-lasting impact on their lives. Participants' trauma narratives described a wide range of traumas, including childhood sexual abuse, the loss of a loved one, and their HIV diagnosis.METHODS Systematic qualitative analysis was used to delineate beliefs about causes, symptoms, treatments, quality of life, and health implications of trauma.RESULTS: Fifteen participants completed semi-structured interviews that lasted on average 32 minutes. Participants described a wide spectrum of personal trauma that occurred both prior and subsequent to their HIV diagnosis. The types of trauma identified included physical, sexual, and psychological abuse inflicted by intimate partners, family members, and/or strangers.LIMITATIONS A chief limitation of this study is selection bias. Additionally, the participant selection and content of the trauma narratives might have been affected by the surrounding context of the parent study centered on HIV, aging, and psychosocial stress. It is also difficult to interpret the distinction between discrete trauma experiences and the diagnosis of HIV, leading to potential information bias.CONCLUSION This study highlights the importance of social support in coping with trauma and the effect of trauma on health-related behaviors. It also illustrates the need for additional research on the topic of trauma and trauma-informed care for PLWH. Understanding how different types of trauma affect individuals' lives is necessary to inform recommendations to provide better care for PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Narração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Am Coll Surg ; 230(6): 1080-1091.e3, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19467

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was first diagnosed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has now spread throughout the world, being verified by the World Health Organization as a pandemic on March 11. This had led to the calling of a national emergency on March 13 in the US. Many hospitals, healthcare networks, and specifically, departments of surgery, are asking the same questions about how to cope and plan for surge capacity, personnel attrition, novel infrastructure utilization, and resource exhaustion. Herein, we present a tiered plan for surgical department planning based on incident command levels. This includes acute care surgeon deployment (given their critical care training and vertically integrated position in the hospital), recommended infrastructure and transfer utilization, triage principles, and faculty, resident, and advanced care practitioner deployment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Pandemias , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Telemedicina , Triagem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229957, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236120

RESUMO

Hurricanes are powerful agents of destruction with significant socioeconomic impacts. A persistent problem due to the large-scale evacuations during hurricanes in the southeastern United States is the fuel shortages during the evacuation. Computational models can aid in emergency preparedness and help mitigate the impacts of hurricanes. In this paper, we model the hurricane fuel shortages using the SIR epidemic model. We utilize the crowd-sourced data corresponding to Hurricane Irma and Florence to parametrize the model. An estimation technique based on Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is employed to evaluate the SIR dynamic parameters. Finally, an optimal control approach for refueling based on a vaccination analogue is presented to effectively reduce the fuel shortages under a resource constraint. We find the basic reproduction number corresponding to fuel shortages in Miami during Hurricane Irma to be 3.98. Using the control model we estimated the level of intervention needed to mitigate the fuel-shortage epidemic. For example, our results indicate that for Naples- Fort Myers affected by Hurricane Irma, a per capita refueling rate of 0.1 for 2.2 days would have reduced the peak fuel shortage from 55% to 48% and a refueling rate of 0.75 for half a day before landfall would have reduced to 37%.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas/economia , Planejamento em Desastres , Gasolina/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(10): 5980-5991, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271021

RESUMO

Anthropogenic emissions alter secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry from naturally emitted isoprene. We use correlations of tracers and tracer ratios to provide new perspectives on sulfate, NOx, and particle acidity influencing isoprene-derived SOA in two isoprene-rich forested environments representing clean to polluted conditions-wet and dry seasons in central Amazonia and Southeastern U.S. summer. We used a semivolatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (SV-TAG) and filter samplers to measure SOA tracers indicative of isoprene/HO2 (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, 2-methyltetrol organosulfates) and isoprene/NOx (2-methylglyceric acid, 2-methylglyceric acid organosulfate) pathways. Summed concentrations of these tracers correlated with particulate sulfate spanning three orders of magnitude, suggesting that 1 µg m-3 reduction in sulfate corresponds with at least ∼0.5 µg m-3 reduction in isoprene-derived SOA. We also find that isoprene/NOx pathway SOA mass primarily comprises organosulfates, ∼97% in the Amazon and ∼55% in Southeastern United States. We infer under natural conditions in high isoprene emission regions that preindustrial aerosol sulfate was almost exclusively isoprene-derived organosulfates, which are traditionally thought of as representative of an anthropogenic influence. We further report the first field observations showing that particle acidity correlates positively with 2-methylglyceric acid partitioning to the gas phase and negatively with the ratio of 2-methyltetrols to C5-alkene triols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hemiterpenos , Aerossóis/análise , Brasil , Butadienos , Pentanos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
10.
Plant Dis ; 104(6): 1629-1637, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320369

