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1.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 296-305, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational pesticide poisoning is an important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) among the vegetable and fruit farmers in Karacabey District in northwest Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 565 farmers. The dependent variable of the study is APP defined according to the World Health Organization's APP case definition matrix. The study's independent variables are the farmers' sociodemographic characteristics and the preventive measures they use when they are applying pesticides. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis analyzed the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 64 (11.3%) farmers reported APP and 75% of them presented to a health institution due to symptoms. The factors associated with increased risk of APP were: illiteracy (odds ratio (OR)=2.5), 14 years and less farming experience (OR=3.3), not reading the pesticide labels (OR=6.4), and contact with liquid pesticides (OR=2.3). -Conclusions: The study shows that approximately one out of ten farmers experience APP. Training programs should be planned and monitored to improve farmers' awareness of the dangers of pesticides, and they should be encouraged to adopt and implement protective measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Frutas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Autorrelato , Turquia , Verduras
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 631, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902699

RESUMO

In recent years, it has been difficult to establish a supply-demand balance between urban growth, increasing population, and existing water resources in many countries. In this study, the Bodrum Peninsula, which is an important tourism center for Turkey, was examined in terms of the relationship between the urban growth of the peninsula, population projections, the need for drinking and potable water, and the availability of the existing water resources. Using the Geographic Information System, it has been determined that the urban growth of the peninsula increased by 11.36% between 1985 and 2010. Urban growth is mostly concentrated in the coastal areas where 2 houses are densely built. The population is expected to increase approximately six times between 2010 and 2060. The amount of drinking and potable water required according to the population projection is 12.38, 26.50, 69.12, and 109.50 hm3/year for 2010, 2030, 2050, and 2060 respectively. The existing water resources of the peninsula will be able to meet the requirements until 2030. In order to meet the water needs of the peninsula until 2055, the Bozalan and Gökçeler dams located nearby as well as the Namnam dam located at mid-range to the peninsular should be built. It is not possible to meet the water needs of the peninsula in 2060 with just the near and medium distance water resources. However, by supplying water from the Akköprü dam located at a further distance, it is possible that 2060 water needs can be met.


Assuntos
Crescimento Demográfico , Recursos Hídricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia , População Urbana , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 608, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865639

RESUMO

Population growth, which is the main source of the biggest problems of the world today, combined with migration from rural areas to urban centers, causes the urban centers to be even more concentrated. This necessitates the opening of new residential areas in many city centers, but new residential areas are mostly determined by the decisions of local authorities, who may not base their decisions on scientific data. With the wrong area selection, ordinary natural events can be potentially catastrophic. Such events can result in large numbers of casualties and material damage every year. In this study, an example of applying a method for location selection using various parameters has been realized. The study focuses on Bafra, Turkey (the study area). Risk maps were created in terms of floods and overflows; maps of regions and high-voltage power transmission lines that enjoy a protected area status; and maps of regions in terms of biocomfort suitability. As a result of the evaluation made according to these criteria, it is calculated that only 1.96% of the total working area is suitable for use as a residential area. In relevant literature studies, it was observed that the studies related to the selection of residential areas were carried out only depending on a single standard or criterion. Some suggested biocomfort, and others used vulnerability to risks such as landslide, flood, and earthquakes as their main principle. Studies based on multi-criteria were generally used for purposes such as solid waste site selection and determination of the road routes. The study aims to shed light on the multi-criteria method in an attempt to standardize it in regional planning studies and to inspire similar studies in which different criteria can be used to achieve the maximum efficiency.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Crescimento Demográfico , Resíduos Sólidos , Cidades , Inundações , Turquia
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 638, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924079

RESUMO

Surface water is one of the primary sources for drinking, irrigation, and industrial activities in Ergene River, Turkey. However, its quality has deteriorated due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Therefore, an appropriate assessment of surface water quality is very important. Water quality classification is calculated separately for each quality parameter in Turkey. An overall assessment of surface water quality is essential for water management. In this study, self-organizing maps (SOMs) and fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) methods have been used for assessing surface water quality in the Ergene River. Seven water quality parameters have been considered as important indicators to evaluate water quality status in 7 observation points located in the river, covering the period from 1985 to 2013.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , Análise por Conglomerados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 575, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772253

