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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105059, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the declaration of the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, ensuring the safety of our medical team while delivering timely management has been a challenge. Acute stroke patients continue to present to the emergency department and they may not have the usual symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Stroke team response and management must be done within the shortest possible time to minimize worsening of the functional outcome without compromising safety of the medical team. METHODS: Infection control recommendations, emergency department protocols and stroke response pathways utilized prior to the COVID 19 pandemic within our institution were evaluated by our stroke team in collaboration with the multidisciplinary healthcare services. Challenges during the COVID-19 scenario were identified, from which a revised acute stroke care algorithm was formulated to adapt to this pandemic. RESULTS: We formulated an algorithm that incorporates practices from internationally devised protocols while tailoring certain aspects to suit the available resources in our system locally. We highlighted the significance of the following: team role designation, coordination among different subspecialties and departments, proper use of personal protective equipment and resources, and telemedicine use during this pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This pandemic has shaped the stroke team's approach in the management of acute stroke patients. Our algorithm ensures proper resource management while optimizing acute stroke care during the COVID-19 pandemic in our local setting. This algorithm may be utilized and adapted for local practice and other third world countries who face similar constraints.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hospitais Privados/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 571, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772191

RESUMO

Forests hold significant potential for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Forest biomass estimation is vital for sustainable forest management, providing critical input data for implementing the United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation-plus (REDD+) mechanism. This study investigates the total carbon pools-aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), forest floor biomass, and soil carbon-using field-based information in the muyong forest management system, which is native to Ifugao in the Philippines. This study reveals that a difference may be observed between the total carbon stock of the private woodlots (muyong) and that of the communal forest (bilid). The results indicate that the bilid forest has trees with a small diameter at breast height (DBH) and high tree density in contrast to the muyong, which has trees with high DBH and low tree density. The average carbon stock per unit area is higher in muyong (150.8 tC/ha) than in bilid (126.1 tC/ha). These findings are valuable in determining whether Ifugao's muyong forest system should be included under the REDD+ framework. Human mediation and management helps forests to sequester a greater amount of carbon than they would without human intervention. Implementation of REDD+ should promote Ifugao's ecosystem and biodiversity conservation and agroforestry practices in addition to protecting traditional agricultural practices and livelihoods in relation to rice terraces.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Filipinas
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720946951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715893

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent public health interventions have disrupted food systems all over the world. In the Philippines, where stringent lockdown rules have been implemented, households living in poverty have had to rely largely on food aid in the form of food packs distributed by local governments and private donors. An evaluation of the commonly distributed food items reveals a diet that addresses acute hunger but does not contain sufficient nutrients to promote and maintain health. Such a diet puts low-income households at a greater risk of acute and chronic disease. The negative health impact of commonly distributed food packs on food aid-dependent households shine a light on how the COVID-19 pandemic and public health policies exacerbate health inequities. A primary care perspective is essential in creating food security policies that can effectively address acute hunger and malnutrition without contributing to the long-term deleterious effects of inadequate nutrition on the health of indigent communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Características da Família , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Política Pública
4.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 011007, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611488

RESUMO

Background: The presence of COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is raising important concerns about effective pandemic response and preparedness in the context of fragile health systems and the pervasiveness of misinformation. The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of how COVID-19 was perceived by households experiencing extreme poverty in the Philippines. Methods: This study was conducted in partnership with International Care Ministries (ICM), a Philippine-based non-governmental organization (NGO) that runs a poverty-alleviation program called Transform targeted towards extreme low-income households. We integrated knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questions into ICM's cross-sectional program monitoring and evaluation systems from February 20 through March 13, 2020. Frequencies and proportions were calculated to describe the respondents' responses, and the Kruskal-Wallis test and binomial logistic regression were undertaken to determine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with COVID-19 KAPs. Results: In total, 2224 respondents from 166 communities in rural, urban and coastal settings were surveyed. Although the survey was administered during the earlier stages of the pandemic, 94.0% of respondents had already heard of COVID-19. Traditional media sources such as television (85.5%) and radio (56.1%) were reported as the main sources of information about the virus. Coughing and sneezing were identified as a transmission route by 89.5% of respondents, while indirect hand contact was the least commonly identified transmission route, recognized by 72.6% of respondents. Handwashing was identified by 82.2% of respondents as a preventive measure against the virus, but social distancing and avoiding crowds were only identified by 32.4% and 40.6%, respectively. Handwashing was the most common preventive practice in response to COVID-19, adopted by 89.9% of respondents. A greater number of preventive measures were taken by those with more knowledge of potential transmission routes. Conclusions: There is a need for targeted health education as a response strategy to COVID-19 in low-income settings, and it is important that strategies are contextually relevant. Understanding KAPs among populations experiencing extreme poverty will be important as tailored guidance for public health response and communication strategies are developed for LMICs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Características da Família , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 011007, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566169

