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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(26): 847-849, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614809

RESUMO

On March 26, 2020, Colorado instituted stay-at-home orders to reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To inform public health messaging and measures that could be used after reopening, persons with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 9-26 from nine Colorado counties comprising approximately 80% of the state's population† (Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, El Paso, Jefferson, Larimer, and Weld) were asked about possible exposures to SARS-CoV-2 before implementation of stay-at-home orders. Among 1,738 persons meeting the inclusion criteria§ in the Colorado Electronic Disease Surveillance System, 600 were randomly selected and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire by telephone. Data collection during April 10-30 included information about demographic characteristics, occupations, and selected activities in the 2 weeks preceding symptom onset. During the period examined, SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing was widely available in Colorado; community transmission was documented before implementation of the stay-at-home order. At least three attempts were made to contact all selected patients or their proxy (for deceased patients, minors, and persons unable to be interviewed [e.g., those with dementia]) on at least 2 separate days, at different times of day. Data were entered into a Research Electronic Data Capture (version 9.5.13; Vanderbilt University) database, and descriptive analyses used R statistical software (version 3.6.3; The R Foundation).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Colorado/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social
3.
Curr Biol ; 30(14): R797-R798, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693068

RESUMO

Sleep health has multiple dimensions including duration, regularity, timing, and quality [1-4]. The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak led to Stay-at-Home orders and Social Distancing Requirements in countries throughout the world to limit the spread of COVID-19. We investigated sleep behaviors prior to and during Stay-at-Home orders in 139 university students (aged 22.2 ± 1.7 years old [±SD]) while respectively taking the same classes in-person and remotely. During Stay-at-Home, nightly time in bed devoted to sleep (TIB, a proxy for sleep duration with regard to public health recommendations [5]) increased by ∼30 min during weekdays and by ∼24 mins on weekends and regularity of sleep timing improved by ∼12 min. Sleep timing became later by ∼50 min during weekdays and ∼25 min on weekends, and thus the difference between weekend and weekday sleep timing decreased - hence reducing the amount of social jetlag [6,7]. Further, we find individual differences in the change of TIB devoted to sleep such that students with shorter TIB at baseline before the first COVID-19 cases emerged locally had larger increases in weekday and weekend TIB during Stay-at-Home. The percentage of participants that reported 7 h or more sleep per night, the minimum recommended sleep duration for adults to maintain health [5] - including immune health - increased from 84% to 92% for weekdays during Stay-at-Home versus baseline. Understanding the factors underlying such changes in sleep health behaviors could help inform public health recommendations with the goal of improving sleep health during and following the Stay-at-Home orders of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sono , Estudantes , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Colorado/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Universidades
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485854

RESUMO

The aim of this rapid analysis was to investigate the spatial patterns of COVID-19 emergence across counties in Colorado. In the U.S. West, Colorado has the second highest number of cases and deaths, second only to California. Colorado is also reporting, like other states, that communities of color and low-income persons are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Using GIS and correlation analysis, this study explored COVID-19 incidence and deaths from March 14 to April 8, 2020, with social determinants and chronic conditions. Preliminary results demonstrate that COVID-19 incidence intensified in mountain communities west of Denver and along the Urban Front Range, and evolved into new centers of risk in eastern Colorado. Overall, the greatest increase in COVID-19 incidence was in northern Colorado, i.e., Weld County, which reported the highest rates in the Urban Front Range. Social and health determinants associated with higher COVID-19-related deaths were population density and asthma, indicative of urban areas, and poverty and unemployment, suggestive of rural areas. Furthermore, a spatial overlap of high rates of chronic diseases with high rates of COVID-19 may suggest a broader syndemic health burden, where comorbidities intersect with inequality of social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Colorado/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Densidade Demográfica , Análise Espacial
5.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110704, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510439