RESUMO

The control of surface water quality plays an important role in the management of water resources. In this context, the estimation and assessment of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) are required which is one of the significant water quality parameters in the agricultural production sector. Chemical analysis might not, however, be feasible for a longer period of time in all the country-scale rivers. Therefore in this study, a support vector regression (SVR) model with different kernel functions; K nearest neighbour algorithm; and four decision-tree models, namely, Hoeffding tree, random forest, random tree, and REPTree, were used to estimate the SAR value with minimal parameters in the Aladag River in Turkey. In alternative scenarios, a correlation matrix and sensitivity analysis were used to ascertain the model inputs from among the 15 distinct parameters. All 15 parameters were utilized as model inputs in the first scenario, and only the sodium (Na) parameter was utilized as the model input in the final scenario. The accuracy of the aforesaid models was then assessed making use of correlation coefficient, Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute error, and Willmott index of agreement. The results indicate that the SVR model with the poly kernel function provides the best estimates of SAR among the considered models. According to the findings, there is no considerable difference between the results acquired in the first and last scenarios, and one can determine the SAR value while making use of machine learning approaches taking into account only Na parameter.


Assuntos
Rios , Sódio , Adsorção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140295, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806390

RESUMO

This study presents an analysis of the thermo-hygrometric conditions in the city of Konya (Turkey). A one-year transversal field survey was carried out in the Selçuk University campus and 2295 valid questionnaires were collected. In each questionnaire, randomly selected interviewees provided personal information and judged their perception and thermal preference according to the ASHRAE 7-point and McIntyre scales, respectively. For each interviewee, a value of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) was calculated based on the values of operational variables obtained from the questionnaires and the environmental variables measured during the survey. This allowed to calculate the seasonal preferred and neutral PETs and the annual PET comfort range. Also, the scale of the PET thermal perception was determined for the Konya population and, more generally, for the inhabitants of the BSk Köppen-Geiger climate zone. Statistical analyzes carried out in terms of Variance Inflationary Factor, multicollinearity assessment and Best Subsets Analysis led to the identification of the Turkish Outdoor Comfort Index, an empirical index able to predict the average value of the thermal perception of a large group of individuals living in the aforementioned climate zone. Moreover, the equations of the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) were obtained for each season.


Assuntos
Clima , Sensação Térmica , Cidades , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 586, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812095

RESUMO

The striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus) is an economically important demersal fish species. In this study, our aim was to monitor the pollution in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey using striped red mullet as a bioindicator species. Fish samples were caught from four different locations in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey in 2006, 2009-2011, and 2016. Highly elevated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-related 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities were measured in striped red mullet caught from Zonguldak Harbor in all of the sampling years. The lowest EROD activities were measured in fish samples caught from Kefken. In addition to the EROD activity measurements, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, and catalase activities were also measured in the striped red mullet samples. Higher GST and catalase activities were measured in the striped red mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbor than from Kefken in 2016. These results indicate that the striped red mullet is responsive to CYP1A inducer pollutants. This study covers intermittent measurements of the biomonitoring data from the striped red mullet caught around the western Black Sea coast of Turkey, over a 10-year period.


Assuntos
Smegmamorpha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Mar Negro , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1 , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia
9.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 347-367, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755513