RESUMO

Background: The presence of COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is raising important concerns about effective pandemic response and preparedness in the context of fragile health systems and the pervasiveness of misinformation. The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of how COVID-19 was perceived by households experiencing extreme poverty in the Philippines. Methods: This study was conducted in partnership with International Care Ministries (ICM), a Philippine-based non-governmental organization (NGO) that runs a poverty-alleviation program called Transform targeted towards extreme low-income households. We integrated knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questions into ICM's cross-sectional program monitoring and evaluation systems from February 20 through March 13, 2020. Frequencies and proportions were calculated to describe the respondents' responses, and the Kruskal-Wallis test and binomial logistic regression were undertaken to determine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with COVID-19 KAPs. Results: In total, 2224 respondents from 166 communities in rural, urban and coastal settings were surveyed. Although the survey was administered during the earlier stages of the pandemic, 94.0% of respondents had already heard of COVID-19. Traditional media sources such as television (85.5%) and radio (56.1%) were reported as the main sources of information about the virus. Coughing and sneezing were identified as a transmission route by 89.5% of respondents, while indirect hand contact was the least commonly identified transmission route, recognized by 72.6% of respondents. Handwashing was identified by 82.2% of respondents as a preventive measure against the virus, but social distancing and avoiding crowds were only identified by 32.4% and 40.6%, respectively. Handwashing was the most common preventive practice in response to COVID-19, adopted by 89.9% of respondents. A greater number of preventive measures were taken by those with more knowledge of potential transmission routes. Conclusions: There is a need for targeted health education as a response strategy to COVID-19 in low-income settings, and it is important that strategies are contextually relevant. Understanding KAPs among populations experiencing extreme poverty will be important as tailored guidance for public health response and communication strategies are developed for LMICs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Características da Família , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 633-634, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533174

RESUMO

In a recently published letter to the editor of this journal, the authors have called for the need to establish psychological support structures that cater to people's mental health in this time of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To be more holistic, we extend this call to include people's spiritual well-being as well. We highlight the initiatives of the Philippines' religious sector. In particular, we report some of the interventions made by the Roman Catholic Church that have led to the social media hashtag, #ChurchInAction. These religious and spiritual interventions showcase the efforts of the Philippine Church and play an important role in providing assistance in time of public health crisis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Catolicismo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555618

RESUMO

Influenza-associated mortality has not been quantified in the Philippines. Here, we constructed multiple negative binomial regression models to estimate the overall and age-specific excess mortality rates (EMRs) associated with influenza in the Philippines from 2006 to 2015. The regression analyses used all-cause mortality as the dependent variable and meteorological controls, time, influenza A and B positivity rates (lagged for up to two time periods), and annual and semiannual cyclical seasonality controls as independent variables. The regression models closely matched observed all-cause mortality. Influenza was estimated to account for a mean of 5,347 excess deaths per year (1.1% of annual all-cause deaths) in the Philippines, most of which (67.1%) occurred in adults aged ≥60 years. Influenza A accounted for 85.7% of all estimated excess influenza deaths. The annual estimated influenza-attributable EMR was 5.09 (95% CI: 2.20-5.09) per 100,000 individuals. The EMR was highest for individuals aged ≥60 years (44.63 [95% CI: 4.51-44.69] per 100,000), second highest for children aged less than 5 years (2.14 [95% CI: 0.44-2.19] per 100,000), and lowest for individuals aged 10 to 19 years (0.48 [95% CI: 0.10-0.50] per 100,000). Estimated numbers of excess influenza-associated deaths were considerably higher than the numbers of influenza deaths registered nationally. Our results suggest that influenza causes considerable mortality in the Philippines-to an extent far greater than observed from national statistics-especially among older adults and young children.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2719, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483195

