Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.593
Filtrar
1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 373-386, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871631

RESUMO

Fish-borne heterophyid trematodes are known to have a zoonotic potential, since at least 30 species are able to infect humans worldwide, with a global infection of around 7 million people. In this paper, a 'state-of-the-art' review of the South American heterophyid species is provided, including classical and molecular taxonomy, parasite ecology, host-parasite interaction studies and a list of species and their hosts. There is still a lack of information on human infections in South America with undetected or unreported infections probably due to the information shortage and little attention by physicians to these small intestinal flukes. Molecular tools for specific diagnoses of South American heterophyid species are still to be defined. Additional new sequences of Pygidiopsis macrostomum, Ascocotyle pindoramensis and Ascocotyle longa from Brazil are also provided.


Assuntos
Heterophyidae , Animais , Cianobactérias , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Heterophyidae/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
2.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 312-316, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877067

RESUMO

Yellow fever is still a current threat? Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne disease. Africa is the major endemic zone, although there have been epidemics of concern in South America in the last 3 years, especially in Brazil. The virus causes a febrile hepatitis, which can lead to hemorrhagic complications and death. Diagnosis is based on non-specific serological tests. There is no curative treatment. Prevention relies on protection against mosquito bites and on vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine. WHO recommends only one dose of vaccine but data from the literature about life-long protection are divergent on that point, and travel medicine French authorities still recommend a second dose in most at-risk situations.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , África/epidemiologia , Animais , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140136, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927574

RESUMO

Children are exposed to many potentially toxic compounds in their daily lives and are vulnerable to the harmful effects. To date, very few non-invasive methods are available to quantify children's exposure to environmental chemicals. Due to their ease of implementation, silicone wristbands have emerged as passive samplers to study personal environmental exposures and have the potential to greatly increase our knowledge of chemical exposures in vulnerable population groups. Nevertheless, there is a limited number of studies monitoring children's exposures via silicone wristbands. In this study, we implemented this sampling technique in ongoing research activities in Montevideo, Uruguay which aim to monitor chemical exposures in a cohort of elementary school children. The silicone wristbands were worn by 24 children for 7 days; they were quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for 45 chemical pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), and novel halogenated flame-retardant chemicals (NHFRs). All classes of chemicals, except NHFRs, were identified in the passive samplers. The average number of analytes detected in each wristband was 13 ±3. OPFRs were consistently the most abundant class of analytes detected. Median concentrations of ΣOPFRs, ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) were 1020, 3.00, 0.52 and 3.79 ng/g wristband, respectively. Two major findings result from this research; differences in trends of two OPFRs (TCPP and TDCPP) are observed between studies in Uruguay and the United States, and the detection of DDT, a chemical banned in several countries, suggests that children's exposure profiles in these settings may differ from other parts of the world. This was the first study to examine children's exposome in South America using silicone wristbands and clearly points to a need for further studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Praguicidas , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Silicones , América do Sul , Uruguai
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139799, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846504

RESUMO

The Leyes' Delta lies at the Middle Paraná River, the second-largest fluvial system in South America, and it is being quickly formed into the Setúbal fluvial lake, Argentina. In the context of the Fluvial Biogeomorphic Succession theory, our aim was to better understand interactions between physical and biotic processes contributing to the formation of the Leyes' Delta. We studied the genesis, morphologic development, and vegetation in three groups of its deltaic islands with contrasting formation ages. Different methodologies were applied. Genesis and morphologic development were interpreted from time-series of satellite images and aerial photography obtained from 1974 to 2014. Then landforms and vegetation communities were mapped on the most current images, and they were corroborated and characterized during fieldwork. Our results evidence that the three island groups (Channel crevasse splay islands, Delta bar-plain islands, and Delta front islands) were formed via two different geomorphic processes, determining differences in the initial vegetation colonization. Eight fluvial-lacustrine landforms and eight vegetation communities, both differently represented among the island groups, currently characterize these islands. The species richness accumulation curves and beta diversity showed that the morphodynamic activity can be as important in the floristic composition of the deltaic islands as formation ages. The floristic composition differed statistically among island groups. After identifying three of the four phases of the FBS, we concluded that even though the morphodynamic activity under which islands were formed determined differences in the initial vegetation colonization, under similar subsequent levels of morphodynamics the resulting vegetation heterogeneity tends to be similar even under contrasting genesis. Among the vegetation types, Lotic prairies would play a key role in the morphologic evolution of the deltaic islands, therefore, their distribution and interactions with flow and sediments should be considered during the studies of social ecological systems as the Leyes' Delta, in Santa Fe, Argentina.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Argentina , Ilhas , América do Sul
5.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751721