RESUMO

Medical laboratory personnel may be exposed to various hazards, especially biological and chemical, during their routine activities. In this multicenter study, which could reflect the nation wide results, it was aimed to determine the safety and biosecurity practices of the employee working in medical microbiology laboratories and to reveal the current situation. A total of 1072 personnel working in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of 23 hospitals (14 medical faculty hospitals, seven ministry of health training and research hospitals and two state hospitals) from different provinces were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 33 questions inquiring about the rules, opinions, attitudes and behaviors regarding safety and biosafety practices. Statistical analyses were made with institutions, age groups, gender, educational background, working time and occupational groups in terms of exposure to biological and chemical hazards. It was determined that approximately 50% personnel of the university/ training and research hospitals and 2/3 of the state hospitals personnel consumed food and beverages in the laboratories (p<0.05). Compared with other hospitals, it was determined that in state hospitals; the absence of separate resting room (35%), the personnel finding their own knowledge and practices inadequate (28.9%), laboratory coats washed at home (95%), educational organization and participation rates (90%) and medical waste information levels of the personnel were higher (p< 0.05). It was determined that as the age progresses, the rate of education, food and beverage consumption in the laboratory, not being outside the laboratory with protective equipment (gloves, masks and laboratory coats) and the history of laboratory acquired infections were increased (p< 0.05). It was observed that washing the laboratory coats at home was higher in the younger age group and hospital washing was higher in the elderly group (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between the genders in terms of food and beverage consumption in the laboratory (p= 0.09). It was determined that periodic health checks were not performed in 1/3 of both sexes, but the use of gloves and compliance with medical waste rules was lower in men. Female employees find themselves inefficient in terms of knowledge and practices (p< 0.05). The rate of those who did not have their periodic checkups at regular intervals was higher in the high school and master of science education groups; While non-compliance with medical waste rules, food and beverage consumption in the laboratory was highest in the primary and high school graduates, the lowest rates were found in the master and doctorate groups (p< 0.05). The rate of those who had regular health checkups was higher in the group of specialist physicians and technicians (p< 0.05). It was observed that the rule of not going out of the laboratory with protective equipment was fully observed in the 35+ years working group, while compliance was 70-85% in other groups (p< 0.05), hepatitis B vaccination rate was highest in specialist doctors and lowest in cleaning and other personnel group (p< 0.05). Highest non-compliance rate with medical waste rules was observed in the cleaning personnel group (p< 0.05). As a result, although advances have been made in employee safety practices in medical microbiology laboratories in our country in recent years, it has been found that it is not yet sufficient. The results indirectly reflected the profile of medical laboratories in our country. In the laboratories, physical space and equipment deficiencies should be eliminated, periodic health checkups and vaccination should be provided, non-staff entrance to the laboratory and food, beverage and cigarette consumption should be prevented, laboratory coats should be washed in the hospital, in-service trainings, including medical waste training, should be conducted and these trainings should be developed through mechanisms that will change the behavior.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico , Adulto , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Educação , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
10.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 368-377, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755514

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile, a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore forming bacillus known as Clostridium difficile according to the previous taxonomy, is the most important agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C.difficile infections have become a major health problem for many countries. The rate of antimicrobial resistant C.difficile isolates is rapidly increasing all around the world. Yet there is limited data on this subject in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of C.difficile strains isolated from stool samples in Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital Microbiology Laboratory. A total of 93 toxigenic C.difficile, defined by serological and molecular techniques, were included in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolates were determined by using agar dilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI; M11-A7). The following antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of C.difficile infections or applied previously in C.difficile epidemiological studies were tested: metronidazole, vancomycin, meropenem, ceftriaxone, ampicillin-sulbactam, clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, tetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline and linezolid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were interpreted according to the breakpoints described by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Breakpoints recommended by CLSI were applied for ceftriaxone, clindamycin, tetracycline and moxifloxacin since there were no EUCAST breakpoints for these antimicrobials. MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined for three antimicrobials (linezolid, erythromycin, doxycycline) whose breakpoints were not described by EUCAST or CLSI guidelines. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem and tetracycline. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone, clindamycin and moxifloxacin was found in 58.1%, 35.5% and 20.4% of the isolates, respectively. MIC50 and MIC90 values of tigecycline, erythromycin linezolid, doxycycline were 0.125-0.25 mg/L, 1-2 mg/L, 2-2 mg/L, 0.062- 0.125 mg/L, respectively. This study shows the current antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of C.difficile isolates in our hospital and will also be the reference data for clinical laboratories in our country where anaerobic culture and susceptibility tests are not performed in routine practice. In conclusion, two main antimicrobial agents commonly used in the treatment of C.difficile infections, metronidazole and vancomycin, seem to be effective. However, high resistance rates against to the certain tested antimicrobials highlight the need for further surveillance to monitor the emergence of resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Clostridium difficile , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Turquia , Universidades
11.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 392-403, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755516