RESUMO

National networks of laboratory-based surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) monitor resistance trends and disseminate these data to AMR stakeholders. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can support surveillance by pinpointing resistance mechanisms and uncovering transmission patterns. However, genomic surveillance is rare in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we implement WGS within the established Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program of the Philippines via a binational collaboration. In parallel, we characterize bacterial populations of key bug-drug combinations via a retrospective sequencing survey. By linking the resistance phenotypes to genomic data, we reveal the interplay of genetic lineages (strains), AMR mechanisms, and AMR vehicles underlying the expansion of specific resistance phenotypes that coincide with the growing carbapenem resistance rates observed since 2010. Our results enhance our understanding of the drivers of carbapenem resistance in the Philippines, while also serving as the genetic background to contextualize ongoing local prospective surveillance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J UOEH ; 42(2): 151-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507838

RESUMO

Pain in the muscles and tendons is one of the most common complaints among teachers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and their risk factors among public school teachers in the Philippines. It involved 200 public school teachers in the secondary level from Calbayog City division, Samar Province, Philippines, and used an English version of the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency's questionnaire on MSDs for an analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. The researchers employed frequency and percentages computations to determine the prevalence of MSDs in the respondents. Chi-square test and logistic regression were utilized to compute the correlation among socio-demographic profiles, teaching variables and MSDs. The reported overall prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 74.5%, with legs (56.5%) and lower back (56%) having the highest prevalence. Significant differences in the prevalence of MSDs were found between age-groups (P = 0.032) and salary-groups (P = 0.045). Musculoskeletal disorders were prevalent among secondary public school teachers in the Philippines, suggesting that school administrators, curriculum and policy makers, and other stakeholders should improve the working conditions of teachers.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110968, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583801

RESUMO

Tourism is frequently promoted as a strategy for sustainable economic development in developing countries. However, the preferred methodology for empirically assessing tourism's economic impacts on local economies, applied computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling, does not account for how tourism affects local natural resource stocks upon which many households depend. We develop a bioeconomic local CGE model to show how market-driven impacts of tourism expansion affect natural resource availability over time. We then show how changes in resource availability affect local incomes of different socioeconomic groups. We parameterize our model with household, business, and tourist survey data from a municipality in the Philippines. We find that tourism expansion increases local real incomes in the short run, but this causes a decline in a local open-access natural resource that erodes real incomes over time, particularly for households engaged in the natural resource sector. Different market integration contexts, as expressed through trade linkages, can mitigate natural resource decline, but this reduces the overall local economic benefit of tourism.


Assuntos
Comércio , Recursos Naturais , Características da Família , Filipinas
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 38-46, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Once symptoms appear, rabies is almost always fatal and accounts for 200-300 deaths annually in the Philippines. Available rabies vaccines can be administered either in pre- exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). After exposure, PrEP-immunized individuals require fewer doses of PEP and no rabies immunoglobulin. METHODS: A static decision-tree model was developed to assess cost-effectiveness of a PrEP+PEP program vs PEP alone. Philippines-specific data for people seeking medical advice at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine between July 2015 and June 2016 were used in the model, together with data from published literature. RESULTS: Over a 20-year period, in a cohort of 1 million 5-year-old children in the Philippines, PrEP+PEP was expected to prevent 297 deaths compared with PEP alone. From both payer and societal perspectives, the resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were 36 035 (US$759; 2016 US$ conversion) and 18 663 (US$393) Philippine Pesos (PHP) - quality-adjusted life-years gained - respectively, which are both below the willingness-to-pay threshold of PHP140 255 (US$2 953). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a universal PrEP program targeting 5-year-olds would be cost-effective in the Philippines.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/economia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/economia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Filipinas , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Raiva/economia , Raiva/mortalidade
14.
J Environ Radioact ; 218: 106239, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421573

RESUMO

Assessing groundwater vulnerability from salinity contamination is vital and relevant to meet the increasing demand for freshwater. Iodine-129 (129I, half-life = 15.7 million years), a radioisotope of iodine, was used as an environmental tracer for the possible origin of salinization in groundwater (e.g., natural rock weathering, evaporated water, seawater, brine fossil water, contamination). In July 2017 (wet season), thirty-two (32) water samples were taken from production wells of different localities in Pampanga, a province in the Philippines that relies heavily on groundwater for freshwater sources. Hydrogeochemical (mainly Cl) and stable water isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) were able to identify seven samples potentially affected by seawater intrusion. The salinity origin of these samples was investigated using iodine-129 and iodine-127 isotopes by generating two graphs: 129I vs. chloride and 129I/127I ratio vs. 1/127I. 129I vs. Cl graph was capable of showing a clear distinction between different salinity origins. Five out of the seven samples were being affected by evaporated water, one sample from possible wastewater, and one sample from brine fossil water. A conceptual model was produced to summarize the results. Compiled end-members (e.g., natural brine, seawater, modern rain) were plotted in the 129I/127I ratio vs. 1/127I graph to show the interaction between two recharge sources. The results of this study will be helpful to the government, civil society, and other organizations for monitoring, policymaking, and management of the groundwater and the subsurface formations that will be crucial to continuously supply the freshwater needs of the present and future generation.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Radioisótopos do Iodo/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Filipinas , Salinidade , Água do Mar
15.
J Clin Neurosci ; 77: 234-236, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414622

