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3.
Plant Dis ; 104(7): 1994-2004, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441578

RESUMO

Leaf spot diseases have become a major concern in spinach production in the United States. Determining the causal agents of leaf spots on spinach, their prevalence and pathogenicity, and fungicide efficacy against these pathogens is vital for effective disease management. Spinach leaves with leaf spots were collected from Texas, California, Arizona, and South Carolina from 2016 to 2018, incubated in a moist chamber, and plated on potato dextrose and tryptic soy agar media. Fungal and bacterial colonies recovered were identified based on morphology and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA and 16S rRNA, respectively. Two predominant genera were isolated: (i) Colletotrichum spp., which were identified to species based on sequences of both introns of the glutamate synthetase (GS-I) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh-I) genes; and (ii) Stemphylium spp., identified to species based on sequences of the gapdh and calmodulin (cmdA) genes. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum spinaciae) and Stemphylium leaf spot (Stemphylium vesicarium and S. beticola) were the predominant diseases. Additional fungi recovered at very limited frequencies that were also pathogenic to spinach included Colletotrichum coccodes, C. truncatum, Cercospora beticola, and Myrothecium verrucaria. All of the bacterial isolates were not pathogenic on spinach. Pathogenicity tests showed that C. spinaciae, S. vesicarium, and S. beticola caused significant leaf damage. The fungicides Bravo WeatherStik (chlorothalonil), Dithane F-45 (mancozeb), Cabrio (pyraclostrobin), and Merivon (fluxapyroxad and pyraclostrobin) were highly effective at reducing leaf spot severity caused by an isolate of each of C. spinaciae and S. vesicarium, when inoculated individually and in combination.


Assuntos
Spinacia oleracea , Arizona , RNA Ribossômico 16S , South Carolina , Texas , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267885

RESUMO

Bats are among the most widespread mammals on Earth, and are subject to habitat change, loss, and other disturbances such as fire. Wildfire causes rapid changes in vegetation that affect habitat use. However, the spatial scale at which these changes affect bats depends on their use of habitat elements. Three years post wildfire, we assessed how burn severity, water, landform type, elevation, vegetation type, and roads affected use by bats of a forest landscape at multiple spatial scales. We deployed acoustic detectors at randomly selected locations within a 217,712 ha wildfire boundary in Arizona. We classified echolocation calls to species or group and calculated an activity index by adjusting the calls per hour. We conducted a multi-scale analysis of landscape structure and composition around each location from a 90 to 5760 m radius. No scale was selected preferentially by any species or group. Stream density and elevation range were more important predictors for species groups than burn severity. When burn severity was a predictor, agile species had higher activity in areas that were unburned or had low severity burn. A heterogeneous landscape composed of high, medium, and low burn severity patches within a forest altered by large wildfires provided habitat for different bat species, but water density and range in elevation were more important for predicting bat habitat use than fire severity in this arid landscape. More than one spatial scale, representing local to landscape levels, should be considered in managing habitat for bats. In arid areas, such as the western United States, maintaining reliable water sources is important for bats. Managing these factors at multiple spatial scales will benefit bat species with different wing morphologies, echolocation call types, and habitat selections.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Rios , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Arizona , Ecolocação , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/instrumentação , Feminino , Voo Animal , Florestas , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Masculino , Análise Espacial
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(6): 1811-1816, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282277

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt of lettuce, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, is now found in all major lettuce producing regions in California and Arizona. The population structure of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae in California and Arizona was characterized based on somatic compatibility and sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF-1α) and rDNA intergenic spacer region (IGS). In this study, 170 isolates were tested for somatic compatibility based on heterokaryon formation, using complementary nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. Five subgroups (A to E) of somatic compatibility group 0300 were identified. Isolates associated with the same subgroup had a strong complementation reaction, whereas reactions between isolates of different subgroups were weak or delayed. An isolate from the first known infestation of Fusarium wilt of lettuce in California was associated with subgroup A, which predominated among isolates in our collection. Isolates representative of each subgroup were confirmed to be associated with race 1, based on the reaction of differential lettuce cultivars. It is possible that somatic compatibility subgroups B to E of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae were derived from subgroup A, as a consequence of somatic mutations affecting compatibility. If so, subgroups of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae may represent an intermediate step in divergence that will lead to clearly separable compatibility groups. Sequences of EF-1α and IGS were both identical for 58 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae that represented all somatic compatibility subgroups and locations from which isolates were obtained, indicating that subgroups were derived from the same clonal lineage (VCG 0300).