RESUMO

Lucilia sericata, a member of the Calliphoridae family, is one of the most common species in the genus Lucilia. Medical importance of L.sericata stems from its use in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). MDT is the name of L.sericata larvae being sterilized and used in the treatment of non-healing wounds. L.sericata maggots used in the treatment of chronic and non-healing wounds (decubitus ulcer, venous leg ulcer, diabetic foot ulcer, etc.) clean the wounds with the help of secreted proteolytic trypsin and lucimycin -like enzymes. The aim of the study was to determine the molecular characterization of lucimycin gene obtained from L.sericata larvae in MDT by using molecular methods and to contribute to the literature. In this study, continuous production of adult colonies of L.sericata species was carried out in insectarium unit where conditions such as light, humidity and temperature were formed. The life cycle of L.sericata was followed and the production of eggs, larvae, pupae, adult flies and fly colonies of the species were formed. In the third stage larvae obtained from adult flies in the insectarium unit, RNA was isolated and subsequently cDNA synthesis was performed by reverse transcription. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the synthesized cDNAs with the specific primers designed for the lucimycin gene of L.sericata was performed and the obtained amplicons were cloned into pJET1.2/blunt vector and the plasmid was purified. The recombinant plasmids were sequenced with vector-specific primers and target gene region sequences were obtained. After the molecular characterization of the isolate with nucleotide sequences was determined, it was registered to GenBank database with the accession number MF964229. The PCR product of 288 bp was obtained from the cDNA obtained from the larvae of L.sericata produced in the insectarium unit by PCR using lucimycin specific primers. The PCR product imaged on the gel was purified by transformation and subsequent colonies were screened to see whether they contained recombinant plasmids. Three of the colonies were identified as recombinant plasmids containing L.sericata lucimycin gene by PCR screening. From three colonies confirmed by PCR screening, recombinant plasmids containing L.sericata lucimycin gene were purified by miniprep. The recombinant plasmid product was confirmed to contain the L.sericata lucimycin gene by PCR from a total of 20 µl of the recombinant plasmid miniprep product. DNA sequencing analysis was performed to confirm the plasmid after cloning. The 288 bp L.sericata lucimycin sequence was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The lucimycin gene isolated was confirmed by specific and pJET1.2 forward and reverse primers using Blastn algorithm as a result of species and/or subspecies using the Blastn algorithm and the related isolate was recorded in GenBank database with the MF964229 accessory number. The DNA sequence of the isolated sample was compared with other isolates found in GenBank by Pubmed/Blast program. KJ413251.1 was found to be 99% similar to the GenBank isolate. The 113th nucleotide was C (cytosine) in the sequence of our isolate, while the existence of G (guanine) in the sequence numbered KJ413251.1 GenBank revealed the difference between the two sequences. In this study the molecular characterization of lucimycin gene derived from L.sericata larvae were determined for the first time in Turkey, it is assumed that this molecule which has an antifungal property, can be used in the studies that will be carried out in the future, especially in microorganisms causing cutaneous infections. The study is important since the isolate is registered as a biological asset of Turkey in GenBank and also being the second study in the world.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Genes de Insetos , Lucensomycin , Animais , Dípteros/enzimologia , Dípteros/genética , Genes de Insetos/genética , Larva , Turquia
12.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 404-417, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755517

RESUMO

Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), a large group of anaerobic bacteria, are the members of the normal microbiota that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces of the human body. However, in case of a wound or when the host becomes immunocompromised, GPAC can cause invasive and most frequently mixed infections. GPAC are the second most frequently isolated bacteria in anaerobic infections. Although the studies are limited, GPAC have been reported to develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs. The resistance of the pathogens to the antimicrobials and improper therapy can cause poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, monitoring of the resistance trends of regional clinically important anaerobic bacteria periodically is recommended. In our study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinically important GPAC. A total of 100 non-duplicated pathogenic GPAC isolates were collected from Marmara University Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The isolates were identified by using conventional methods, "matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system (MALDI-TOF MS)" (VITEK MS; v3.0, bioMerieux, France) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the agar dilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: penicillin, amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid (AMC), cefoxitin, meropenem, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, tigecycline, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin and metronidazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were interpreted according to the breakpoints described by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Breakpoints recommended by CLSI for cefoxitin, tetracycline and moxifloxacin, and breakpoint recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for tigecycline were used since there were no EUCAST breakpoints for these antimicrobials. MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined for erythromycin since the breakpoint was not described by EUCAST, CLSI or FDA guidelines. The identification results showed that the strains (n= 100) consisted of five different GPAC genus; Parvomonas (40%), Finegoldia (34%), Peptoniphilus (14%), Peptostreptococcus (10%) and Anaerococcus (1%). All of the organisms were susceptible to meropenem, tigecycline and metronidazole. The isolates were highly susceptible to penicillin, AMC, cefoxitin, and chloramphenicol, since the resistance rates against these antimicrobials were 5% or less. The resistance rates against clindamycin, tetracycline and moxifloxacin were 14%, 31% and 24%, respectively. In total, 11% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Metronidazole and tigecycline displayed high in vitro activity against GPAC and both are appropriate antimicrobials for the selection of empiric therapy. The effectiveness of meropenem was also found high, but it was observed that this antimicrobial would be more appropriate to use in the treatment of severe mixed infections accompanied by other microorganisms with the resistance potential. Detection of penicillin and AMC resistant isolates, which are frequently used in the treatment of GPAC infection, requires periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of GPAC. The high rates of resistance against clindamycin, tetracycline and moksifloxacin indicated that these antimicrobials should not be used for empirical treatment of infections without prior antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This study is one of the largest susceptibility studies specifically carried out on GPAC to date in Turkey. We believe that our results will provide good surveillance data both for our hospital and our country.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Cocos Gram-Positivos , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cocos Gram-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocos Gram-Positivos/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Turquia
13.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 429-443, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755519