RESUMO

The 2019 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was first reported in Wuhan, China last December 2019, has been declared an emergency by the World Health Organization but eventually progressed to become a Pandemic. To date, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected at least 100,000 individuals worldwide, reaching thousands of mortalities (Zhou et al., 2020; World Health Organization, 2020). In the Philippines, the number of COVID-19 confirmed positive cases is over 636 and is expected to rise (Department of Health, 2020). Respiratory infections alongside their comorbidities can induce acute myocardial infarction and acute ischemic stroke (Warren-Gash et al., 2018) [3]. These may further bring challenges in the management and administration of Intravenous (IV) Alteplase in eligible patients. Currently, there are no case reports in the administration IV Altepase in ischemic stroke patients who are COVID-19 positive. We present a case of a 62-year old female who was admitted due to cough, colds and shortness of breath of 2 weeks duration and was tested to be COVD-19 positive. She suffered from an ischemic stroke while in the Medical Intensive Care Unit and was given Intravenous thrombolysis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filipinas , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428006

RESUMO

Spatial conservation prioritization is used worldwide for designing marine protected areas (MPA) that achieve set conservation objectives with minimal impacts to marine users. People involved in small-scale fisheries (SSF) may incur negative and disproportionate impacts from implementing MPAs, yet limited available data often restricts their representation in MPA planning. Using a Philippines case study, we focus here on the systematic design of a MPA network that aims to minimize and distribute costs equitably for SSF whilst achieving representation targets for biodiversity conservation. The objectives of the study are to: (1) document a participatory mapping approach for collecting SSF data for prioritization using the local knowledge of fishers; and (2) examine how the completeness and resolution of SSF data may affect prioritization outputs in terms of biodiversity representation, spatial efficiency, and distribution equity. In the data-poor region, we conducted participatory mapping workshops with fishers in 79 communities to collect data on the spatial distribution patterns of different SSF fisheries and communities, and employed remote sensing techniques to define coastal habitats, which were targeted for inclusion in MPAs. The datasets were integrated within the decision-support tool Marxan with Zones to develop three scenarios. The SSF data incorporated in each scenario varied based on their completeness (considered all fishing methods or only dominant methods) and resolution (fishing methods itemized by community or municipality). All scenarios derived MPA plans that met representation targets with similar area coverage. The outputs, however, varied in terms of distribution equity, measured by the distribution of opportunity costs (loss of fishing grounds) across different fisheries and communities. Scenarios that did not include minority fisheries or variations between communities, led to inequitable costs. These results highlight the need to incorporate detailed data on SSF at appropriate resolutions, and how this can be achieved through participatory approaches.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Pesqueiros/economia , Aquicultura/economia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Coleta de Dados , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros/tendências , Oceanos e Mares/epidemiologia , Filipinas , Dinâmica Populacional , Telemetria
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of having ever tested for HIV in the Philippines is very low and is far from the 90% target of the Philippine Department of Health (DOH) and UNAIDS, thus the need to identify the factors associated with ever testing for HIV among Filipino women. METHODS: We analysed the 2013 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The NDHS is a nationally representative survey which utilized a two-stage stratified design to sample Filipino women aged 15-49. We considered the following exposures in our study: socio-demographic characteristics of respondent and her partner (i.e., age of respondent, age of partner, wealth index, etc.), sexual practices and contraception (i.e., age at first intercourse, condom use, etc.), media access, tobacco use, HIV knowledge, tolerance to domestic violence, and women's empowerment. The outcome variable is HIV testing. We used logistic regression for survey data to study the said associations. RESULTS: Out of 16,155 respondents, only 372 (2.4%) have ever tested for HIV. After adjusting for confounders, having tertiary education (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15-4.04), living with partner (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.19-2.48), tobacco use (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.13-3.11); belonging to the middle class (aOR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.30-5.67), richer (aOR = 3.00; 95% CI: 1.37-5.68), and richest (aOR = 4.14; 95% CI: 1.80-5.91) populations, having weekly television access (aOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04-2.94) or internet access (aOR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.35-3.00), living in a rural area (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.34-2.61); and being a Muslim (aOR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.15-4.57) were associated with ever testing for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of respondents who test for HIV is a call to further strengthen efforts to promote HIV testing among Filipino women. Information on its determinants can be used to guide the crafting and implementation of interventions to promote HIV testing to meet DOH and UNAIDS targets.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 400, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468213