Assuntos
Fusarium , Arizona , California , DNA Ribossômico , Alface
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049986

RESUMO

Urbanization modifies land surface characteristics with consequent impacts on local energy, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Despite the disproportionate impact of cities on CO2 emissions, few studies have directly quantified CO2 conditions for different urban land cover patches, in particular for arid and semiarid regions. Here, we present a comparison of eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes (FC) and CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) in four distinct urban patches in Phoenix, Arizona: a xeric landscaping, a parking lot, a mesic landscaping, and a suburban neighborhood. Analyses of diurnal, daily, and seasonal variations of FC and [CO2] were related to vegetation activity, vehicular traffic counts, and precipitation events to quantify differences among sites in relation to their urban land cover characteristics. We found that the mesic landscaping with irrigated turf grass was primarily controlled by plant photosynthetic activity, while the parking lot in close proximity to roads mainly exhibited the signature of vehicular emissions. The other two sites that had mixtures of irrigated vegetation and urban surfaces displayed an intermediate behavior in terms of CO2 fluxes. Precipitation events only impacted FC in urban patches without outdoor water use, indicating that urban irrigation decouples CO2 fluxes from the effects of infrequent storms in an arid climate. These findings suggest that the proportion of irrigated vegetation and urban surfaces fractions within urban patches could be used to scale up CO2 fluxes to a broader city footprint.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Poaceae/fisiologia , Chuva , Solo , Urbanização , Arizona , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cidades , Clima Desértico , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Ciclo Hidrológico/fisiologia
7.
J Dent Educ ; 84(6): 681-687, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey A. T. Still University, Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health (ATSU-ASDOH) graduates and evaluate the impact of completing a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree during dental school on a dentist's practice behaviors, volunteerism, and attitudes toward dental education, practice preparedness, and the dental profession. METHODS: In 2018, a 35-question survey was emailed to 637 (ATSU-ASDOH) graduates from 2007 to 2017. Questions were related to demographics, obtaining an MPH, postgraduate education, practice setting, and attitudes regarding dental education on practice preparedness and the dental profession. RESULTS: One hundred and seven dentists completed the survey for a response rate of 16.8%. Of those, 40 respondents received an MPH from (ATSU-ASDOH) at the same time as graduating with a DMD or within 5 years following graduation. Dentists with an MPH were more likely to practice in public health settings (P = 0.028). However, the MPH did not appear to influence attitudes toward the dental profession. CONCLUSION: Dentists from (ATSU-ASDOH) who obtained an MPH and those who entered dental school wanting to work with the underserved are more likely to practice within public health settings. This study begins to paint a picture of a dual degree graduate. Future studies should explore which variables are more likely to result in a graduate working within a public health setting.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Odontologia , Universidades , Arizona , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação em Odontologia , Saúde Pública
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1596-1605, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907313

RESUMO

Hybrid-poplar tree plantations provide a source for biofuel and biomass, but they also increase forest isoprene emissions. The consequences of increased isoprene emissions include higher rates of tropospheric ozone production, increases in the lifetime of methane, and increases in atmospheric aerosol production, all of which affect the global energy budget and/or lead to the degradation of air quality. Using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress isoprene emission, we show that this trait, which is thought to be required for the tolerance of abiotic stress, is not required for high rates of photosynthesis and woody biomass production in the agroforest plantation environment, even in areas with high levels of climatic stress. Biomass production over 4 y in plantations in Arizona and Oregon was similar among genetic lines that emitted or did not emit significant amounts of isoprene. Lines that had substantially reduced isoprene emission rates also showed decreases in flavonol pigments, which reduce oxidative damage during extremes of abiotic stress, a pattern that would be expected to amplify metabolic dysfunction in the absence of isoprene production in stress-prone climate regimes. However, compensatory increases in the expression of other proteomic components, especially those associated with the production of protective compounds, such as carotenoids and terpenoids, and the fact that most biomass is produced prior to the hottest and driest part of the growing season explain the observed pattern of high biomass production with low isoprene emission. Our results show that it is possible to reduce the deleterious influences of isoprene on the atmosphere, while sustaining woody biomass production in temperate agroforest plantations.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Hemiterpenos/biossíntese , Hibridização Genética , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/metabolismo , Poluição do Ar , Arizona , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Butadienos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clima , Oregon , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Proteoma , Interferência de RNA , Estações do Ano , Estresse Fisiológico , Terpenos/metabolismo , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Madeira
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(4): 438-443, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify rabies virus variants (RVVs) isolated from bats and terrestrial mammals in Nuevo Leon between 2008 and 2015 and Coahuila in 2006. SAMPLE: RVVs isolated from 15 bats and terrestrial mammals in Nuevo Leon and from a cow (Bos taurus) in Coahuila, along with 46 reference rabies virus sequences. PROCEDURES: Antigenic characterization of the 16 isolates was performed with an indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Genomic sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene in the 16 isolates was performed with a reverse transcription PCR assay. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the 62 sequences was performed by means of Bayesian inference. RESULTS: 9 isolates from bats and 1 isolate from a domestic cat that became infected as a result of contact with a Mexican free-tailed bat all clustered in the lineage associated with Lasiurus spp in the Americas or the lineage associated with Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana. An isolate from a domestic dog was identified as a variant associated with the dog-coyote lineage. The RVV isolated from a fox clustered in an Arizona fox lineage. The 3 RVVs from skunks (Mephitis macroura) were placed in a lineage with variants isolated from spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius). The RVV isolated from the cow was clustered in a lineage associated with foxes in Texas and separate from the lineage for the fox from Nuevo Leon. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results reinforced the need for Mexico to implement rabies surveillance and monitoring programs for bats and wild-living terrestrial carnivores.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Arizona , Teorema de Bayes , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Feminino , México , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , Texas
10.
Water Environ Res ; 92(7): 1042-1050, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989707

