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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 383, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436044

RESUMO

Central Asia has become a key node of the belt and road corridor. It is located in arid and semi-arid climate regions, and it is a region where the contribution of global aerosols of sand and dust is continuous. However, few studies have been conducted on the Central Asian aerosol optical depth. Therefore, this paper relied on the belt and road sustainable development dataset to analyze the spatial-temporal variations in the AOD in Central Asia and provide spatial-temporal characteristics of the AOD for environmental services. We analyzed the spatial and temporal variation in the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in Central Asia by using MODIS/AQUA C6 MYD08_M3 images from 2008 to 2017. The results showed that (1) the annual average AOD in Central Asia in the past decade varied from 0.183 to 0.232, which indicated a slow decline starting in 2014. The percentage of average annual decline was approximately 0.18%, and the regular distinct revealed the distribution characteristics of AOD. In different years, the Central Asian region exhibited the similar monthly change characteristics: from July to December, the AOD decreased, and from December to February, it increased. In different seasons, the Central Asian region exhibited the different seasonal change characteristics: the AOD value was higher in the spring and summer. The mean values in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter were 0.273, 0.240, 0.155, and 0.183, respectively, and the standard deviations were 0.036, 0.038, 0.025, and 0.048, respectively. (3) Based on spatial distribution characteristics, the Tarim Basin, Aral Sea region, and Ebinur Lake area were high value areas, and Kazakhstan was a low value area. The AOD of the surrounding area of the Aral Sea had increased in the last 5 years, while that of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan had decreased. The AOD of the Taklamakan area exhibited an inter-annual change. Sand dust aerosols were the largest contributors to the AOD in the Taklamakan area. The rising trend of the AOD in the Aral Sea area was clear, with an average annual increase of 0.234%, and the contribution of salt dust aerosols to the AOD increased. The average annual AOD in the Ebinur Lake area remained stable.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Imagens de Satélites , Aerossóis/análise , Ásia Central , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos , Estações do Ano
3.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(3): 245-266, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases (collectively referred to as cirrhosis in this paper) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, although the burden and underlying causes differ across locations and demographic groups. We report on results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 on the burden of cirrhosis and its trends since 1990, by cause, sex, and age, for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We used data from vital registrations, vital registration samples, and verbal autopsies to estimate mortality. We modelled prevalence of total, compensated, and decompensated cirrhosis on the basis of hospital and claims data. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost due to premature death and years lived with disability. Estimates are presented as numbers and age-standardised or age-specific rates per 100 000 population, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). All estimates are presented for five causes of cirrhosis: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and other causes. We compared mortality, prevalence, and DALY estimates with those expected according to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) as a proxy for the development status of regions and countries. FINDINGS: In 2017, cirrhosis caused more than 1·32 million (95% UI 1·27-1·45) deaths (440 000 [416 000-518 000; 33·3%] in females and 883 000 [838 000-967 000; 66·7%] in males) globally, compared with less than 899 000 (829 000-948 000) deaths in 1990. Deaths due to cirrhosis constituted 2·4% (2·3-2·6) of total deaths globally in 2017 compared with 1·9% (1·8-2·0) in 1990. Despite an increase in the number of deaths, the age-standardised death rate decreased from 21·0 (19·2-22·3) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 16·5 (15·8-18·1) per 100 000 population in 2017. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest age-standardised death rate among GBD super-regions for all years of the study period (32·2 [25·8-38·6] deaths per 100 000 population in 2017), and the high-income super-region had the lowest (10·1 [9·8-10·5] deaths per 100 000 population in 2017). The age-standardised death rate decreased or remained constant from 1990 to 2017 in all GBD regions except eastern Europe and central Asia, where the age-standardised death rate increased, primarily due to increases in alcohol-related liver disease prevalence. At the national level, the age-standardised death rate of cirrhosis was lowest in Singapore in 2017 (3·7 [3·3-4·0] per 100 000 in 2017) and highest in Egypt in all years since 1990 (103·3 [64·4-133·4] per 100 000 in 2017). There were 10·6 million (10·3-10·9) prevalent cases of decompensated cirrhosis and 112 million (107-119) prevalent cases of compensated cirrhosis globally in 2017. There was a significant increase in age-standardised prevalence rate of decompensated cirrhosis between 1990 and 2017. Cirrhosis caused by NASH had a steady age-standardised death rate throughout the study period, whereas the other four causes showed declines in age-standardised death rate. The age-standardised prevalence of compensated and decompensated cirrhosis due to NASH increased more than for any other cause of cirrhosis (by 33·2% for compensated cirrhosis and 54·8% for decompensated cirrhosis) over the study period. From 1990 to 2017, the number of prevalent cases more than doubled for compensated cirrhosis due to NASH and more than tripled for decompensated cirrhosis due to NASH. In 2017, age-standardised death and DALY rates were lower among countries and territories with higher SDI. INTERPRETATION: Cirrhosis imposes a substantial health burden on many countries and this burden has increased at the global level since 1990, partly due to population growth and ageing. Although the age-standardised death and DALY rates of cirrhosis decreased from 1990 to 2017, numbers of deaths and DALYs and the proportion of all global deaths due to cirrhosis increased. Despite the availability of effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B and C, they were still the main causes of cirrhosis burden worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The impact of hepatitis B and C is expected to be attenuated and overtaken by that of NASH in the near future. Cost-effective interventions are required to continue the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, and to achieve early diagnosis and prevention of cirrhosis due to alcohol-related liver disease and NASH. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Diagnóstico Precoce , Egito/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/complicações , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4614(1): zootaxa.4614.1.5, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716389