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has emerged as an alternative fruit crop for growers dealing with devastating threats to citrus and avocado in the southeastern United States. However, foliar and fruit diseases are major constraints to commercial pomegranate production. Replicated field trials were performed in 2015 at three separate sites in Florida (Dover, Plant City, and Parrish) to evaluate Merivon (pyraclostrobin and fluxapyroxad), Luna Experience (fluopyram + tebuconazole), and a rotational program consisting of these two fungicides as well as Penncozeb 75DF (mancozeb) for the management of leaf spot and fruit rot of pomegranate. The fungicide programs were evaluated on the varieties Vietnam in Dover, FL; Angel Red in Plant City, FL; as well as Christina, Azadi, Vikusnyi, Alsirinnar, Sakerdze, and Wonderful in Parrish, FL. Mean leaf spot severity varied across sites at the end of each trial in August, with values ranging from 4.5 to 62.5% in Plant City, 7.5 to 45.8% in Dover, and 4.5 to 54.2% in Parrish. Based on area under the disease progress curve, all treatments that included at least one at bloom application significantly reduced disease levels compared with postbloom treatments and the nontreated control across all trial sites. Based on fruit rot incidence, Luna Experience and Merivon, when applied twice at bloom in the beginning of the season, reduced disease by 66.6 and 88.4%, respectively, in comparison with the nontreated control in Plant City. A rotational program further reduced disease by at least 97% at the end of the season in Parrish. The proper timing of fungicide application and rotation with different modes of action provided a feasible disease management option for pomegranate growers in the Southeast United States.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Florida , Frutas , Doenças das Plantas , Romã (Fruta) , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Vietnã
11.
Plant Dis ; 104(6): 1675-1684, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320372

RESUMO

Pecan scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is a destructive disease of pecan in the southeastern United States. Susceptible cultivars must be sprayed with fungicide every 10 to 21 days to ensure yield and kernel quality. Fungicide is most often applied using large orchard air-blast sprayers. Pecan trees grow tall, and air-blast sprays result in a gradient in spray deposition and consequently of scab. Aerial fungicide application is also practiced. Disease distribution and spray deposition of the two methods have not been compared but will provide information aiding decisions on spray application methods. We compared air-blast, aerial, and air-blast + aerial applications for efficacy controlling scab at five heights in the canopy of 25-m cultivar Schley pecan trees. There was a negative relationship between scab severity and height in control trees, a positive linear relationship with height in air-blast treated trees, and a generally negative linear relationship between scab severity and height in aerially treated trees. Air-blast + aerial treatments resulted in low severity of scab at all heights. Spray deposition on water-sensitive cards indicated a declining gradient with height using an air-blast sprayer, whereas aerial applications resulted in a low deposition at all sample heights. Air-blast sprays tended to result in less good control at heights >12.5 m, and aerially treated trees at ≤7.5 m. The results provide insight into the efficacy and advantages of these methods for applying fungicide to control scab in tall pecan trees; further research is needed to better understand the impact of frequency and timing of these two methods.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Carya , Fungicidas Industriais , Aeronaves , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
12.
J Am Coll Surg ; 230(6): 1080-1091.e3, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240770

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was first diagnosed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has now spread throughout the world, being verified by the World Health Organization as a pandemic on March 11. This had led to the calling of a national emergency on March 13 in the US. Many hospitals, healthcare networks, and specifically, departments of surgery, are asking the same questions about how to cope and plan for surge capacity, personnel attrition, novel infrastructure utilization, and resource exhaustion. Herein, we present a tiered plan for surgical department planning based on incident command levels. This includes acute care surgeon deployment (given their critical care training and vertically integrated position in the hospital), recommended infrastructure and transfer utilization, triage principles, and faculty, resident, and advanced care practitioner deployment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Pandemias , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Telemedicina , Triagem
13.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(4): 235-240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is a secondary data analysis of an original study describing the lived experiences of Hispanic/Latinx nursing students as they acculturate into the profession of nursing. METHOD: The original study described the experiences of 11 Hispanic/Latinx new graduates from three baccalaureate nursing programs in the southeastern United States. A secondary data analysis using a theoretical thematic analytical approach with data gathered in the original study was done to determine the utility of the theory of cultural marginality in understanding these student experiences. RESULTS: Findings support aspects of the theory, including marginal living, cross-cultural conflict recognition, and adjustment responses of poise and integration. Personal and contextual influences also impact the acculturation process for these nursing students. CONCLUSION: The theory of cultural marginality is valuable and provides important context for understanding the process that Hispanic/Latinx nursing students experience as they acculturate into nursing.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Análise de Dados , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1274-1279, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213125

RESUMO

In the southeastern United States, Armillaria root rot (ARR) is caused by Desarmillaria tabescens and has become the primary cause of premature mortality in peach orchards. Most rootstocks used in commercial orchards are susceptible and management options are limited. A postinfection practice known as root-collar excavation (RCE), which involves permanent removal of the soil from the base of the trunk, has been shown to improve yields and prolong the productive life of symptomatic trees. However, symptomatic trees already have an advanced infection at the base of the trunk. This study evaluated the efficacy of preventative RCE on the progression of tree mortality in two orchards that were planted in infested replant sites. To provide convincing data for growers, the study was carried out in a commercial orchard and an experimental orchard for 8 years. Furthermore, representative enterprise budgets and net present value (NPV) analysis were utilized to compare the profitability of the two approaches. Trees were planted shallow on berms (45 by 90 cm) to facilitate RCE with hoes and AirSpade 2 years later. Tree mortality in the RCE treatment of the experimental orchard was first observed in year 6 and increased 8% on average per year thereafter. In contrast, tree mortality in the "Grower Standard" treatment was first observed in year 4 and increased 12.7% on average per year thereafter. At the commercial orchard, tree mortality in the RCE treatment was first observed in year 7 and increased 1.9% on average thereafter, while tree mortality in the Grower Standard treatment first appeared in year 5 and increased 4.3% on average thereafter. The delayed onset of ARR-associated tree mortality and the lower annual tree mortality rate in the RCE treatment led to higher NPVs in both locations. There were no negative effects on yield or fruit quality. However, the new planting system can create horticultural challenges, including the formation of a proper berm, uneven ground around the tree interfering with tree care and harvest, increased erosion due to channeling of rainwater, and increased rootstock suckering. The RCE is a valid option for southeastern growers needing to manage high ARR disease pressure on replant sites or on sites only recently cleared from ARR-infected forest land.


Assuntos
Armillaria , Prunus persica , Frutas , Solo , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
15.
Phytopathology ; 110(6): 1199-1207, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133919

RESUMO

Management of disease affecting peanut in the southeastern United States has benefited from extensive field research identifying disease-associated risk factors since the 1990s. An assessment of risk factors associated with tomato spotted wilt (TSW), caused by tomato spotted wilt virus and spread exclusively by thrips, is available to growers through Peanut Rx, a tool developed to inform peanut management decisions. Peanut Rx provides an assessment of relative TSW risk as an index. The assessment provides information about the relative degree to which a field characterized by a specified suite of practices is at risk of crop loss caused by TSW. Loss results when infection occurs, and infection rates are determined, in part, by factors outside a grower's control, primarily the abundance of dispersing, viruliferous thrips. In this study, we incorporated meteorological variables useful for predicting thrips dispersal, increasing the robustness of the Peanut Rx framework in relation to variation in the weather. We used data from field experiments and a large grower survey to estimate the relationships between weather and TSW risk mediated by thrips vectors, and developed an addition to Peanut Rx that proved informative and easy to implement. The expected temporal occurrence of major thrips flights, as a function of heat and precipitation, was translated into the existing risk-point system of Peanut Rx. Results from the grower survey further demonstrated the validity of Peanut Rx for guiding growers' decisions to minimize risk of TSW.


Assuntos
Arachis , Tospovirus , Animais , Doenças das Plantas , Medição de Risco , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(6): 601-606, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the leading cause of gastric cancer. High antibody levels to H. pylori virulence factors Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) have been suggested as gastric cancer risk markers. In the USA, H. pylori sero-prevalence is twofold higher in African Americans compared to whites. We sought to assess whether African Americans also exhibit higher antibody levels to VacA and CagA. METHODS: Antibody responses to H. pylori proteins were measured by multiplex serology in 686 African Americans and whites of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Among VacA- and CagA-seropositives, we analyzed the association of race with antibody level using logistic regression models to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Sero-positive African Americans had significantly higher mean antibody levels to both VacA and CagA, which resulted in increased odds for the highest quartile of antibody levels compared to sero-positive whites (VacA, OR: 6.08; 95% CI 3.41, 10.86; CagA, OR: 3.77; 95% CI 1.61, 8.84). CONCLUSION: Our findings support future studies to assess the association of differential antibody responses by race with risk of gastric cancer in the USA, which could then aid in developing targeted H. pylori eradication strategies.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Helicobacter pylori , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136795, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018098