RESUMO

Land managers often need to predict watershed-scale erosion rates after disturbance or other land cover changes. This study compared commonly used hillslope erosion models to simulate post-fire sediment yields (SY) at both hillslope and watershed scales within the High Park Fire, Colorado, U.S.A. At hillslope scale, simulated SY from four models- RUSLE, AGWA/KINEROS2, WEPP, and a site-specific regression model-were compared to observed SY at 29 hillslopes. At the watershed scale, RUSLE, AGWA/KINEROS2, and WEPP were applied to simulate spatial patterns of SY for two 14-16 km2 watersheds using different scales (0.5-25 ha) of hillslope discretization. Simulated spatial patterns were compared between models and to densities of channel heads across the watersheds. Three additional erosion algorithms were implemented within a land surface model to evaluate effects of parameter uncertainty. At the hillslope scale, SY was only significantly correlated to observed SY for the empirical model, but at the watershed scale, sediment loads were significantly correlated to observed channel head densities for all models. Watershed sediment load increased with the size of the hillslope sub-units due to the nonlinear effects of hillslope length on simulated erosion. SY's were closest in magnitude to expected watershed-scale SY when models were divided into the smallest hillslopes. These findings demonstrate that current erosion models are fairly consistent at identifying areas with low and high erosion potential, but the wide range of predicted SY and poor fit to observed SY highlight the need for better field observations and model calibration to obtain more accurate simulations.


Assuntos
Fogo , Sedimentos Geológicos , Colorado , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Solo
6.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 22(6): 449-453, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383989

RESUMO

Background: The Stay at Home order in Colorado and The Stay Safe at Home order in California during COVID-19 pandemic have forced a majority of the endocrinologists/diabetologists to adapt to providing diabetes care remotely through telehealth. This may provide increased access to diabetes health care in certain settings. However, health care disparities continue to challenge availability of diabetes technologies for underprivileged communities. We report our experience with two patients providing diabetes care effectively and preventing hospital admissions by using telehealth. Methods: Two adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D): one new onset and the other one with established T1D are presented where telehealth facilitated by Clarity Software and the "Share" feature with the use of Dexcom G6 continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for management of diabetic ketosis and hyperglycemia. Results: Both patients were managed effectively virtually despite higher risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Shared glucose data through CGM facilitated frequent insulin dose adjustments, increased fluid and carbohydrate intake, and prevented hospital admissions in both cases. In the case of new onset patient with T1D, most of the education was done remotely by certified diabetes care and education specialists. Conclusion: Acute diabetes complication like DKA increases morbidity and mortality in addition to adding cost to the health care system. The current pandemic of COVID-19 has allowed newer ways (with the help of newer technologies) to manage high-risk patients with T1D and DKA through telehealth and may result in lasting benefits to people with T1D.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , California/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110578, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421565

RESUMO

Rangelands are typically characterized by low precipitation and low biomass which makes them susceptible to disturbance and difficult to reclaim. These characteristics become a management issue when considering the widespread and significant impact of oil and gas development on rangelands. Reclamation from this land use involves the complexities of dealing with multiple state and federal agencies, private landowners, and their sometimes conflicting rules. Reference plots (e.g., nearby undisturbed sites) can help with these issues by providing an objective context for reclamation planning. They are selected to provide a comparison that is similar to a reclamation site in most aspects except for the disturbance activity. This allows for the relative condition of the reclamation site to be determined. Because selection of reference plots is normally expert-driven on a site-by-site basis, it can be time consuming and thus ineffective in helping to meet reclamation goals over large landscapes. The Automated Reference Tool (ART) was developed to improve the efficiency and efficacy of reference plot selection. The ART improves reference plot selection through remote sensing and indicators of land potential by selecting reference plots of similar land potential to the reclamation site based on soil texture, topography, and geology. We evaluated the ART in the context of well-pad reclamation to determine if ART-selected plots were appropriate to use as reference when compared to an existing reference plot network. We applied the ART to reclamation sites managed by the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) White River Field Office, Colorado which had existing expert-selected reference plots. We found that the ART-selected reference plots and their matching expert-selected reference plot had similar large-scale vegetative cover characteristics (total foliar: R2 = 0.34, p-value = 0.0012) and dissimilar finer-scale cover characteristics (plant diversity: R2 = 0.079, p-value = 0.15). In addition, we detected similarities in their soil water content (R2 = 0.43, p-value<0.001), depth to restricting layer (RMSD = 21.90), and rock fragment (RMSD = 19.99). These results demonstrate that ART could be a useful tool for managers to help meet their reclamation goals over large landscapes, but it is not a complete automation of the reference selection process.


