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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139658, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492613

RESUMO

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has evolved a global pandemic within three months, with more than 4.3 million confirmed cases worldwide until mid-May 2020. As many countries around the world, Malaysia and other southeast Asian (SEA) countries have also enforced lockdown at different degrees to contain the spread of the disease, which has brought some positive effects on natural environment. Therefore, evaluating the reduction in anthropogenic emissions due to COVID-19 and the related governmental measures to restrict its expansion is crucial to assess its impacts on air pollution and economic growth. In this study, we used aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations from Himawari-8 satellite, along with tropospheric NO2 column density from Aura-OMI over SEA, and ground-based pollution measurements at several stations across Malaysia, in order to quantify the changes in aerosol and air pollutants associated with the general shutdown of anthropogenic and industrial activities due to COVID-19. The lockdown has led to a notable decrease in AOD over SEA and in the pollution outflow over the oceanic regions, while a significant decrease (27% - 30%) in tropospheric NO2 was observed over areas not affected by seasonal biomass burning. Especially in Malaysia, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO concentrations have been decreased by 26-31%, 23-32%, 63-64%, 9-20%, and 25-31%, respectively, in the urban areas during the lockdown phase, compared to the same periods in 2018 and 2019. Notable reductions are also seen at industrial, suburban and rural sites across the country. Quantifying the reductions in major and health harmful air pollutants is crucial for health-related research and for air-quality and climate-change studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ásia Sudeste , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Humanos , Malásia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20287, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481309

RESUMO

Unhealthy lifestyle contributes mainly to an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and cardiovascular diseases tend to increase in Malaysia. These diseases lead to an increased risk of end organ damage and cardiovascular complications. In this study, the prevalence of prehypertension and its associated risk factors among a cohort of university students in Sabah was determined.This is a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted among 365 undergraduate students irrespective of faculties at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Standardized and validated World Health Organization (WHO) STEPS questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic data. Additionally, clinical and anthropometric data were measured and recorded by a trained staff, followed by descriptive and logistic regression analyses.A total of 365 UMS undergraduate students aged 18 years and above participated in the study. The prevalence of prehypertension among university students was high (31%) (95% CI [29.1%, 34.3%]). Well-known risk factors for hypertension including family history of hypertension, reduced sleep duration, reduced physical activity, smoking, being overweight or obese were significantly associated with the risk of developing prehypertension (P < .05) among UMS students. However, no association was observed between ethnicity, age, and gender with prehypertension.A worryingly high percentage of UMS students are prehypertensive, indicating the need of early preventive strategies aimed at increasing awareness, early screening, and lifestyle modification to reduce the rising burden of the disease and the associated complications in this age group.


Assuntos
Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437434

RESUMO

In an effort to mitigate the outbreak of COVID-19, many countries have imposed drastic lockdown, movement control or shelter in place orders on their residents. The effectiveness of these mitigation measures is highly dependent on cooperation and compliance of all members of society. The knowledge, attitudes and practices people hold toward the disease play an integral role in determining a society's readiness to accept behavioural change measures from health authorities. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge levels, attitudes and practices toward COVID-19 among the Malaysian public. A cross-sectional online survey of 4,850 Malaysian residents was conducted between 27th March and 3rd April 2020. The survey instrument consisted of demographic characteristics, 13 items on knowledge, 3 items on attitudes and 3 items on practices, modified from a previously published questionnaire on COVID-19. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted. The overall correct rate of the knowledge questionnaire was 80.5%. Most participants held positive attitudes toward the successful control of COVID-19 (83.1%), the ability of Malaysia to conquer the disease (95.9%) and the way the Malaysian government was handling the crisis (89.9%). Most participants were also taking precautions such as avoiding crowds (83.4%) and practising proper hand hygiene (87.8%) in the week before the movement control order started. However, the wearing of face masks was less common (51.2%). This survey is among the first to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. The results highlight the importance of consistent messaging from health authorities and the government as well as the need for tailored health education programs to improve levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104556, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359543