RESUMO

AIM: to describe physical activity and ultra-processed foods consumption, their changes and sociodemographic predictors among adolescents from countries in Europe (Italy and Spain) and Latin America (Brazil, Chile, and Colombia) during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic period. METHODS: Cross-sectional study via web survey. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and weekly ultra-processed food consumption data were used. To compare the frequencies of physical activity status with sociodemographic variables, a multinomial logistic and a multiple logistic regression for habitual ultra-processed foods was performed. In final models, p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Sample of 726 adolescents, mostly females (59.6%) aged 16-19 years old (54.3%). Adolescents from Latin America presented odds ratio (OR) 2.98 (CI 95% 1.80-4.94) of being inactive and those whose mothers had higher level of education were less active during lockdown [OR 0.40 (CI 95% 0.20-0.84)]. The habitual ultra-processed consumption was also high during this period in all countries, and more prevalent in Latin America. CONCLUSION: A higher prevalence of inactivity was observed in this population, but reductions of physical activity and habitual ultra-processed consumption during the pandemic were more pronounced in Latin America. Our findings reinforce the importance of promoting a healthy lifestyle, i.e., exercise and diet, during periods of social isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Isolamento Social , América do Sul , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 131, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disabled people are particularly exposed to the risks of COVID-19, as well as to the measures taken to address it, and their impact. The aim of the study was to examine the disability-inclusiveness of government responses to COVID-19 in four South American Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru. METHODS: We conducted documentary research, using framework analysis to analyse reports, legislation, decrees, and other official documents that communicated measures taken in response to the pandemic, published from February 1st until May 22nd, 2020. We included documents reporting measures that affected disabled people either directly (measures specifically designed for disabled people) or indirectly (measures for the general population). We developed an analytical framework based on recommendations for disability-inclusive response to COVID-19 published by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribean, the World Health Organisation, and other international organisations. RESULTS: We analysed 72 documents. The findings highlight that while some positive measures were taken, the needs of disabled people were not fully considered. Several countries published recommendations for a disability-inclusive response to COVID-19, without ensuring their translation to practice. All countries took at least some steps to ensure access to financial support, health, and education for disabled people, but at the same time they also implemented policies that had a detrimental impact on disabled people. The populations that are most exposed to the impacts of COVID-19, including disabled people living in institutional care, were protected in several cases only by recommendations rather by legislation. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how the official government responses taken by four countries in the region - while positive, in several aspects - do not fully address the needs of disabled people, thus further disadvantaging them. In order to ensure response to COVID - 19 is disability inclusive, it is necessary to translate recommendations to practice, consider disabled people both in mainstream policy and in disability-specific measures, and focus on the long-term reconstruction phase.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoas com Deficiência , Governo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111016, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778299

RESUMO

Invasive grasses are a threat to some tropical savannas, but despite being fire-prone ecosystems, little is known about the relationships between fire season, climatic conditions and invasive species on these systems. We evaluated the response of the perennial invasive grasses Melinis minutiflora and Urochloa brizantha to three fire seasons in an open tropical savanna in South America: Early-Dry (May), Mid-Dry (July) and Late-Dry (October) in relation to unburned Controls. Moreover, we investigated how these responses were influenced by precipitation and extreme air temperatures. We hypothesized that biomass of both species would be reduced by fires during their reproductive period and that climatic conditions would affect them equally. We conducted prescribed burns on 15 × 15 m plots (4 plots x 4 treatment x 2 invasive species = 32 plots) in 2014. We sampled the biomass before the burn experiments and for the next two years (five 0.25 m2 samples/plot). Our experiments revealed that the fire season did not influence the abundance of either species. However, the two species responded differently to fire occurrence: M. minutiflora decreased whereas U. brizantha was not affected by fires. Early-Dry and Late-Dry fire treatments enhanced the replacement of M. minutiflora by U. brizantha. We found that the influence of precipitation depended on the species: it reduced M. minutiflora but increased U. brizantha abundance. Lower monthly minimum temperatures decreased the abundance of both species. It directly reduced live M. minutiflora and increased dead U. brizantha biomass. Monthly maximum temperatures affected the invasive grasses by reducing live M. minutiflora. Since tropical savannas are predicted to face climatic instability and that climate influences the differential response of invasive species, the management of invaders should consider both the identity of the target species and the possible interactions with other invasive species. Moreover, it is essential to keep an adaptive management approach to face the uncertainties that climate change may pose to biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poaceae , Biodiversidade , Pradaria , América do Sul
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003020, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756773