RESUMO

Wastewaters routinely contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and genes (ARG) that are removed to a varying degree during wastewater treatment. This study investigated the removal of the erythromycin ribosome methylase class F (erm(F)) and class 1 integron-integrase (intI1) genes at each stage from two water resource recovery facilities in southern Arizona. Although genes were significantly reduced by Bardenpho treatment, erm(F) and intI1 were still observed in ≥ 9 and 7 out of 12 secondary effluent samples. Primary processes via sedimentation or dissolved air flotation, as well as chlorine disinfection, did not significantly impact erm(F) and intI1 concentrations. Therefore, Bardenpho treatment was critical to reduce erm(F) and intI1. Concentrations of erm(F) and intI1 were compared with each other and other markers for anthropogenic pollution. Results from this study support intI1 as one suitable marker to measure erythromycin resistance genes in wastewater, as intI1 was found at higher concentrations, persisted more throughout treatment, and correlated with erm(F) at nearly every treatment stage. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Bardenpho treatment was the key process responsible for the reduction of intI1 and erm(F) genes during wastewater treatment. Primary treatment and chlorine disinfection did not impact erm(F) and intI1 gene concentrations. The intI1 gene is a suitable marker for measuring erm(F) genes in wastewater.


Assuntos
Integrons , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos , Arizona , Eritromicina , Genes Bacterianos , Integrases
11.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 38(6): 294-302, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929354

RESUMO

Preoperative care is a critical, yet complex, time-sensitive process. Optimization of workflow is challenging for many reasons, including a lack of standard workflow analysis methods. We sought to comprehensively characterize electronic health record-mediated preoperative nursing workflow. We employed a structured methodological framework to investigate and explain variations in the workflow. Video recording software captured 10 preoperative cases at Arizona and Florida regional referral centers. We compared the distribution of work for electronic health record tasks and off-screen tasks through quantitative analysis. Suboptimal patterns and reasons for variation were explored through qualitative analysis. Although both settings used the same electronic health record system, electronic health record tasks and off-screen tasks time distribution and patterns were notably different across two sites. Arizona nurses spent a longer time completing preoperative assessment. Electronic health record tasks occupied a higher proportion of time in Arizona, while off-screen tasks occupied a higher proportion in Florida. The contextual analysis helped to identify the variation associated with the documentation workload, preparation of the patient, and regional differences. These findings should seed hypotheses for future optimization efforts and research supporting standardization and harmonization of workflow across settings, post-electronic health record conversion.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Assistência Perioperatória , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fluxo de Trabalho , Arizona , Documentação , Florida , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991902