Assuntos
Solo , Biomassa , Colorado
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 595-601, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242255

RESUMO

Total mercury (THg) and selenium (TSe) levels were measured in stomach contents (SC) and twelve tissues of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) occurring in three high-elevation lakes of Colorado, USA, inhabiting watersheds absent past and current mining activities. For 32 of 36 tissues, including muscle, mean THg wet weight (ww) concentrations were greater than in the diet (SC) for all sites, indicating biomagnification. Ranges of THg (µg/kg ww) for SC and stomach tissue (ST) were 1.23-73.54 and 14.55-61.35, respectively. Selenium concentrations in fish muscle were not greater than in the SC indicating a trophic transfer factor < 1.0. However, in several other tissues, mean Se dry weight (dw) levels were greater than in SC for all three lakes. Ranges of TSe for SC and ST were 166-7544 and 797-7523 (µg/kg dw), respectively. The muscle to egg/ovary ratio for Se averaged 2.30, 4.60, and 2.68 for the three populations. The variability of SC (planktonic vs. benthic) and differential distributions of THg and TSe in SC and organ-tissues generated questions focusing on the seasonal, physiological, and genetic drivers of these organometal(loid)s in subalpine trout.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Colorado , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Plâncton/química , Selênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autodialer centralized reminder and recall (C-R/R) from state immunization information systems (IISs) has been shown to raise childhood vaccination rates, its impact on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates is unclear. METHODS: In a 4-arm pragmatic randomized controlled trial across 2 states, we randomly selected practices representative of the specialty (pediatrics, family medicine, and health center) where children received care. Within each practice, patients 11 to 17.9 years old who had not completed their HPV vaccine series (NY: N = 30 616 in 123 practices; CO: N = 31 502 in 80 practices) were randomly assigned to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 IIS C-R/R autodialer messages per vaccine dose. We assessed HPV vaccine receipt via the IIS, calculated intervention costs, and compared HPV vaccine series initiation and completion rates across study arms. RESULTS: In New York, HPV vaccine initiation rates ranged from 37.0% to 37.4%, and completion rates were between 29.1% and 30.1%, with no significant differences across study arms. In Colorado, HPV vaccine initiation rates ranged from 31.2% to 33.5% and were slightly higher for 1 reminder compared with none, but vaccine completion rates, ranging from 27.0% to 27.8%, were similar. On adjusted analyses in Colorado, vaccine initiation rates were slightly higher for 1 and 3 C-R/R messages (adjusted risk ratios 1.07 and 1.04, respectively); completion rates were slightly higher for 1 and 3 C-R/R messages (adjusted risk ratios 1.02 and 1.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: IIS-based C-R/R for HPV vaccination did not improve HPV vaccination rates in New York and increased vaccination rates slightly in Colorado.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/tendências , Imunização/tendências , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Alerta/tendências , Vacinação/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Masculino , New York/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276268

RESUMO

Traditional methods of collecting, sorting, and identifying benthic macroinvertebrate samples are useful for stream biomonitoring and ecological studies, however, these methods are time consuming, expensive, and require taxonomic expertise. Estimating larval densities through collection of post-emergent exuvia can be a practical and time efficient alternative. We evaluated the use of multiple pass depletion techniques of the post-emergent exuvia of Pteronarcys californica to estimate larval densities at ten sites in three Colorado rivers. Exuvia density was highly correlated with both final-instar larval density (R2 = 0.90) and total larval density (R2 = 0.88) and the multiple pass removal technique performed well. Exuvia surveys found P. californica at three low density sites where benthic sampling failed to detect it. At moderate and high density sites the exuvia surveys always produced lower density estimates than benthic surveys. Multiple pass depletion estimates of exuvia proved to be an accurate and efficient technique at estimating larval densities and provided an effective alternative for traditional benthic sampling when objectives are detecting and monitoring P. californica, especially at low density sites.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Neópteros/fisiologia , Rios , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Colorado , Sedimentos Geológicos , Larva , Densidade Demográfica
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 4221-4230, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182043