RESUMO

Zoonoses are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among them, Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an important one that occurs in some regions of South America and can be transmitted by the "star tick" Amblyomma sculptum. Application of acaricides against the larval stage is important as strategy of population control. However, there is still a deficiency of studies on chemical control of A. sculptum and the present work aims to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal activity of cypermethrin, flumethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos against A. sculptum larvae. Bioassays were performed using the larval immersion test method. A discriminatory analysis between the antiparasitic classes most used for tick control was carried out, which made it possible to determine the classes with higher potential for controlling A. sculptum larvae. Our results showed that A. sculptum larvae present highest sensitivity to the synthetic pyrethroid group, followed by the phenylpyrazole, organophosphate and macrocyclic lactone groups. These findings may support studies on improvement of tick control as in animals as in the environment.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ixodidae , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/classificação , Animais , Larva , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/parasitologia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/prevenção & controle , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/transmissão , América do Sul
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614920

RESUMO

The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a widely distributed species across coastal and brackish areas of the Neotropical region of the Americas and the Greater Antilles. Available information on patterns of genetic differentiation in C. acutus shows a complex structuring influenced by interspecific interactions (mainly hybridization) and anthropogenic actions (mostly historical hunting, recent poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation, and unintentional translocation of individuals). In this study, we used data on mitochondrial DNA control region and 11 nuclear polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the degree of population structure of C. acutus in South America, North America, Central America and the Greater Antilles. We used traditional genetic differentiation indices, Bayesian clustering and multivariate methods to create a more comprehensive picture of the genetic relationships within the species across its range. Analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite loci show evidence of a strong population genetic structure in the American crocodile, with unique populations in each sampling locality. Our results support previous findings showing large degrees of genetic differentiation between the continental and the Greater Antillean C. acutus. We report three new haplotypes unique to Venezuela, which are considerably less distant from the Central and North American haplotypes than to the Greater Antillean ones. Our findings reveal genetic population differentiation between Cuban and Jamaican C. acutus and offer the first evidence of strong genetic differentiation among the populations of Greater Antillean C. acutus.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/genética , Animais , Região do Caribe , América Central , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mitocôndrias/genética , América do Norte , América do Sul
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37963-37976, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613512

RESUMO

Tuta absoluta Meyrick originates in South America and is now one of the most important insect pests of Solanaceae in different parts of the world, including Africa. Its control has relied primarily on chemical insecticides, which are associated with negative ecological effects. In the present study, essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum were tested for repellence and fumigant toxicity on the adult stages under laboratory conditions. The oil of O. gratissimum was more repellent, but its toxicity was comparable with that of O. kilimandscharicum. The major constituents of O. gratissimum were methyl eugenol (39.5%) and eugenol (29.7%). Those of O. kilimandscharicum were camphor (47.1%) and 1.8-cineole (19.3%). Eugenol (LC50 of 0.24 µl/ml, 83.3%, RI50 = 0.15) and camphor (LC50 of 0.23 µl/ml, 89.5%, RI50 = 0.13) were more toxic (at 1 µl/ml for 24 h) and repellent than the other constituents. The results show potential of the essential oils for use in integrated management of the tomato pest.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Ocimum , Óleos Voláteis , África , Animais , América do Sul
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20181381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638866

RESUMO

Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) is a species native to the subtropical regions of South America. Despite being an important crop for the region, there are few studies on the use of microorganisms to improve the growth of seedlings in the nursery stage. The objective of this study was to isolate spore-forming endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting properties associated with yerba mate seedlings and determine their phytobeneficial effect under controlled laboratory conditions. Isolates were selected based on their sporulation capacity and evaluated for in vitro plant growth promoting properties (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophores and synthesis of indolic compounds). Yerba mate seedlings were inoculated with the most promising isolates, which were identified via analyses of the sequence of their 16S rDNA gene as Bacillus circulans (12RS3) and Bacillus altitudinis (19RS3, T5S-T4). After 120 days plants showed higher root dry weight when inoculated with isolate 19RS3 and higher shoot dry weight with 19RS3 and T5S-T4. In conclusion, further studies to determine the ability of these isolates to adapt to the climatic conditions and to survive amidst the native soil microflora in yerba mate cultivated native soils, will be crucial for developing such strains as biofertilizer.