RESUMO

Although asexual reproduction has been attributed to Leishmania species, genetic exchange has recently been demonstrated, which helped emerging of hybrid isolates. Situated on the crossroads between three continents, Leishmania hybrids may be present in Turkey. In Turkey, visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is less common, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania tropica and L.infantum could reach 2500 reported cases a year. Our aim was to investigate genetic variability of local Leishmania species and presence of hybrid Leishmania strains in Turkey. Twenty CL patients from Sanliurfa and Hatay, where only L.tropica and both L.tropica and L.infantum cause CL, respectively, were registered equally. All isolates were assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR), isoenzyme analysis, gene sequencing, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF/TOFMS followed by in vivo analyses on mouse model. Identification of differentially expressed proteins was performed. These proteins were confirmed by sequence analysis. All isolates from Sanliurfa were found to be L.tropica which caused cutaneous infection in mice. However, one of 10 isolates from Hatay was found as Leishmania major which caused cutaneous infection. Five isolates were found as L.tropica with Rt-PCR and gene sequencing, one of which had one different protein from the reference L.tropica strain and caused cutaneous infection. Four of the five isolates had five different proteins compared to reference strain and caused both cutaneous and visceral infections. Remaining four isolates showed double melting curves in Rt-PCR, which were concordant with L.tropica and L.infantum. Their sequencing and isoenzyme analyses indicated them as L.infantum. They had six different proteins compared to reference L.infantum strain and caused cutaneous and visceral infections. It is concluded that the isolates with different proteins were hybrid Leishmania species. In the present study, outcomes of the proteomics, genomics, clinical manifestations and tissue tropism on animal models were evaluated together for the first time. In addition to L.tropica and L.infantum, L.major was identified as a causative agent for CL and hybrids of L.infantum/tropica were also shown to be present.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Camundongos , Turquia
14.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 444-462, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755520

RESUMO

World Health Organization reported that approximately one billion people are at risk in endemic areas, one million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and approximately 300,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were reported per year in the last five years. The number of deaths due to VL is reported to be approximately 20,000 per year. Approximately 2500 cases/year have been reported as CL, caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum, in Turkey. The significant increase observed in many cities mainly in the provinces of Mediterranean and Aegean regions in cases and foci in recent years, suggests that there may be an increase in this infections in the following years as well. In Turkey, the causative agent of CL is L.tropica and meglumine antimoniate is used in the treatment of CL. We aimed to determine antimony resistance genes specific for L.tropica by comparing the gene and protein expressions of antimony-resistant and non-resistant L.tropica strains. L.tropica isolates obtained from 3 CL patients without antimonate resistance from Aegean, Mediterranean and Southeastern regions of Turkey were provided to transform into 3 resistant isolates against meglumine antimony in the laboratory conditions. Gene expression alterations by microarray method; protein profiles by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and relevant proteins by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS of these isolates were accomplished and compared. L.tropica isolates from 10 CL patients who did not respond to antimony therapy were analyzed for resistance to antimonial compounds and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression of genes responsible for resistance development. Moreover, differences in protein expression levels in isolates with and without antimony resistance were determined by comparing protein profiles and identification of proteins with different expression levels was carried out. Enolase, elongation factor-2, heat shock protein 70, tripanthione reductase, protein kinase C and metallo-peptidase proteins have been shown to play roles in L.tropica isolates developing resistance to antimonial compounds and similar expression changes have also been demonstrated in naturally resistant isolates from patients. In conclusion, it was revealed that L.tropica strains in our country may gain resistance to meglumine antimoniate in a short time. It is foreseen that if the patients living in our country or entering the country are treated inadequately and incompletely, there may be new, resistant leishmaniasis foci that may increase the number of resistant strains and cases rapidly.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos , Leishmania tropica , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Antimoniato de Meglumina/farmacologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Turquia
15.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1613-1623, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743705