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) deficiency and toxicity affect over a billion people worldwide. Plants can mitigate both problems, via Se biofortification and phytoremediation. Here we explore the potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for these phytotechnologies. Field surveys in naturally seleniferous agricultural areas in Colorado, United States, found 15-25 µg of Se/g in seed and 5-10 µg of Se/g dry weight (DW) in flowers and leaves. Thus, 4 g of this hemp seed provides the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 55-75 µg of Se. In controlled greenhouse experiments, hemp seedlings grown in Turface supplied with 40-320 µM selenate showed complete tolerance up to 160 µM and accumulated up to 1300 mg of Se/kg shoot dry weight. Mature hemp grown in Turface supplied with 5-80 µM selenate was completely tolerant up to 40 µM selenate and accumulated up to 200 mg of Se/kg DW in leaves, flowers, and seeds. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies of selenate-supplied hemp showed Se to accumulate mainly in the leaf vasculature and in the seed embryos, with predominant Se speciation in C-Se-C forms (57-75% in leaf and more than 86% in seeds). Aqueous seed extracts were found by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to contain selenomethionine and methyl-selenocysteine (1:1-3 ratio), both excellent dietary Se sources. Floral concentrations of medicinal cannabidiol (CBD) and terpenoids were not affected by Se. We conclude that hemp has good potential for Se phytoremediation while producing Se-biofortified dietary products.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Selênio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofortificação , Colorado
12.
Ground Water ; 58(3): 392-405, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181894

RESUMO

In mountain, snow driven catchments, snowmelt is supposed to be the primary contribution to river streamflows during spring. In these catchments the contribution of groundwater is not well documented because of the difficulty to monitor groundwater in such complex environment with deep aquifers. In this study we use an integrated hydrologic model to conduct numerical experiments that help quantify the effect of lateral groundwater flow on total annual and peak streamflow in predevelopment conditions. Our simulations focus on the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB; 2.8 × 105 km2 ) a well-documented mountain catchment for which both streamflow and water table measurements are available for several important sub-basins. For the simulated water year, our results suggest an increase in peak flow of up to 57% when lateral groundwater flow processes are included-an unexpected result for flood conditions generally assumed independent of groundwater. Additionally, inclusion of lateral groundwater flow moderately improved the model match to observations. The correlation coefficient for mean annual flows improved from 0.84 for the no lateral groundwater flow simulation to 0.98 for the lateral groundwater flow one. Spatially we see more pronounced differences between lateral and no lateral groundwater flow cases in areas of the domain with steeper topography. We also found distinct differences in the magnitude and spatial distribution of streamflow changes with and without lateral groundwater flow between Upper Colorado River Sub-basins. A sensitivity test that scaled hydraulic conductivity over two orders of magnitude was conducted for the lateral groundwater flow simulations. These results show that the impact of lateral groundwater flow is as large or larger than an order of magnitude change in hydraulic conductivity. While our results focus on the UCRB, we feel that these simulations have relevance to other headwaters systems worldwide.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Colorado , Hidrologia , Rios , Neve
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(8): 4984-4994, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181661