Assuntos
Ilex paraguariensis , Bacillus , Extratos Vegetais , América do Sul , Esporos Bacterianos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140881, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674022

RESUMO

The role of meteorological factors in the transmission of the COVID-19 still needs to be determined. In this study, the daily new cases of the eight severely affected regions in four countries of South America and their corresponding meteorological data (average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average wind speed, visibility, absolute humidity) were collected. Daily number of confirmed and incubative cases, as well as time-dependent reproductive number (Rt) was calculated to indicate the transmission of the diseases in the population. Spearman's correlation coefficients were assessed to show the correlation between meteorological factors and daily confirmed cases, daily incubative cases, as well as Rt. In particular, the results showed that there was a highly significant correlation between daily incubative cases and absolute humidity throughout the selected regions. Multiple linear regression model further confirmed the negative correlation between absolute humidity and incubative cases. The absolute humidity is predicted to show a decreasing trend in the coming months from the meteorological data of recent three years. Our results suggest the necessity of continuous controlling policy in these areas and some other complementary strategies to mitigate the contagious rate of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , América do Sul , Temperatura
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16816-16823, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632003

RESUMO

South American (SA) societies are highly vulnerable to droughts and pluvials, but lack of long-term climate observations severely limits our understanding of the global processes driving climatic variability in the region. The number and quality of SA climate-sensitive tree ring chronologies have significantly increased in recent decades, now providing a robust network of 286 records for characterizing hydroclimate variability since 1400 CE. We combine this network with a self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) dataset to derive the South American Drought Atlas (SADA) over the continent south of 12°S. The gridded annual reconstruction of austral summer scPDSI is the most spatially complete estimate of SA hydroclimate to date, and well matches past historical dry/wet events. Relating the SADA to the Australia-New Zealand Drought Atlas, sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pressure fields, we determine that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are strongly associated with spatially extended droughts and pluvials over the SADA domain during the past several centuries. SADA also exhibits more extended severe droughts and extreme pluvials since the mid-20th century. Extensive droughts are consistent with the observed 20th-century trend toward positive SAM anomalies concomitant with the weakening of midlatitude Westerlies, while low-level moisture transport intensified by global warming has favored extreme rainfall across the subtropics. The SADA thus provides a long-term context for observed hydroclimatic changes and for 21st-century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections that suggest SA will experience more frequent/severe droughts and rainfall events as a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Clima , Aquecimento Global , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Mapeamento Geográfico , Modelos Estatísticos , Chuva , América do Sul
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678835

RESUMO

South American fire ant decapitating flies in the genus Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) are potential biocontrol agents of the invasive fire ants Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri in the United States and other regions of the world due to their high host specificity and the direct and indirect damage to their host ants. Despite their importance and the fact that several flies have already been released in the US, little is known about the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships of Pseudacteon flies parasitizing South American fire ants in the Solenopsis saevissima species-group. A species delimitation analysis was conducted using a distance-based method (ABGD) and two tree-based methods (GMYC and mPTP) using COI sequences of 103 specimens belonging to 20 of the 22 Pseudacteon species known from southern South America. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the already described and new candidate species were inferred using mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (wingless) sequences. The species delimitation analysis suggests that species richness in these flies has been previously underestimated, due to the existence of putative cryptic species within nominal Pseudacteon obtusus, P. pradei, P. tricuspis, P. cultellatus, and P. nudicornis. Geographic distribution and host fire ant species seem to support cryptic lineages, though additional morphological data are needed to corroborate these results. All phylogenetic analyses reveal that South American fire ant decapitating flies are grouped into two main clades, with Pseudacteon convexicauda sister and well differentiated relative to these clades. Neither host nor geographic association appeared to be related to the differentiation of these two main clades within South American fire ant decapitating flies. This work provides information that will allow testing whether the putative cryptic phorid fly species show differences in their effectiveness as biocontrol agents against the highly invasive imported fire ants.