RESUMO

Transient, acutely toxic concentrations of pesticides in streams can go undetected by fixed-interval sampling programs. Here we compare temporal patterns in occurrence of current-use pesticides in daily composite samples to those in weekly composite and weekly discrete samples of surface water from 14 small stream sites. Samples were collected over 10-14 weeks at 7 stream sites in each of the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Samples were analyzed for over 200 pesticides and degradates by direct aqueous injection liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Nearly 2 and 3 times as many unique pesticides were detected in daily samples as in weekly composite and weekly discrete samples, respectively. Based on exceedances of acute-invertebrate benchmarks (AIB) and(or) a Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) >1, potential acute-invertebrate toxicity was predicted at 11 of 14 sites from the results for daily composite samples, but was predicted for only 3 sites from weekly composites and for no sites from weekly discrete samples. Insecticides were responsible for most of the potential invertebrate toxicity, occurred transiently, and frequently were missed by the weekly discrete and composite samples. The number of days with benthic-invertebrate PTI ≥0.1 in daily composite samples was inversely related to Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness at the sites. The results of the study indicate that short-term, potentially toxic peaks in pesticides frequently are missed by weekly discrete sampling, and that such peaks may contribute to degradation of invertebrate community condition in small streams. Weekly composite samples underestimated maximum concentrations and potential acute-invertebrate toxicity, but to a lesser degree than weekly discrete samples, and provided a reasonable approximation of the 90th percentile total concentrations of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, suggesting that weekly composite sampling may be a compromise between assessment needs and cost.


Assuntos
Rios , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136359, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019007

RESUMO

Consumer demand has increased for pastured poultry products as the drive for sustainable farming practices and ethical treatments of livestock have become popular in the press. It is necessary to identify the important meteorological factors associated with the prevalence of Salmonella in the pastured poultry settings since the presence of Salmonella in the environment could lead to contamination of the final product. The objective of this study was to develop a model to describe the relationship between meteorological factors and the presence of Salmonella on the pastured poultry farms. The random forest method was used to develop a model where 83 meteorological factors were included as the predicting variables. The soil model identified humidity as the most important variable associated with Salmonella prevalence, while high wind gust speed and average temperature were identified as important meteorological variables in the feces model. The developed models were robust in predicting the prevalence of Salmonella in pastured poultry farms with the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values of 0.884 and 0.872 for the soil model and feces model, respectively. The predictive models developed in this study can provide users with practical and effective tools to make informed decisions with scientific evidence regarding the meteorological parameters that are important to monitor for increased on-farm Salmonella prevalence.


Assuntos
Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella , Animais , Fazendas , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Aves Domésticas , Prevalência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 144, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The southeastern US is an epicenter for incident HIV in the US with high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) co-infections. However, epidemiologies of HPV-associated clinical conditions (CC) among people living with HIV-1 infection (PLWH) are not fully known. METHODS: Electronic medical records (EMR) of PLWH attending one of the leading HIV clinics in the southeastern US between 2006 and 2018 were reviewed and analyzed. The retrospective study was nested within the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV clinical cohort, which has electronically collected over 7000 PLWH's clinical and sociobehavioral data since 1999. Incidence rates of HPV-related CC including anogenital warts, penile, anal, cervical, and vaginal/vulvar low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL) were estimated per 10,000 person years. Joinpoint regressions were performed to examine temporal changes in the trends of incident CC. All rates and trends were stratified by gender and race. RESULTS: Of the 4484 PLWH included in the study (3429 men, 1031 women, and 24 transgender), we observed 1038 patients with HPV-related CC. The median nadir CD4 count (cells/uL) was higher in the HPV-condition free group than the case groups (P < 0.0001). Anogenital warts, anal LSIL, HSIL, and cancer were more likely to be diagnosed among HIV-infected men than women. White men presented more frequently with anal LSIL and anal and penile cancers than black men (P < 0.03). White women were also more likely to be diagnosed with cervical HSIL (P = 0.023) and cancer (P = 0.037) than black women. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences between gender and race with incidence of HPV-related CC among HIV patients. EMR-based studies provide insights on understudied HPV-related anogenital conditions in PLWH; however, large-scale studies in other regions are needed to generalize current findings and draw public health attention to co-infection induced non-AIDS defining comorbidities among PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Canal Anal/virologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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