RESUMO

Chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in airborne particulate matter (PM) are poorly known and do not correlate with solubility or extraction measurements commonly used to infer speciation. We used P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies to determine P species in PM collected at four mountain sites (Colorado and California). Organic P species dominated samples from high elevations, with organic P estimated at 65-100% of total P in bulk samples by XANES and 79-88% in extracted fractions (62-84% of total P) by NMR regardless of particle size (≥10 or 1-10 µm). Phosphorus monoester and diester organic species were dominant and present in about equal proportions, with low fractions of inorganic P species. By comparison, PM from low elevation contained mixtures of organic and inorganic P, with organic P estimated at 30-60% of total P. Intercontinental PM transport determined from radiogenic lead (Pb) isotopes varied from 0 to 59% (mean 37%) Asian-sourced Pb at high elevation, whereas stronger regional PM inputs were found at low elevation. Airborne flux of bioavailable P to high-elevation ecosystems may be twice as high as estimated by global models, which will disproportionately affect net primary productivity.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Fósforo/análise , Colorado , Ecossistema , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
Science ; 367(6483): 1192-1193, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165569
15.
Med Care ; 58(4): 352-359, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Challenges to health care efficiency are increasingly addressed with the help of digital communication technology tools (DCTs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test whether DCT, compared with Usual Care, can reduce health care clinician burden without increasing asthma-related exacerbations among patients with asthma in a large integrated health care system. RESEARCH DESIGN: The (Breathewell) program was a pragmatic, randomized trial at (Kaiser Permanente Colorado), where asthma nurses screen patients for poor symptom control when beta2-agonist refill requests came within 60 days of previous fill or in the absence of a controller medication fill within 4 months (beta2-agonist overfill). A total of 14,978 adults with asthma were randomized to Usual Care or 1 of 2 DCT intervention groups (Text/Phone call or Email). SUBJECTS: Participants included adults 18 and older with an asthma diagnosis at the time of randomization and no history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MEASURES: Primary outcome measures included asthma-related health care resource utilization (eg, asthma nurse contacts), medication use, and exacerbations. RESULTS: A total of 1933 patients had 4337 events which met beta2-agonist overfill criteria. Of the 2874 events in the intervention arm, 1188 (41%) were resolved by DCT contact and did not require additional clinician contact. Asthma medication use and exacerbations over 12 months did not differ among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: DCT tools can successfully contact adult asthma patients to screen for symptoms and facilitate intervention. The absence of differences in medication fills and health care utilization indicates that the strategic replacement of nursing interventions by digital outreach did not reduce treatment adherence or compromise health care outcomes.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Correio Eletrônico , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Carga de Trabalho , Colorado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Public Health Rep ; 135(2): 211-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Colorado BMI Monitoring System was developed to assess geographic (ie, census tract) patterns of obesity prevalence rates among children and adults in the Denver-metropolitan region. This project also sought to assess the feasibility of a surveillance system that integrates data across multiple health care and governmental organizations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted data on height and weight measures, obtained through routine clinical care, from electronic health records (EHRs) at multiple health care sites. We selected sites from 5 Denver health care systems and collected data from visits that occurred between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. We produced shaded maps showing observed obesity prevalence rates by census tract for various geographic regions across the Denver-metropolitan region. RESULTS: We identified clearly distinguishable areas by higher rates of obesity among children than among adults, with several pockets of lower body mass index. Patterns for adults were similar to patterns for children: the highest obesity prevalence rates were concentrated around the central part of the metropolitan region. Obesity prevalence rates were moderately higher along the western and northern areas than in other parts of the study region. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The Colorado BMI Monitoring System demonstrates the feasibility of combining EHRs across multiple systems for public health and research. Challenges include ensuring de-duplication across organizations and ensuring that geocoding is performed in a consistent way that does not pose a risk for patient privacy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 109993, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090797

RESUMO

Wildfires are becoming more prevalent and are impacting forests, watersheds and important resources. Hydrologic and geomorphic processes following wildfires can include erosion flooding, and degraded water quality. To mitigate these secondary impacts, post-fire restoration treatments can be applied to a burned area to stabilize the land surface or promote vegetative regrowth. This research focuses on wood and straw mulch treatment implemented after the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado (United States) and estimates the spatial and temporal changes in annual and seasonal vegetation after a fire with respect to geomorphic factors. This study highlights the use of satellite-based remote sensing products to investigate the impacts of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on vegetation. Using Enhanced Vegetation Index as a proxy for vegetative growth, vegetation conditions are evaluated with respect to slope, slope aspect, and burn severity to understand the impact of the ground cover treatments on vegetation for five years before and after the fire (2007-2016). Sixty-three burned and untreated sites, forty-nine burned sites treated with wood mulch, and twenty-eight burned sites treated with straw mulch were analyzed. These sites were also compared to two control sites that were unburned and untreated, Hunter's Run and Fountain Creek. Generally, post-fire conditions did not return to pre-fire levels, where average vegetation levels were lower. By the end of the study, burned and untreated sites had larger vegetative levels than burned and treated sites. The vegetation levels of the burned sites were statistically different (α = 0.05) from pre-fire conditions in all areas of treatment. Burned sites treated with wood and straw recovered to 69% and 73% of pre-fire conditions, respectively. This work demonstrates the novel use of remote sensing to observe vegetation after post-fire treatment applications to augment the number of sites and length of time that can be analyzed. The observed change in vegetation conditions also contributes to furthering our understanding of the impacts of post-fire restoration, which is important for post-fire management.


Assuntos
Fogo , Incêndios Florestais , Colorado , Florestas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(11): 12001-12016, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983005

RESUMO

Recently, several seminal works have been drawing attention to the revolution of shale gas production technology of the USA, the impact of shale gas on energy sectors, as well as the influences of shale gas on macroeconomic variables of employment, economic growth, etc. Nevertheless, one may claim that two gaps appear in literature. The first gap is the absence of an econometric study estimating the effect of shale oil/gas on national economies. The more considerable second gap is the absence of econometric analyses revealing the impulses of shale gas on local economies. Therefore, this paper observes the possible causalities between the shale gas and local gross domestic product (GDP) employing quarterly data covering the period 2007-2016 for 12 states in the US. After performing the tests of cross-sectional dependence, heterogeneity, stationarity, and cointegration, the paper conducts the panel Granger causality analyses. The empirical findings depict that (i) there is available unidirectional relationship from local shale gas production to local GDP in Colorado, Ohio, and West Virginia; (ii) there occurs an impulse from GDP to local shale gas production for Louisiana, North Dakota, and Oklahoma; (iii) a bidirectional causality coexists between local shale gas production and GDP in Arkansas, California, and Texas; and (iv) there exists no association between local GDP and local shale gas extraction in Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Gás Natural , Arkansas , Colorado , Estudos Transversais , Louisiana , New Mexico , North Dakota , Ohio , Oklahoma , Texas , West Virginia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1566-1572, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919285

RESUMO

While surface microstructures of butterfly wings have been extensively studied for their structural coloration or optical properties within the visible spectrum, their properties in infrared wavelengths with potential ties to thermoregulation are relatively unknown. The midinfrared wavelengths of 7.5 to 14 µm are particularly important for radiative heat transfer in the ambient environment, because of the overlap with the atmospheric transmission window. For instance, a high midinfrared emissivity can facilitate surface cooling, whereas a low midinfrared emissivity can minimize heat loss to surroundings. Here we find that the midinfrared emissivity of butterfly wings from warmer climates such as Archaeoprepona demophoon (Oaxaca, Mexico) and Heliconius sara (Pichincha, Ecuador) is up to 2 times higher than that of butterfly wings from cooler climates such as Celastrina echo (Colorado) and Limenitis arthemis (Florida), using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and infrared thermography. Our optical computations using a unit cell approach reproduce the spectroscopy data and explain how periodic microstructures play a critical role in the midinfrared. The emissivity spectrum governs the temperature of butterfly wings, and we demonstrate that C. echo wings heat up to 8 °C more than A. demophoon wings under the same sunlight in the clear sky of Irvine, CA. Furthermore, our thermal computations show that butterfly wings in their respective habitats can maintain a moderate temperature range through a balance of solar absorption and infrared emission. These findings suggest that the surface microstructures of butterfly wings potentially contribute to thermoregulation and provide an insight into butterflies' survival.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Borboletas/fisiologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Colorado , Biologia Computacional , Ecossistema , Equador , Florida , México , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Análise Espectral , Luz Solar , Temperatura , Asas de Animais/ultraestrutura
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(3): 290-295, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: (1) Understand attitudes of otolaryngology residency applicants regarding gender and racial diversity within programs. (2) Examine how program diversity affects applicant decisions during the residency match. (3) Compare the importance of racial and ethnic program diversity among applicants. STUDY DESIGN: Web-based survey distributed in February and March 2019. SETTING: Tertiary care university setting. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to 418 applicants in the 2019 otolaryngology match. Respondents were queried about the importance of program diversity and its effects on the match process. Ratings were based on a scale of 1 to 5 (with 5 being extremely important or significant effect). RESULTS: The response rate was 35%; 53% of responders were male; and 59% were white, 25% Asian, 6% black, and 6% Hispanic/Latino. Applicants rated the importance of having female faculty and residents as 4.1 (SD = 1.1) and 4.2 (SD = 1.1), respectively. Applicants rated the importance of having diverse faculty and residents as 3.9 (SD = 1.1) and 4 (SD = 1.2). Overall, 7.6% of applicants canceled interviews due to a lack of female residents and 5.5% due to a lack of female faculty; furthermore, 5.5% of applicants canceled interviews due to a lack of diverse residents and 4.9% due to a lack of diverse faculty. Female and nonwhite applicants prioritized females and diversity within programs more so than male and white applicants. CONCLUSIONS: Although residency applicants felt that program diversity was important, this did not significantly affect decision making during the match process, likely due to the competitive nature of the match. Women and nonwhite applicants prioritized program diversity more than white male applicants.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos Étnicos , Internato e Residência , Otolaringologia/educação , Seleção de Pessoal , Adulto , Colorado , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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