Assuntos
Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Animais , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697794

RESUMO

The early peopling of the Americas has been one of the most hotly contested topics in American anthropology and a research issue that draws archaeologists into a multidisciplinary debate. In South America, although the background data on this issue has increased exponentially in recent decades, the core questions related to the temporal and spatial patterns of the colonization process remain open. In this paper we tackle these questions in the light of the quantitative analysis of a screened radiocarbon database of more than 1600 early dates. We explore the frequency of radiocarbon dates as proxies for assessing population growth; and define a reliable and statistically well supported lower chronological bound (not to the exact date) for the earliest human arrival. Our results suggest that the earliest chronological threshold for the peopling of South America should be between 16,600 and 15,100, with a mean estimated date ~ 15,500 cal BP (post Last Glacial Maximum). Population would have grown until the end of Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial ~12,500 cal BP at the time of the main extinctions of megafauna-, when the increase rate slows, probably as a result of the changes that occurred in the trophic niche of humans.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Migração Humana , Crescimento Demográfico , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Regiões Antárticas , Humanos , América do Sul
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 69, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676298

RESUMO

Several characteristics of refugee and migrant populations make them susceptible to acquire COVID-19. To fully understand the impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants in the Americas, it is important to consider the broader geopolitical context and appreciate the differences among migratory groups. There are three migrant groups in the Americas that are particularly susceptible to COVID-19: Central American migrants at the northern Mexico border, Venezuelans within South America, and Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Refugees and displaced migrants are the world's collective responsibility, and thus, it would be imprudent to displace their care to resource constrained developing nations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Migrantes , Betacoronavirus , América Central/etnologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Venezuela/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis
18.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 520-526, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628399

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in early diagnosis and treatment of diseases using minimally invasive procedures has led to an increase in the number of cases in locations outside the operating room. This surge created the need for anesthesia services to expand to these areas to provide well tolerated and favorable procedural conditions. The present review describes nonoperating room anesthesia patterns in different parts of the world. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonoperating room anesthesia has grown exponentially over the last years. Patients scheduled in these areas are sicker and older compared to the operating room patients. Anesthesiologist-directed care has proven to be well tolerated, with less serious complications and improvement in patients and proceduralist satisfaction. SUMMARY: There are marked variations in how anesthesia services are delivered in out of operating room locations in different parts of the world. Although there are some data available from the United States, expansion of minimally invasive procedures across continents will likely lead to the emergence of various models of delivering anesthetic care.


Assuntos
Anestesia/tendências , Anestesiologia/tendências , Anestésicos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anestesiologistas , Anestesiologia/normas , Ásia , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , América do Sul , Estados Unidos
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e113, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590625

RESUMO

Mathematical modelling studies predicting the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been used worldwide, but precisions are limited. Thus, continuous evaluation of the modelling studies is crucial. We investigated situations of virus importation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to assess effectiveness of a modelling study by Haider N et al. titled 'Passengers' destinations from China: low risk of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America'. We obtained epidemiological data of 2417 COVID-19 cases reported by 40 countries in SSA within 30 days of the first case confirmed in Nigeria on 27 February. Out of 442 cases which had travel history available, only one (0.2%) had a travel history to China. These findings underline the result of the model. However, the fact that there were numbers of imported cases from other regions shows the limits of the model. The limits could be attributed to the characteristics of the COVID-19 which is infectious even when the patients do not express any symptoms. Therefore, there is a profound need for all modelling researchers to take asymptomatic cases into account when they establish modelling studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Nigéria , Pandemias , América do Sul
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569319

RESUMO

Emergency Care Networks (ECNs) were created as a response to the increased demand for emergency services and the ever-increasing waiting times experienced by patients in emergency rooms. In this sense, ECNs are called to provide a rapid diagnosis and early intervention so that poor patient outcomes, patient dissatisfaction, and cost overruns can be avoided. Nevertheless, ECNs, as nodal systems, are often inefficient due to the lack of coordination between emergency departments (EDs) and the presence of non-value added activities within each ED. This situation is even more complex in the public healthcare sector of low-income countries where emergency care is provided under constraint resources and limited innovation. Notwithstanding the tremendous efforts made by healthcare clusters and government agencies to tackle this problem, most of ECNs do not yet provide nimble and efficient care to patients. Additionally, little progress has been evidenced regarding the creation of methodological approaches that assist policymakers in solving this problem. In an attempt to address these shortcomings, this paper presents a three-phase methodology based on Discrete-event simulation, payment collateral models, and lean six sigma to support the design of in-time and economically sustainable ECNs. The proposed approach is validated in a public ECN consisting of 2 hospitals and 8 POCs (Point of Care). The results of this study evidenced that the average waiting time in an ECN can be substantially diminished by optimizing the cooperation flows between EDs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Tratamento de Emergência , Setor Público/organização & administração , Tratamento de Emergência/economia , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Rede Social , América do Sul
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA