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1.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1696-1704, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397334

RESUMO

The genetic variation in Northern Asian populations is currently undersampled. To address this, we generated a new genetic variation reference panel by whole-genome sequencing of 175 ethnic Mongolians, representing six tribes. The cataloged variation in the panel shows strong population stratification among these tribes, which correlates with the diverse demographic histories in the region. Incorporating our results with the 1000 Genomes Project panel identifies derived alleles shared between Finns and Mongolians/Siberians, suggesting that substantial gene flow between northern Eurasian populations has occurred in the past. Furthermore, we highlight that North, East, and Southeast Asian populations are more aligned with each other than these groups are with South Asian and Oceanian populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genética Populacional , América/epidemiologia , Ásia Setentrional/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Mongólia/etnologia , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8969, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895902

RESUMO

Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c.13,790 BP and c.1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region. We observed a decrease in genetic diversity over time and a reduction of maternal effective population size (Ne) approximately seven thousand years before present. Coalescent simulations were consistent with genetic continuity between present day individuals and individuals dating to 7,000 BP, 4,800 BP or 3,000 BP. Meanwhile, genetic differences observed between 7,000 BP and 3,000 BP as well as between 4,800 BP and 3,000 BP were inconsistent with genetic drift alone, suggesting gene flow into the region from distant gene pools or structure within the population. These results indicate that despite some level of continuity between ancient groups and present-day populations, the region exhibits a complex demographic history during the Holocene.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Microbiano , Ásia Setentrional , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino
4.
J Hum Evol ; 107: 36-48, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526288

RESUMO

The climate of northeastern Europe is likely to resemble in many ways Late Pleistocene periglacial conditions in Europe, but there have been relatively few studies exploring the association between climate and morphology in the mid-face of modern northeastern European populations. To fill this gap, we sampled 540 male skulls from 22 European and Near Eastern groups, including 314 skulls from 11 populations from northeastern Europe, to test for possible climate-morphology association at the continental scale. Our results found a moderate and highly significant association (R = 0.48, p = 0.0013, Mantel test) between sets of 23 mid-facial measurements and eight climatic variables. A partial least squares analysis revealed this association to be mostly driven by differences between groups from northeastern Europe and populations from the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. Matrices of between-group genetic distances based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers, as well as cranial non-metric and geographic distance matrices, were used to control for the possible influence of shared population history. Irrespective of which measure of neutral between-population distances is taken into account, the association between cranial variables and climate remains significant. The pattern of association between climate and morphology of the mid-face in western Eurasia was then compared to that in east and north Asia. Although differences between the two were found, there were also similarities that support existing functional interpretations of morphology for the bony parts of the upper airways. Last, in a preliminary analysis using a reduced set of measurements, mid-facial morphology of several Upper Paleolithic European Homo sapiens specimens was found to be more similar to groups from northern and northeastern Europe than to southern European populations. Thus, the population of northeastern Europe rather than east and north Asian groups should be used as a model when studying climate-mediated mid-facial morphology of Upper Paleolithic European H. sapiens.


Assuntos
Clima , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Ásia , Ásia Setentrional , DNA Mitocondrial , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
5.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0158359, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27362499

RESUMO

Temperature is increasing in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions at a higher rate than anywhere else in the world. The frequency and nature of precipitation events are also predicted to change in the future. These changes in climate are expected, together with increasing human pressures, to have significant impacts on Arctic and sub-Arctic species and ecosystems. Due to the key role that reindeer play in those ecosystems, it is essential to understand how climate will affect the region's most important species. Our study assesses the role of climate on the dynamics of fourteen Eurasian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations, using for the first time data on reindeer abundance collected over a 70-year period, including both wild and semi-domesticated reindeer, and covering more than half of the species' total range. We analyzed trends in population dynamics, investigated synchrony among population growth rates, and assessed the effects of climate on population growth rates. Trends in the population dynamics were remarkably heterogeneous. Synchrony was apparent only among some populations and was not correlated with distance among population ranges. Proxies of climate variability mostly failed to explain population growth rates and synchrony. For both wild and semi-domesticated populations, local weather, biotic pressures, loss of habitat and human disturbances appear to have been more important drivers of reindeer population dynamics than climate. In semi-domesticated populations, management strategies may have masked the effects of climate. Conservation efforts should aim to mitigate human disturbances, which could exacerbate the potentially negative effects of climate change on reindeer populations in the future. Special protection and support should be granted to those semi-domesticated populations that suffered the most because of the collapse of the Soviet Union, in order to protect the livelihood of indigenous peoples that depend on the species, and the multi-faceted role that reindeer exert in Arctic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Rena/fisiologia , Temperatura , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Regiões Árticas , Ásia Setentrional , Clima , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Federação Russa , Estações do Ano , Sibéria
6.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 18: 66-71, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832380

RESUMO

X chromosome genetic markers are widely used in basic population genetic research as well as in forensic genetics. In this paper we analyze the genetic diversity of 62 X chromosome SNPs in 4 populations using multiplex genotyping based on multi-locus PCR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and report forensic and population genetic features of the panel of X-linked SNPs (XSNPid). Studied populations represent Siberian (Buryat and Khakas), North Asian (Khanty) and Central Asian (Kazakh) native people. Khanty, Khakas and Kazakh population demonstrate average gene diversity over 0.45. Only East Siberian Buryat population is characterized by lower average heterozygosity (0.436). AMOVA analysis of genetic structure reveals a relatively low but significant level of genetic differentiation in a group of 4 population studied (FST=0.023, p=0.0000). The XSNPid panel provides a very high discriminating power in each population. The combined probability of discrimination in females (PDf) for XSNPid panel ranged between populations from 0.99999999999999999999999982 in Khakas to 0.9999999999999999999999963 in Buryats. The combined discriminating power in males (PDm) varies from 0.999999999999999792 to 0.9999999999999999819. The developed multiplex set of X chromosome SNPs can be a useful tool for population genetic studies and for forensic identity and kinship testing.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Ásia Central , Ásia Setentrional , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genética Forense/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Projeto HapMap , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sibéria , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
7.
Adv Gerontol ; 29(5): 695-701, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556636

RESUMO

The scale and the signs of population aging in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), having expressed gender differences, have been defined. In the course of the analysis it have been revealed that the decline in mortality and life expectancy growth, migratory outflow of young population, reducing the number of children led to an increase in the number of older persons. It was found that the increase and redistribution of the dependency rate on the working population in the direction of older people acts as a consequence of the aging process. The survey of the employment behaviour of the elderly population of the Republic showed that the main activity motives of elderly are instrumental and social.


Assuntos
Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia Setentrional/epidemiologia , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Parasitol Res ; 114(5): 1677-86, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25648445

RESUMO

We investigated the phylogenetic structure of flea assemblages collected from small mammals on opposite sides of and increasing distance from the former Bering Land Bridge (BLB) using crossed double principal coordinate analysis (crossed-DPCoA). Phylogenetic composition of flea assemblages differed substantially between continents, but phylogenetic similarity between the Nearctic and Palearctic assemblages was the highest in the regions closer to the BLB. Within continents, phylogenetic similarity of flea assemblages was lower between regions closer to the BLB and those farther from the BLB than among regions within each of these groups. The Palearctic assemblages were represented mainly by basal families, while the Nearctic assemblages were dominated by a derived family (Ceratophyllidae), suggesting predominantly eastward pre-glaciation movements. In contrast, within the youngest flea family (Ceratophyllidae), the basal clades were characteristic for the Nearctic, while some species of a few derived clades were characteristic for the Palearctic, suggesting that, at least, during glaciation, westward movements occurred as well. In addition, multiple within-family clades of fleas were represented on opposite sides of the BLB suggesting multiple colonization events. This study is the first attempt to apply modern analytical methods of community ecology to reveal patterns in historical biogeography.


Assuntos
Sifonápteros/classificação , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Ásia Setentrional , Biota , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Mamíferos , América do Norte , Filogenia , Filogeografia
10.
Vopr Virusol ; 59(1): 12-8, 2014.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25065140

RESUMO

Complete genome sequences were obtained for the LEIV-13841Ka (ID GenBank KF767463-65) and LEIV-279Az (ID GenBank KF767460-62) virus strains, which were classified as different strains of the Zaliv Terpeniya virus (ZTV). LEIV-13841Ka was isolated from the ticks Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae White, 1852 collected on Ariy Kamen (Commander Islands) in 1986. LEIV-279Az was isolated from the mosquitoes Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, collected in heron colony (Ardea Linnaeus, 1758) in Azerbaijan (1969) and was initially identified as Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). According to the results obtained LEIV-279Az is ZTV strain as well. LEIV-13841Ka and LEIV-279Az RdRp sequences have high level of homology (99%) with previously sequenced ZTV/LEIV-271Ka. The L-segment nucleotide sequences are homological with ZTV/LEIV-271Ka on the level of 94% and 98% for LEIV-13841Ka and LEIV-279Az, respectively; M-segment--89% and 88%, respectively. Such homologies for the amino acid sequences of Gn/Gc polyprotein are 98.3% and 97.7%. NP proteins of ZTV/LEIV-13841Ka and LEIV-279Az have 88.7% and 84.6% homologies with ZTV/LEIV-271Ka both for amino acid and nucleotide sequences, respectively. Thus, for the very first time we demonstrated ZTV strain isolated from mosquitoes in subtropical Transcaucasia zone. Obtained results permit to expand suggested areal of ZTV and to fill up data upon the ecology of the Uukuniemi virus group.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Aves/parasitologia , Evolução Molecular , Ixodes/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia Setentrional , DNA Viral/genética , Europa (Continente) , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Vopr Virusol ; 59(1): 24-9, 2014.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25065142

RESUMO

Full-genome sequencing of the Caspiy virus (CASV - Caspiy virus) (ID GenBank KF801658) revealed its attribution to the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family as a separate species. CASV forms separate line, which is the most close to the Hughes virus (HUGV) and Sakhalin virus (SAKV) groups containing viruses linked with seabirds and ticks parasitizing on them and distributed over the shelf and island ecosystems in the Northern Eurasia, as well as the North and South America.


Assuntos
Argasidae/virologia , Aves/parasitologia , Nairovirus/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia Setentrional , Sequência de Bases , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nairovirus/classificação , Nairovirus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Zootaxa ; 3768: 469-86, 2014 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871188

RESUMO

The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied.


Assuntos
Mariposas/anatomia & histologia , Mariposas/classificação , Animais , Ásia Central , Ásia Setentrional , DNA/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Demografia , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Mariposas/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
BMJ Open ; 4(2): e004201, 2014 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24583761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in China. However, little is known about the research status of respirology in three major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). A 10-year survey of literature was conducted to compare the three regions' outputs in the research of respirology. DESIGN: A bibliometric study. SETTING: China. PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: A literature search in PubMed database, updated as of September 2012, led to the identification of the related articles from 2000 to 2009. The number of total articles, randomised controlled trials, case reports, meta-analysis, impact factors (IF), citations and articles published in top general medicine journals was collected for quantity and quality comparisons. RESULTS: 2208 articles were collected, 814 from ML, 909 from TW and 485 from HK. The total number of articles from the three regions has increased significantly from 2000 to 2009. The number of articles published per year from ML has exceeded that from HK in 2005 and TW in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (3192.417) was much higher than that from ML (2409.956) and HK (1898.312). HK got the highest average IF of respirology articles and the majority of articles were published in top general medicine journals. CONCLUSIONS: The total number of published articles from the three major regions of China has increased notably from 2000 to 2009. The annual number of publications by ML researchers exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pneumologia , Ásia Setentrional , China , Humanos
14.
J Hepatol ; 59(5): 1073-80, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23850942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The World Health Organisation (WHO) Prevention & Control of Viral Hepatitis Infection: Framework for Global Action offers a global vision for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis. In October 2012, the Coalition to Eradicate Viral Hepatitis in Asia Pacific (CEVHAP) organised the North Asia Workshop on Viral Hepatitis in Taipei to discuss how to implement the WHO Framework in the North Asia region. This paper presents outcomes from this workshop. METHODS: Twenty-eight representatives from local liver associations, patient organisations, and centres of excellence in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan participated in the workshop. FINDINGS: Priority areas for action were described along the four axes of the WHO Framework: (1) awareness, advocacy and resources; (2) evidence and data; (3) prevention of transmission; and (4) screening and treatment. Priorities included: axis 1: greater public and professional awareness, particularly among primary care physicians and local advocacy networks. Axis 2: better economic data and identifying barriers to screening and treatment uptake. Axis 3: monitoring of vaccination outcomes and targeted harm reduction strategies. Axis 4: strengthening links between hospitals and primary care providers, and secure funding of screening and treatment, including for hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO Framework provides an opportunity to develop comprehensive and cohesive policies in North Asia and the broader region. A partnership between clinical specialists, primary care physicians, policy makers, and people with or at risk of viral hepatitis is essential in shaping future policies.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Formulação de Políticas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ásia Setentrional/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
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