RESUMO

Glyphosate-resistant populations of Eleusine indica are widespread in several states of Malaysia. A whole-plant bioassay confirmed that eight out of the 17 populations tested were resistant to glyphosate at double the recommended rate of 2.44 kg ha-1. Screening with allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) revealed that resistant plants contained an EPSPS gene with either the homozygous S/S-106 or the heterozygous P/S-106 alleles. All susceptible plants contained only the homozygous P/P-106 allele. In addition, DNA sequences of the full-length EPSPS gene from one susceptible (SB) and four resistant (R2, R6, R8 and R11) populations revealed an amino acid substitution of T102I in all the resistant plants, while another substitution of P381L was only found in resistant populations R6 and R11. The significance of the P381L mutation was examined by Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) and residue interaction network (RIN) analyses, which suggests the P381L mutation may contribute to resistance. Mutations at 102 and 106 occur widely in the EPSPS gene of glyphosate-resistant E. indica populations from Malaysia with the TIPS mutation. In addition, the P381L mutation could also contribute to resistance.


Assuntos
Eleusine , Herbicidas , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Malásia , Mutação
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 139022, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353722

RESUMO

An outbreak of respiratory illness which is proven to be infected by a 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) officially named as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in Wuhan, China and has spread rapidly in other parts of China as well as other countries around the world, including Malaysia. The first case in Malaysia was identified on 25 January 2020 and the number of cases continue to rise since March 2020. Therefore, 2020 Malaysia Movement Control Order (MCO) was implemented with the aim to isolate the source of the COVID-19 outbreak. As a result, there were fewer number of motor vehicles on the road and the operation of industries was suspended, ergo reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants in the atmosphere. We had acquired the Air Pollutant Index (API) data from the Department of Environment Malaysia on hourly basis before and during the MCO with the aim to track the changes of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at 68 air quality monitoring stations. It was found that the PM2.5 concentrations showed a high reduction of up to 58.4% during the MCO. Several red zone areas (>41 confirmed COVID-19 cases) had also reduced of up to 28.3% in the PM2.5 concentrations variation. The reduction did not solely depend on MCO, thus the researchers suggest a further study considering the influencing factors that need to be adhered to in the future.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , China , Humanos , Malásia
6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 138, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural differences affect the administration and results of health status questionnaires. "Cross cultural adaptation" ensures retention of psychometric properties such as validity and reliability at an item and/or scale level. OBJECTIVE: To develop a Malaysian version of St George's respiratory COPD specific questionnaire (SGRQ-CM), to evaluate the full spectrum of psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness), to test the factor structure and to assess minimum clinically important difference for the SGRQ-CM, to be used in population of Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: SGRQ-C was translated to Bahasa Malaysia using a standard protocol. 240 COPD patients were included in the study. All patients were followed-up for six months. Construct validity, internal consistency, item convergent validity, test-retest ability, responsiveness, factor analysis and MCID of the Malaysian version of SGRQ-C to be used in population of Malaysia were evaluated. RESULTS: The Cronbach alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for SGRQ-CM were reported as 0.87, and 0.88 respectively. Correlation of SGRQ-CM with CAT, EQ-5D-5 L, mMRC dyspnea scales and FEV1%predicted were reported as 0.86, - 0.82, 0.72 and - 0.42 respectively. Correlation coefficient between the subscales and other clinical and health status measures ranged from r = - 0.35 to r = - 0.87. The MCID was reported as 5.07 (- 2.54-12.67). CONCLUSION: The Malaysian version of SGRQ-C has a good psychometric property comparable to those of the original version and has a strong evidence of validity, reliability and responsiveness towards disease severity in Malaysian COPD patients. It can be recommended as a reliable quality of life measure for future research.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dispneia/classificação , Análise Fatorial , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Malásia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Capacidade Vital
8.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(3): 311-313, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467554