RESUMO

Alburnoides holciki was described from the Hari River basin, which was the only basin it was known from. Populations from the Amu Darya basin were previously recognized as A. eichwaldii or Alburnoides sp. Our study recognized specimens of Alburnoides from the Amu Darya basin as A. holciki based on morphological data and the COI barcode gene. The population from the Zeravshan basin showed some morphological differences compared to others but were similar in the COI gene and needs further investigation. New results extend the range of A. holciki for almost 1000 km -from the Hari River to the upper Amu Darya tributaries in Tajikistan. The intraspecific genetic similarity in the COI gene between populations in the Hari and Amu Darya rivers supports the geographical hypothesis of a recent connection of these rivers.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , Ásia Central , Rios , Tadjiquistão
5.
Science ; 365(6457)2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488661

RESUMO

By sequencing 523 ancient humans, we show that the primary source of ancestry in modern South Asians is a prehistoric genetic gradient between people related to early hunter-gatherers of Iran and Southeast Asia. After the Indus Valley Civilization's decline, its people mixed with individuals in the southeast to form one of the two main ancestral populations of South Asia, whose direct descendants live in southern India. Simultaneously, they mixed with descendants of Steppe pastoralists who, starting around 4000 years ago, spread via Central Asia to form the other main ancestral population. The Steppe ancestry in South Asia has the same profile as that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe, tracking a movement of people that affected both regions and that likely spread the distinctive features shared between Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Fazendas/história , Migração Humana/história , População/genética , Ásia Central , Ásia Sudeste , Fluxo Gênico , História Antiga , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(6): 1547-1559, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372716

RESUMO

Distinctive peculiarities of Armenians such as their millennia-long genetic isolation and strong national identity attract a keen interest while studying the demographic history of the West Asia. Here, to examine their fine-scale matrilineal genetic structure, ancestry and relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed 536 complete mitogenomes (141 of which are novel) from 8 geographically different Armenian populations, covering the whole stretch of historical Armenia. The observed patterns highlight a remarkable degree of matrilineal genetic heterogeneity and weak population structuring of Armenians. Moreover, our phylogeographic analysis reveals common ancestries for some mtDNA lineages shared by West Asians, Transcaucasians, Europeans, Central Asians and Armenians. About third of the mtDNA subhaplogroups found in Armenian gene pool might be considered as Armenian-specific, as these are virtually absent elsewhere in Europe, West Asia and Transcaucasia. Coalescence ages of most of these lineages do not exceed 3.1 kya and coincide well with the population size growth started around 1.8-2.8 kya detectable only in the Bayesian Skyline Plots based on the Armenian-specific mtDNA haplotypes.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Armênia , Ásia Central , Ásia Ocidental , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia
7.
Science ; 364(6445): 1018, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196992
8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218671, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226139

RESUMO

The adoption of the shared prosperity goal by the World Bank in 2013 and Sustainable Development Goal 10, on inequality, by the United Nations in 2015 should strengthen the focus of development interventions and cooperation on the income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution. This paper contributes to the incipient literature on within-country allocations of development institutions and assesses the geographic targeting of World Bank projects to the bottom 40 percent. Bivariate correlations between the allocation of project funding approved over 2005-14 and the geographical distribution of the bottom 40 as measured by survey income or consumption data are complemented by regressions with population and other potential factors affecting the within-country allocations as controls. The correlation analysis shows that, of the 58 countries in the sample, 41 exhibit a positive correlation between the shares of the bottom 40 and World Bank funding, and, in almost half of these, the correlation is above 0.5. Slightly more than a quarter of the countries, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa, exhibit a negative correlation. The regression analysis shows that, once one controls for population, the correlation between the bottom 40 and World Bank funding switches sign and becomes significant and negative on average. This is entirely driven by Sub-Saharan Africa and not observed in the other regions. Hence, the significant and positive correlation in the estimations without controlling for population suggests that World Bank project funding is concentrated in administrative areas in which more people live (including the bottom 40) rather than in poorer administrative areas. Furthermore, capital cities receive disproportionally high shares of World Bank funding on average.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Financiamento Governamental/organização & administração , Saúde Global/economia , Política Pública/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Financeiro , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/tendências , Geografia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Agências Internacionais/economia , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Agências Internacionais/tendências , Cooperação Internacional , América Latina/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Política Pública/tendências , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Alocação de Recursos/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos/normas , Alocação de Recursos/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Nações Unidas/economia , Nações Unidas/organização & administração , Nações Unidas/normas
9.
Soc Work ; 64(3): 207-215, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143954

RESUMO

Central Asian countries represent an important context for understanding intersections between Islam, patriarchy, and women's well-being. In recent decades, challenges and opportunities resulting from transitions to a market economy exacerbated gender imbalances in labor markets and opportunity structures of the region. Women of the region are highly educated and make significant economic contributions to support their families through employment. However, their views about gender roles remain unclear, and it is also uncertain whether opportunity structures and social mobility have influenced these views. The current study addresses these gaps using probability-based survey data (N = 3,405) from four Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Latent class analysis reveals three latent profiles of women's views on gender roles: traditional views, egalitarian views, and dual views. Religious identity, education, opportunity structure, and social mobility intersect with women's ideas about gender roles.


Assuntos
Atitude , Identidade de Gênero , Mobilidade Social , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Ásia Central , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(5): 1393-1395, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056738

RESUMO

Autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) are viewed as the gold standard in forensic individual identification and parentage testing. The Huaxia Platinum System contains 23 autosomal markers along with rs2032678 (Yindel) and amelogenin. Here, we genotyped 23-STRs in the southwestern Xinjiang Uyghur residing in the Artux Region and assessed the allele frequency and forensic statistical parameters. All investigated STRs are in conformity with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with an effective combined power of discrimination (0.99999999999999999999999999992) and cumulative probability of exclusion (0.9999999997) in the Artux Uyghur population. Population comparisons among 54 worldwide populations via PCA and MDS indicate that the Artux Uyghur population has a close genetic relationship with geographically distinct Uyghurs and Kazakh groups than other East Asians or Eurasians. Genetic ancestry component dissection among 2198 individuals from Sinitic, Turkic, and Tibeto-Burman language groups further demonstrates the genetic homogeneity within the Turkic language family and apparent genetic heterogeneity among other language groups.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Ásia Central/etnologia , China/etnologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 862-871, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096416

RESUMO

Ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions are vulnerable to climatic and anthropogenic disturbances. However, our understanding of vegetation stability (including resistance and resilience, which are the abilities of ecosystems to resist perturbations and return to pre-disturbance structure or function, respectively) in response to environmental changes in dryland ecosystems remains insufficient, particularly in the absence of large-scale observations of water availability. Here we introduced GRACE monthly total water storage anomaly (TWSA) data into an autoregressive model with remote sensed EVI, air temperature and precipitation to investigate the short-term vegetation stability and its influencing factors in Central Asia (CA) during 2003-2015. The results showed that the grid-level vegetation resilience in CA increased logarithmically as mean annual precipitation (R2 = 0.33, P < 0.05) but decreased linearly with increasing mean annual temperature (R2 = 0.41, P < 0.05). Vegetation resilience was not correlated with TWSA, due to the decoupling of TWSA with precipitation both spatially and temporally in the majority of CA. At the biome level, vegetation resilience also increased as a logarithmical function of aridity index (R2 = 0.80, P < 0.05). Vegetation resistance to TWSA showed minor difference across biomes, while vegetation resistance to precipitation functioned as a parabolic curve along the aridity gradient (R2 = 0.59, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that accounting for the effects of total water column instead of precipitation only is critical in understanding vegetation-water relationships in drylands. The steep decrease in vegetation resilience in areas with high temperature and low water availability implies a high risk of collapse for these water-limited ecosystems if there are severe droughts. Furthermore, reduction in total water storage, induced by, e.g., large-scale extraction of surface runoff or shallow-layer groundwater for irrigation, can result in negative influences to natural biomes in dryland regions.


Assuntos
Biota , Mudança Climática , Água Subterrânea/análise , Dispersão Vegetal , Ásia Central , China , Ecossistema , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Astronave
12.
Phytopathology ; 109(8): 1453-1463, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932734

RESUMO

Many plant pathogenic fungi have a global distribution across diverse ecological zones and agricultural production systems. Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, is a major pathogen in many wheat production areas of the world. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic relatedness of P. triticina in different worldwide regions. A total of 831 single-uredinial isolates collected from 11 regions were characterized for multilocus genotype at 23 simple sequence repeat loci and for virulence to 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance. A total of 424 multilocus genotypes and 497 virulence phenotypes were found. All populations had high heterozygosity and significant correlation between virulence and molecular variation, which indicated clonal reproduction. The populations from North America and South America, Central Asia and Russia, and the Middle East and Europe were closely related for multilocus genotypes and many individual isolates from other continental regions were closely related. Twenty-seven multilocus genotypes were found in more than one continental region, and 13 of these had isolates with identical virulence phenotypes. The wide geographic distribution of identical and highly related multilocus genotypes of P. triticina indicated past and more recent migration events facilitated by the spread of clonally produced urediniospores.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Ásia Central , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Federação Russa , América do Sul , Triticum/microbiologia
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(1)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642036

RESUMO

The current prevalence of pediatric Celiac Disease (CD) is estimated to be around 1% in the general population, worldwide. However, according to the geographic area, a great variability of CD prevalence has been described. Whereas a number of studies are available from Europe, North and South America, Australia, South-West Asia, and North Africa, the knowledge and awareness of CD in large parts of the remaining world areas is definitively poor. In several countries of Central and East Asia, the consumption of wheat is consistent and/or has significantly increased in recent decades, and CD is supposed to be underdiagnosed in children. In this mini-review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the prevalence of pediatric CD in Central and East Asia, paying attention to the HLA-DQ immunogenetic background as well. Indeed, CD is likely not to be as uncommon as previously or currently thought in countries like Russia, Kazakhstan, and China, in addition to India, where pediatric CD has been clearly showed to be quite prevalent. Therefore, there is an urgent need for population-based studies on the prevalence of CD in those countries, especially in children, in order to increase the awareness of this disease and to improve the diagnostic strategy in these areas.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alelos , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/genética , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-DQ , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 103(7): 871-877, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia. METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Transtornos da Visão , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 922-935, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583187

RESUMO

Central Asia experienced substantial institutional and socioeconomic changes during the last few decades, especially the Soviet Union collapse in 1991. It remains unclear how these profound changes impacted vegetation productivity across space and time. This study used the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and gridded climate data to examine the institutional and socioeconomic impacts on vegetation productivity in Central Asia in 1982-2015. The improved Residual Trend (ResTREND) algorithm was used to calculate NDVI residuals (NDVIres) that reflect the impacts of human factors by excluding the influences of multiple climate factors. Our results showed that 45.7% of the vegetated areas experienced significant transitions (p < 0.05) in NDVIres with turning point (TP), of which 83.8% occurred after 1992 except for the Aral Sea Basin. During the pre-TP period, positive NDVIres (i.e., positive impact) and increasing trends (i.e., positive tendency) were predominant, accounting for 31.6% and 16.5% of the vegetated land, respectively. This was attribute to the expanded cultivation due to Virgin Lands Campaign in North Kazakhstan region and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. However, the institutional and socioeconomic changes largely suppressed vegetation productivity. In the post-TP period, only 7.0% of the vegetated lands experienced an increasing trend in NDVIres, while NDVIres decline accounted for 20.1% of the vegetated areas (p < 0.05), mainly distributed in northern Kazakhstan and large areas in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Positive transitions resulted from the changes in crop types, decreases in grazing pressure, and increases in water resources, whereas negative transitions were coincident with areas that saw land abandonment, water resource shortages, and soil salinization due to former intensive cultivation. These findings highlight the spatiotemporal changes of institutional and socioeconomic impacts on vegetation productivity in Central Asian dryland and provide implications for future dryland management and restoration efforts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Ásia Central , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 3): 476, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326932

RESUMO

We review the current state of quality assurance in laboratories of the five Central Asia Republics (CARs), focusing on laboratory equipment, and compare quality assurance approaches with CLSI standards. The laboratories of the CARs faced exceptional challenges including highly-structured laboratory systems that retain centralized and outmoded Soviet-era approaches to quality assurance, considerably jeopardizing the validity of laboratory tests. The relative isolation of the CARs, based on geography and almost exclusive use of the Russian language, further hamper change. CARs must make high-level government decisions to widely implement quality assurance programs within their laboratory systems, within which approaches to the management of laboratory equipment will be a prominent part.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões/normas , Laboratórios/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Ásia Central , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Manutenção , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
18.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 49(6): 677-689, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932563

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This qualitative study aimed to develop a substantive theory of the process of adaptation to motherhood in Central Asian-Korean immigrants to Korea. METHODS: Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted from July to September 2017, with 18 women who emigrated of Korean ethnicity from Central Asia to Korea, and took care of their baby for at least a year after their first delivery in Korea. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data from the transcriptions were analyzed through Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method, and data analysis was conducted simultaneously with data collection. RESULTS: As a result of categorizing the interview data through the process of open coding, 10 categories, with 31 subcategories and 102 concepts were drawn, and "growth as a Central Asian-Korean mother in an unfamiliar, historical hometown" was found to be the core category of the process of adaptation to motherhood in Central Asian-Korean immigrants to Korea. CONCLUSION: A characteristic of the process of adaptation to motherhood in Central Asian-Korean immigrants to Korea, drawn from this study, is that it differs according to the level of initiative to carry out interaction strategies, and the use of various supportive social resources. The findings indicate the need for Medicare eligibility adjustment for antenatal care, the extension of the visa renewal period during childbirth, the development of web- or mobile application-based educational programs in Russian language, and the establishment of integrated visiting healthcare services, community service resources, and policy support to enable these women to utilize various supportive social resources.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Ásia Central , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Parto , Gravidez , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zootaxa ; 4517(1): 1-91, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486185

RESUMO

All presently available information about bees of the genus Hylaeus F. in Central Asia is summarized. Seventy species are currently known from this area. Ten new species are described: Hylaeus gissariensis Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Tajikistan), H. karagandicus Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Kazakhstan), H. kirgisicus Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan), H. klausnitzeri Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan), H. michaelis Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan), H. murgabensis Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Tajikistan), H. pamirensis Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Tajikistan), H. petzi Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Tajikistan), H. piotris Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan), and H. rushanicus Dathe Proshchalykin, sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). In addition, the male of H. punctiventris Morawitz, 1876 is described for the first time.-Twenty species are newly recorded from Central Asia: Hylaeus alexandrinus (Warncke, 1992), H. annulatus (Linnaeus, 1758), H. araxanus (Warncke, 1981), H. brevicornis Nylander, 1852, H. cardioscapus Cockerell, 1924, H. dorni Dathe, 1986, H. gredleri Förster, 1871, H. kozlovi Dathe Proshchalykin, 2016, H. leleji Proshchalykin Dathe, 2016, H. lineolatus (Schenck, 1861), H. longimaculus (Alfken, 1936), H. mellon Dathe Proshchalykin, 2016, H. meridionalis Förster, 1871, H. moricei (Friese, 1898), H. nimbatus Dathe, 1986, H. paulus Bridwell, 1919, H. pesenkoi Proshchalykin Dathe, 2016, H. rugicollis Morawitz, 1874, H. stubbei Dathe, 1986 and H. tsingtauensis (Strand, 1915).-New synonymy has been established for Hylaeus arenarius Morawitz, 1876 (= Prosopis cinerea Warncke, 1992, syn. nov.), Hylaeus ferghanicus Morawitz, 1876 (= H. kuhlmanni Dathe, 2010, syn. nov.) and Hylaeus punctiventris Morawitz, 1876 (= H. atrocallosus Morawitz, 1893, syn. nov.). Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) alexandrinus (Warncke, 1992) and Hylaeus (Prosopis) stellatus (Warncke, 1992) are introduced as new combinations.-Keys to most species known from Central Asia are provided.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Himenópteros , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia Central , Abelhas , Masculino
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