RESUMO

The Sonoran Desert tortoise Gopherus morafkai is adapted to the desert, and plays an important ecological role in this environment. There is limited information on the viral diversity associated with tortoises (family Testudinidae), and to date no DNA virus has been identified associated with these animals. This study aimed to assess the diversity of DNA viruses associated with the Sonoran Desert tortoise by sampling their fecal matter. A viral metagenomics approach was used to identify the DNA viruses in fecal samples from wild Sonoran Desert tortoises in Arizona, USA. In total, 156 novel single-stranded DNA viruses were identified from 40 fecal samples. Those belonged to two known viral families, the Genomoviridae (n = 27) and Microviridae (n = 119). In addition, 10 genomes were recovered that belong to the unclassified group of circular-replication associated protein encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA virus and five circular molecules encoding viral-like proteins.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Tartarugas/virologia , Animais , Arizona , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Circular , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Genoma Viral , Microviridae/classificação , Microviridae/genética , Microviridae/isolamento & purificação , Microvirus/classificação , Microvirus/genética , Microvirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(2): 85-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine program effectiveness in changing Caritas leadership, self-caring behaviors, and perceptions of coworkers of participants who completed the Caritas Coach Education Program (CCEP). BACKGROUND: The CCEP has been a highly successful education program for individuals who wish to intellectually and experientially learn to teach, live, and practice human caring theory. METHODS: A pretest-posttest descriptive design was used to evaluate changes in perceptions of self-caring, caritas leadership, and coworker behaviors after completion of CCEP. RESULTS: The mean scores of all measures improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: After completion of CCEP, participants demonstrated statistically significant changes in 3 caritas measures: leadership, coworker, and self-rating. Caritas Coach participants exhibited the greatest change in their self-caring scores.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Empatia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Adulto , Arizona , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996418

RESUMO

The vast majority of microbes inhabiting oligotrophic shallow subsurface soil environments have not been isolated or studied under controlled laboratory conditions. In part, the challenges associated with isolating shallow subsurface microbes may persist because microbes in deeper soils are adapted to low nutrient availability or quality. Here, we use high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing to isolate shallow subsurface microbes from a conifer forest in Arizona, USA. We hypothesized that the concentration of heterotrophic substrates in microbiological growth medium would affect which microbial taxa were culturable from these soils. To test this, we diluted cells extracted from soil into one of two custom-designed defined growth media that differed by 100-fold in the concentration of amino acids and organic carbon. Across the two media, we isolated a total of 133 pure cultures, all of which were classified as Actinobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria The substrate availability dictated which actinobacterial phylotypes were culturable but had no significant effect on the culturability of Alphaproteobacteria We isolated cultures that were representative of the most abundant phylotype in the soil microbial community (Bradyrhizobium spp.) and representatives of five of the top 10 most abundant Actinobacteria phylotypes, including Nocardioides spp., Mycobacterium spp., and several other phylogenetically divergent lineages. Flow cytometry of nucleic acid-stained cells showed that cultures isolated on low-substrate medium had significantly lower nucleic acid fluorescence than those isolated on high-substrate medium. These results show that dilution-to-extinction is an effective method to isolate abundant soil microbes and that the concentration of substrates in culture medium influences the culturability of specific microbial lineages.IMPORTANCE Isolating environmental microbes and studying their physiology under controlled conditions are essential aspects of understanding their ecology. Subsurface ecosystems are typically nutrient-poor environments that harbor diverse microbial communities-the majority of which are thus far uncultured. In this study, we use modified high-throughput cultivation methods to isolate subsurface soil microbes. We show that a component of whether a microbe is culturable from subsurface soils is the concentration of growth substrates in the culture medium. Our results offer new insight into technical approaches and growth medium design that can be used to access the uncultured diversity of soil microbes.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alphaproteobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arizona , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Centrifugação , Florestas , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Am J Med ; 133(1): 108-114.e13, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kissing bugs are common household pests in the Desert Southwest of the United States. These hematophagous bugs enter homes and suck blood from resident humans and pets. They are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, an enzootic parasite in small mammals and the cause of Chagas disease in humans. Autochthonous cases of Chagas disease are rare in the United States despite the presence of the vector and parasite. Environmental and biological factors accounting for this phenomenon need studying. METHODS: Homeowners in Bisbee and Tucson, Arizona captured kissing bugs inside homes during 2017-2018. Bugs were tested for presence of T. cruzi by polymerase chain reaction. Residents bitten by kissing bugs were tested for Chagas disease by serology. We evaluated invaded homes in the 2 cities. RESULTS: Three species of kissing bugs (n = 521) were collected in or near homes. Triatoma rubida was the most common triatomine in Tucson; T. recurva in Bisbee. T. protracta was uncommon. Seventeen percent of bugs captured in Bisbee and 51.1% in Tucson harbored T. cruzi. Bite victims (n = 105) recalled more than 2200 bites. Reactions to bites were common, including 32 episodes of anaphylaxis in 11 people (10.5%). Tests for Chagas disease (n = 116) were negative. Median age of houses was 91 years in Bisbee and 7 years in Tucson. Bisbee houses had pier and beam foundations. Tucson houses were built on concrete slabs. CONCLUSIONS: Kissing bugs harboring T. cruzi readily entered new and old homes. Bites of humans caused severe, life-threatening reactions. There was no serological evidence of Chagas disease among those bitten.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Arizona/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(1): 97-101, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder mucocele is a potentially life-threatening extrahepatic biliary disease in dogs. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of cholecystitis in dogs with gross and histopathologically confirmed gallbladder mucocele and to investigate if there is an association between cholecystitis, including its subtypes (eg, acute, acute on chronic, with necrosis, chronic), and survival. Our secondary objective was to evaluate if there is an association between cholecystitis and intraoperative bacteriological culture positivity. KEY FINDINGS: Two hundred nineteen dogs with gallbladder mucocele were included in this multi-institutional retrospective study, of which 63 (28.8%) dogs had histopathological evidence of cholecystitis. The most common forms of cholecystitis were acute on chronic (n = 22/63, 34.9%) and with necrosis (n = 20, 31.7%). Thirty-one (14.1%) dogs had growth of at least 1 bacterial isolate; however, 88.7% had antimicrobials administered within the 48 hours before surgery or intraoperatively. There was not an association between cholecystitis or its subtypes and survival. Furthermore, there was not an association between cholecystitis and intraoperative bacteriological culture positivity. A total of 38 (17.4%) dogs either died or were euthanized during hospitalization. SIGNIFICANCE: Cholecystitis is a common comorbidity in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but was not associated with decreased survival.