RESUMO

On the 18th of March 2020, the Malaysia government declared a movement control order (MCO) due to the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Although the majority of patients presented with respiratory-related symptoms, COVID-19 patients may present atypically with neurological manifestations and may even have an increased risk of stroke. The Malaysia Stroke Council is concerned regarding the level of care given to stroke patients during this pandemic. During the recent National Stroke Workflow Steering Committee meeting, a guide was made based on the currently available evidences to assist Malaysian physicians providing acute stroke care in the hospital setting in order to provide the best stroke care while maintaining their own safety. The guide comprises of prehospital stroke awareness, hyperacute stroke care, stroke care unit and intensive care unit admission, post-stroke rehabilitation and secondary prevention practice. We urge continuous initiative to provide the best stroke care possible and ensure adequate safety for both patients and the stroke care team.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Malásia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Zootaxa ; 4755(1): zootaxa.4755.1.2, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230193

RESUMO

Based on the specimens collected in Mt. Trusmadi, Sabah, Malaysia, three new species of the genus Promalactis are described: P. clavivalvata sp. nov., P. abasiloba sp. nov. and P. trusmadiensis sp. nov. In addition, females of three previously known species (P. folivalva Wang, 2018, P. sectoralis Wang et al., 2013 and P. trigonilobata Wang, 2018) are described for the first time. Two species (P. sectoralis Wang et al., 2013 and P. pileata Wang, 2019) are newly recorded for Malaysia. Images of both adults and genitalia of the new species and the genitalia of the newly described females are provided.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Malásia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4751(3): zootaxa.4751.3.2, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230404

RESUMO

A survey of a limestone forest at Gunung Baling, Kedah, West Malaysia lead to the discovery of an undescribed species of Bent-toed Gecko from the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex. Cyrtodactylus evanquahi sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other species in the C. pulchellus complex by a suite of morphological and color pattern characteristics: prominent tuberculation, higher number of dark body bands, and a smaller maximum SVL. It is further differentiated from all other species as follows; no tubercles on the ventral surface of the forelimbs, gular region, or in the ventrolateral folds; 31-34 paravetebral dorsal tubercles; 18-23 longitudinal rows of tubercles; 29-33 ventral scales; 22-23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 32-36 femoroprecloacal pores; a shallow precloacal groove in males; body bands and nuchal loop edged with a thin white line bearing tubercles; no scattered white spots on the dorsum; six or seven dark body bands much thinner than interspaces; 9-11 dark caudal bands on original tail; bands on the original tail separated by immaculate white caudal bands. It is further differentiated by an uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence of 6.50-15.67% from all other congeners in the C. pulchellus complex. It is most closely related to C. pulchellus from Penang Island ∼76 km to the southwest. In addition to the new samples from Gunung Baling, we added four samples of C. bintangrendah from the new locality of Belukar Semang, Perak. The discovery of yet another new species of the C. pulchellus complex from a limestone habitat continues to underscore the high degree of endemism and the importance of these unique habitats for biodiversity, and the continued need for their conservation.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Malásia , Masculino , Filogenia
11.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(1): 61-66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246684

RESUMO

Background: Dental personnel are vulnerable to work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMSS) due to the nature of their profession. Aim: To determine WMSS experienced by dental auxiliaries and their coping strategies toward these symptoms. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 dental auxiliaries at a university dental hospital in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and the Brief COPE questionnaire were used to measure the musculoskeletal symptoms and coping strategies of the respondents, respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. Results: Dental auxiliaries consisted of dental staff nurses (30.5%), dental surgery assistants (40.2%), dental technologists (18.3%), and healthcare assistants (11.0%). Their mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 33.4 (7.60) years. Most of the respondents had been troubled with ache, pain, and discomfort at the neck, 54.9% (95% confidence interval 44.0%, 66.0%]. In addition, they were troubled mainly with distress at the low back (34.1%) and the ankle or feet (34.1%) which had prevented the respondents from doing their regular job over the past 12 months. The most common areas that had troubled the respondents over the past 7 days were the neck (36.6%), low back (36.6%), and ankle or feet (36.6%). The coping strategy most commonly practiced by the respondents was religion with a mean (SD) score of 3.70 (2.15), followed by active coping [3.13 (0.68)] and acceptance [3.13 (0.69)]. Conclusion: The prevalence of WMSS was high in the dental auxiliaries particularly in the neck region. The most common coping strategy used was religion. Awareness programs on the prevention of WMSS among the dental auxiliaries should be increased.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Adaptação Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Auxiliares de Odontologia , Humanos , Malásia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(1): 71-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293590

RESUMO

Many developing countries, mostly situated in the tropical region, have incorporated a biological nitrogen removal process into their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Existing wastewater characteristic data suggested that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) in tropical wastewater is not sufficient for denitrification. Warm wastewater temperature (30 °C) in the tropical region may accelerate the hydrolysis of particulate settleable solids (PSS) to provide slowly-biodegradable COD (sbCOD) for denitrification. This study aimed to characterize the different fractions of COD in several sources of low COD-to-nitrogen (COD/N) tropical wastewater. We characterized the wastewater samples from six WWTPs in Malaysia for 22 months. We determined the fractions of COD in the wastewater by nitrate uptake rate experiments. The PSS hydrolysis kinetic coefficients were determined at tropical temperature using an oxygen uptake rate experiment. The wastewater samples were low in readily-biodegradable COD (rbCOD), which made up 3-40% of total COD (TCOD). Most of the biodegradable organics were in the form of sbCOD (15-60% of TCOD), which was sufficient for complete denitrification. The PSS hydrolysis rate was two times higher than that at 20 °C. The high PSS hydrolysis rate may provide sufficient sbCOD to achieve effective biological nitrogen removal at WWTPs in the tropical region.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Hidrólise , Cinética , Malásia , Oxigênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 255, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal tuberculosis (TB) is diagnostically challenging; therefore, many cases are treated presumptively. We aimed to describe features and outcomes of gastrointestinal TB, determine whether a clinical algorithm could distinguish TB from non-TB diagnoses, and calculate accuracy of diagnostic tests. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, with suspected gastrointestinal TB. We recorded clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes. Tissue samples were submitted for histology, microscopy, culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF®. Patients were followed for up to 2 years. RESULTS: Among 88 patients with suspected gastrointestinal TB, 69 were included in analyses; 52 (75%) had a final diagnosis of gastrointestinal TB; 17 had a non-TB diagnosis. People with TB were younger (42.7 versus 61.5 years, p = 0.01) and more likely to have weight loss (91% versus 64%, p = 0.03). An algorithm using age < 44, weight loss, cough, fever, no vomiting, albumin > 26 g/L, platelets > 340 × 109/L and immunocompromise had good specificity (96.2%) in predicting TB, but very poor sensitivity (16.0%). GeneXpert® performed very well on gastrointestinal biopsies (sensitivity 95.7% versus 35.0% for culture against a gold standard composite case definition of confirmed TB). Most patients (79%) successfully completed treatment and no treatment failure occurred, however adverse events (21%) and mortality (13%) among TB cases were high. We found no evidence that 6 months of treatment was inferior to longer courses. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective design provides important insights for clinicians managing gastrointestinal TB. We recommend wider implementation of high-performing diagnostic tests such as GeneXpert® on extra-pulmonary samples.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico por Computador , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/patologia
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003073, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to compare 6-week posttreatment outcomes of an Integrative Adapt Therapy (IAT) to a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) on common mental health symptoms and adaptive capacity amongst refugees from Myanmar. IAT is grounded on psychotherapeutic elements specific to the refugee experience. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a single-blind RCT (October 2017 -May 2019) with Chin (39.3%), Kachin (15.7%), and Rohingya (45%) refugees living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The trial included 170 participants receiving six 45-minute weekly sessions of IAT (97.6% retention, 4 lost to follow-up) and 161 receiving a multicomponent CBT also involving six 45-minute weekly sessions (96.8% retention, 5 lost to follow-up). Participants (mean age: 30.8 years, SD = 9.6) had experienced and/or witnessed an average 10.1 types (SD = 5.9, range = 1-27) of traumatic events. We applied a single-blind design in which independent assessors of pre- and posttreatment indices were masked in relation to participants' treatment allocation status. Primary outcomes were symptom scores of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex PTSD (CPTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the 5 scales of the Adaptive Stress Index (ASI), and a measure of resilience (the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CDRS]). Compared to CBT, an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 331) at 6-week posttreatment follow-up demonstrated greater reductions in the IAT arm for all common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms and ASI domains except for ASI-3 (injustice), as well as increases in the resilience scores. Adjusted average treatment effects assessing the differences in posttreatment scores between IAT and CBT (with baseline scores as covariates) were -0.08 (95% CI: -0.14 to -0.02, p = 0.012) for PTSD, -0.07 (95% CI: -0.14 to -0.01) for CPTSD, -0.07 for MDD (95% CI: -0.13 to -0.01, p = 0.025), 0.16 for CDRS (95% CI: 0.06-0.026, p ≤ 0.001), -0.12 (95% CI: -0.20 to -0.03, p ≤ 0.001) for ASI-1 (safety/security), -0.10 for ASI-2 (traumatic losses; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.02, p = 0.02), -0.03 for ASI-3 (injustice; (95% CI: -0.11 to 0.06, p = 0.513), -0.12 for ASI-4 (role/identity disruptions; 95% CI: -0.21 to -0.04, p ≤ 0.001), and -0.18 for ASI-5 (existential meaning; 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.05, p ≤ 0.001). Compared to CBT, the IAT group had larger effect sizes for all indices (except for resilience) including PTSD (IAT, d = 0.93 versus CBT, d = 0.87), CPTSD (d = 1.27 versus d = 1.02), MDD (d = 1.4 versus d = 1.11), ASI-1 (d = 1.1 versus d = 0.85), ASI-2 (d = 0.81 versus d = 0.66), ASI-3 (d = 0.49 versus d = 0.42), ASI-4 (d = 0.86 versus d = 0.67), and ASI-5 (d = 0.72 versus d = 0.53). No adverse events were recorded for either therapy. Limitations include a possible allegiance effect (the authors inadvertently conveying disproportionate enthusiasm for IAT in training and supervision), cross-over effects (counsellors applying elements of one therapy in delivering the other), and the brief period of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CBT, IAT showed superiority in improving mental health symptoms and adaptative stress from baseline to 6-week posttreatment. The differences in scores between IAT and CBT were modest and future studies conducted by independent research teams need to confirm the findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered under Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) (http://www.anzctr.org.au/). The trial registration number is: ACTRN12617001452381.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Refugiados/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Simples-Cego , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109102, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289653

RESUMO

The present study investigated the genetic profile of the cosmopolitan cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) from Malaysia and the reference data available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank. A set of sequences of 100 Malaysian samples aligned as 550 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and 706 characters of the II (cox2) genes revealed ten haplotypes (A1-A10) and eight haplotypes (B1-B8), respectively. The concatenated sequences of cox1 and cox2 genes with a total of 1256 characters revealed 15 haplotypes (AB1-AB15). Analyses indicated that haplotype AB1 was the most frequent and the most widespread haplotype in Malaysia. Overall haplotype and nucleotide diversities of the concatenated sequences were 0.52909 and 0.00424, respectively, with moderate genetic differentiation (FST = 0.17522) and high gene flow (Nm = 1.18). The western population presented the highest genetic diversity (Hd = 0.78333, Pi = 0.01269, Nh = 9), whereas the southern population demonstrated the lowest diversity (Hd = 0.15667, Pi = 0.00019, Nh = 3). The concatenated sequences showed genetic distances ranged from 0.08 % to 4.39 %. There were three aberrant haplotypes in cox2 sequences that highly divergent, suggesting the presence of cryptic species or occurrence of introgression. In the global point of view, the aligned sequences of C. felis revealed 65 haplotypes (AA1-AA65) by the cox1 gene (n = 586), and 27 haplotypes (BB1-BB27) by the cox2 gene (n = 204). Mapping of the haplotype network showed that Malaysian C. felis possesses seven unique haplotypes in both genes with the common haplotypes demonstrated genetic affinity with C. felis from Southeast Asia for cox1 and South America for cox2. The topologies of cox1 and cox2 phylogenetic trees were concordant with relevant grouping pattern of haplotypes in the network but revealed two major lineages by which Malaysian haplotypes were closely related with haplotypes from the tropical region.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides/genética , Genes de Insetos/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Haplótipos/genética , Malásia
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 94: 125-127, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This is a brief report of 4 paediatric cases of COVID-19 infection in Malaysia BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a coronavirus, first detected in Wuhan, China has now spread rapidly to over 60 countries and territories around the world, infecting more than 85000 individuals. As the case count amongst children is low, there is need to report COVID-19 in children to better understand the virus and the disease. CASES: In Malaysia, until end of February 2020, there were four COVID-19 paediatric cases with ages ranging from 20 months to 11 years. All four cases were likely to have contracted the virus in China. The children had no symptoms or mild flu-like illness. The cases were managed symptomatically. None required antiviral therapy. DISCUSSION: There were 2 major issues regarding the care of infected children. Firstly, the quarantine of an infected child with a parent who tested negative was an ethical dilemma. Secondly, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs in children were at risk of false negative results. These issues have implications for infection control. Consequently, there is a need for clearer guidelines for child quarantine and testing methods in the management of COVID-19 in children.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malásia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226047

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is closely related with ageing, physical disability and functional dependency. The course of KOA is considered progressive and irreversible. Engagement with self-management may, however, minimize the impact of KOA. To be fully engaged with self-management activities, knowledge about KOA is a prerequisite. There is limited empirical data on older adults' understanding on KOA and their information needs about KOA. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore older adults' knowledge about KOA and their perspectives on the information required to enable self-management. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 older adults with KOA. The sample consisted of three men and thirteen women with the mean age 73.2 years (range from 61 to 89). Thematic content analysis revealed two themes which were understanding about KOA and information needed about KOA. Participants' knowledge about KOA varied between individuals with many expressing that they needed more information about KOA. A targeted strategy is needed to educate older adults about KOA in order to support and prepare them for self-management.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Autogestão/educação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 153: 111013, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275559

RESUMO

Linear alkylbenzenes were determined in the surface sediments of Muar River and Pulau Merambong, Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations ranged from 87.4 ng g-1 to 188.1 ng g-1 and from 67.4 ng g-1 to 98.2 ng g-1 of dry weight, respectively. The composition profiles of LABs were characterized, and sewage treatment levels were identified. The ratios of internal to external isomers (I/E ratios) of the linear alkylbenzenes in Muar River sediments ranged from 1.7 to 2.2, whereas those of Pulau Merambong sediments ranged from 1.6 to 1.7. The calculated LAB ratios indicated that the study areas received primary and secondary sewage effluents. The degradation of linear alkylbenzenes in Muar River ranged from 33% to 43%, and that in Pulau Merambong ranged from 33% to 34%. The higher degradation indices in Muar River are a sign of improvement in wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Derivados de Benzeno , Malásia , Rios
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0224054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Literature shows a high prevalence of MetS among Malaysians, varying across the major ethnicities. Since sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and diet habits of such communities have been reported to be diverse, the objective of this study was to investigate the association of various sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and diet habits with MetS overall, as well as with the three major ethnic communities in Malaysia, specifically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 481 Malaysians of ages 18 years and above living in the state of Johor, Malaysia. Information on demographics, lifestyle and diet habits were collected using a structured questionnaire. Harmonized criteria were used to assess the status of MetS. Multiple logistic regression was employed to determine any associations between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary behaviours with MetS. RESULTS: MetS was found among 32.2% of the respondents and was more prevalent among the Indians (51.9%), followed by the Malays (36.7%) and the Chinese (20.2%). Overall, increasing age (AOR = 2.44[95%CI = 1.27-4.70] at 40-49 years vs. AOR = 4.14[95%CI = 1.97-8.69] at 60 years and above) and Indian ethnicity (AOR = 1.95[95%CI = 1.12-3.38)] increased the odds of MetS, while higher education (AOR = 0.44[95%CI = 0.20-0.94] decreased the odds of MetS in this population. Quick finishing of meals (AOR = 2.17[95%CI = 1.02-4.60]) and low physical activity (AOR = 4.76[95%CI = 1.49-15.26]) were associated with increased odds of MetS among the Malays and the Chinese, respectively. CONCLUSION: The population of Johor depicts a diverse lifestyle and diet behaviour, and some of these factors are associated with MetS in certain ethnic groups. In the light of such differences, ethnic specific measures would be needed to reduce the prevalence of MetS among those in this population.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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