RESUMO

Radiological data such as ambient dose equivalent rate obtained from radiation monitoring in Metro Manila are useful for the detection of any anomalous increase of radiation dose rate levels due to nuclear or radiological emergencies. In this study, ambient dose equivalent rates were measured in different locations in Metro Manila using a portable NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter to determine the background radiation levels within the capital. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured range from 32.7 ± 2.2 to 59.3 ± 8.7 nanosieverts per hour (nSv/h) with computed mean and median values of 41.7 and 39.6 nSv/h, respectively. These values were lower than the Philippines' average dose rate which is 52 nanograys per hour (nGy/h). No significant trend was also observed in the monthly variation of ambient dose equivalent rate for most locations, with the dose rates being relatively consistent throughout a year. No significant trend was further observed in the monthly variation of ambient dose equivalent rate for the whole Metro Manila. Data obtained in this study were used to develop a dose rate distribution map of Metro Manila which could be used as a baseline reference of emergency responders for environmental radioactivity monitoring during nuclear or radiological emergencies that may affect Metro Manila.


Assuntos
Radiação de Fundo , Raios gama , Monitoramento de Radiação/instrumentação , Filipinas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 402, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472211

RESUMO

In unregulated mining and processing for Cu and Au, large amounts of heavy metals and metalloids are generated as tails. These wasted by-products could actually pose serious environmental problems. The objective of this study was to assess the potential ability of Alternanthera sessilis and Aster philippinensis thriving abundantly in a small-scale mine processing site at Kias, Benguet, for possible Cu, Pb, Zn, and As uptake. It also aimed to determine the cellular localization of the contaminants within the plant biomass. Alternanthera sessilis and Aster philippinensis exhibited low bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) values for Cu, Pb, Zn, and As. The BF and TF values could suggest possible exclusion mechanisms of the plants in avoiding phytotoxicity. SEM-EDX analysis of the Alternanthera sessilis roots indicated higher weight % of Cu, Pb, and As in the epidermis, and Zn in the cortex. On the other hand, Aster philippinensis roots showed high weight % of Zn and As in the epidermis and Cu and Pb in the cortex. The localization of the contaminants in the root epidermal and cortical cells signifies restriction of their mobility to the xylem, preventing migration to the shoot system. The findings of this study suggest that Alternanthera sessilis and Aster philippinensis are considered potential phytostabilizers capable of immobilizing contaminant toxicity in the soil and in the rhizosphere.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Aster/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Filipinas , Solo
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008279, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365059

RESUMO

Dengue is a highly endemic disease in Southeast Asia and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The National Capital Region (NCR) of the Philippines, or Metropolitan Manila, is a highly urbanized area that is greatly affected by this arboviral disease. Urbanization has been shown to increase the dispersal of this mosquito vector. For this reason, we conducted a fine-scale population genetic study of Ae. aegypti in this region. We collected adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (n = 526 individuals) within the region (n = 21 study areas) and characterized the present population structure and the genetic relatedness among mosquito populations. We genotyped 11 microsatellite loci from all sampled mosquito individuals and analyzed their genetic diversity, differentiation and structure. The results revealed low genetic differentiation across mosquito populations which suggest high gene flow and/or weak genetic drift among mosquito populations. Bayesian analysis indicated multiple genetic structures (K = 3-6), with no clear genetically distinct population structures. This result implies the passive or long-distance dispersal capability nature Ae. aegypti possibly through human-mediated transportation. The constructed dendrogram in this study describes the potential passive dispersal patterns across Metropolitan Manila. Furthermore, spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the limited and active dispersal capability (<1km) of the mosquito vector. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that investigated the genetic structure and dual (active and passive) dispersal capability of Ae. aegypti in a fine-scale highly urbanized area.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Genótipo , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cidades , Genética Populacional , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filipinas , Análise Espacial
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