Assuntos
Colecistite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Mucocele/veterinária , Animais , Arizona/epidemiologia , Colecistite/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mucocele/complicações , Mucocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
18.
J Surg Res ; 245: 367-372, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have been shown to improve outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of preinjury statins on outcomes in TBI patients. METHODS: We performed a 4-y (2014-2017) review of our TBI database and included all patients aged ≥18 y with severe isolated TBI. Patients were stratified into those who were on statins and those who were not and were matched (1:2 ratio) using propensity score matching. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were skilled nursing facility disposition, Glasgow Outcome Scale-extended score, and hospital and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: We identified 1359 patients, of which 270 were matched (statin: 90, no-statin: 180). Mean age was 55 ± 8y, median Glasgow Coma Scale was 10 (8-12), and median head-abbreviated injury scale was 3 (3-5). Matched groups were similar in age, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, neurosurgical intervention, type and size of intracranial hemorrhage, and preinjury anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 18%. Patients who received statins had lower rates of in-hospital mortality (11% versus 21%, P = 0.01), skilled nursing facility disposition (19% versus 28%; P = 0.04), and a higher median Glasgow Outcome Scale-extended (11 [9-13] versus 9 [8-10]; P = 0.04). No differences were found between the two groups in terms of hospital LOS (6 [4-9] versus 5 [3-8]; P = 0.34) and intensive care unit LOS (3 [3-6] versus 4 [3-5]; P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Preinjury statin use in isolated traumatic brain injury patients is associated with improved outcomes. This finding warrants further investigations to evaluate the potential beneficial role of statins as a therapeutic drug in a TBI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Therapeutic.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Arizona/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 47(4): 538, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811082
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225309, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830071

RESUMO

Nectar-inhabiting microbes are increasingly appreciated as important components of plant-pollinator interactions. We quantified the incidence, abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in floral nectar of two night-blooming plants of the Sonoran Desert over the course of a flowering season: Datura wrightii (Solanaceae), which is pollinated by hawkmoths, and Agave palmeri (Agavaceae), which is pollinated by bats but visited by hawkmoths that forage for nectar. We examined the relevance of growing environment (greenhouse vs. field), time (before and after anthesis), season (from early to late in the flowering season), and flower visitors (excluded via mesh sleeves or allowed to visit flowers naturally) in shaping microbial assemblages in nectar. We isolated and identified bacteria and fungi from >300 nectar samples to estimate richness and taxonomic composition. Our results show that microbes were common in D. wrightii and A. palmeri nectar in the greenhouse but more so in field environments, both before and especially after anthesis. Bacteria were isolated more frequently than fungi. The abundance of microbes in nectar of D. wrightii peaked near the middle of the flowering season. Microbes generally were more abundant as time for floral visitation increased. The composition of bacterial and especially fungal communities differed significantly between nectars of D. wrightii and A. palmeri, opening the door to future studies examining their functional roles in shaping nectar chemistry, attractiveness, and pollinator specialization.


Assuntos
Agave/microbiologia , Datura/microbiologia , Clima Desértico , Microbiota , Arizona , Flores/microbiologia , Néctar de Plantas
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