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to further extend current knowledge of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) entails a risk for children with various rheumatic diseases under immunosuppressive treatment. Telephone survey was administered by conducting interviews with the parents from May 1, 2020 to May 20, 2020. A message containing a link to the actual questionnaire was sent to their phones simultaneously. The medical records of the patients were reviewed for gathering information about demographic data, clinical follow-up, and treatments. Patients who were followed-up under immunosuppressive treatment (n = 439) were attempted to be contacted. The diagnostic distribution of patients (n = 414) eligible for the study was as follows: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 243, 58.7%), autoinflammatory diseases (n = 109, 26.3%), connective tissue diseases (n = 51, 12.3%), and vasculitis (n = 11, 2.7%). In the entire cohort, the mean age was 12 ± 4.7 years, and 54.1% (n = 224) were female. Nine patients have attended the hospital for COVID-19 evaluation, 6 of whom were in close contact with confirmed cases. One patient with seronegative polyarticular JIA, previously prescribed methotrexate and receiving leflunomide during pandemic was identified to be diagnosed with COVID-19. None, including the confirmed case, had any severe symptoms. More than half of the patients with household exposure did not require hospitalization as they were asymptomatic. Although circumstances such as compliance in social distancing policy, transmission patterns, attitude following contact may have influenced the results, immunosuppressive treatment does not seem to pose an additional risk in terms of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vasculite/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111525, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771666

RESUMO

A comparison study was performed on anionic surfactant and phosphate concentrations between the entrance and the exit of Turkish Straits System (TSS). Surface water samples were collected at fall season in 2016 and the spring season in 2017. According to the values obtained from the samples taken from 6 stations at the entrance and 7 at the exit, anionic surfactant values were high at the exit of the TSS, while the phosphate concentrations were relatively lower. The high phosphate values at the entrance are related to the eutrophic feature of the Black Sea. Also, the location of these stations covers one end of the Canal Istanbul Project, which is planned to be built soon, so the data of this study will constitute an important database.


Assuntos
Fosfatos/análise , Tensoativos , Mar Negro , Turquia
17.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 54(4): 355-363, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the types and the frequency of fractures, both in the pediatric and adult population during the COVID-19 pandemic and to find out the differences in comparison to the non-pandemic period. METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the hospital with a new fracture during pandemic period (March 16 to May 22, 2020) were evaluated. Control group consisted of patients with new fractures admitted to the hospital in the same date range in 2018 and 2019. The patients were divided into two groups as ≤16 years old (group 1) and >16 years old (group 2). The evaluation was based on the age and gender of the patients and localization of the fractures. Hospitalized and surgically treated patients were evaluated as well. RESULTS: A total of 1794, 1747, and 670 fractures were observed in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. Mean age of the patients in group 1 was found to have decreased in the pandemic period (p<0.001). The most common fracture sites in the pediatric population were the distal forearm and distal arm, whereas hand, distal forearm, and foot were most common fracture sites in adults, in both pandemic and non-pandemic periods. The proportional increase in femoral and tibial shaft fractures in group 1, and toe, tibial shaft, and metacarpal fractures in group 2 was found to be statistically significantly (p<0.05). In group 1; 6.8%, 7.7%, and 14.6% of the fractures were treated surgically in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively (p<0.001). For group 2, these rates were 20.1%, 18.6%, and 18.1%, respectively (p=0.67). There were 48, 29, and 26 open fractures in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively (p=0.066). In pandemic period, duration of the hospital stay was significantly shorter for distal humerus and proximal femur fractures (p values= 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). CONCLUSION: We observed that the frequency of fractures decreased by approximately one-third during the pandemic period compared with that in the non-pandemic period. The mean age of the patients with a fracture in the pediatric group was found to have decreased also. Finger fractures in pediatric patients and metatarsal fractures in adult patients were found to have significantly decreased during the pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Diagnostic study.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115417, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823067

RESUMO

The Sürgü Stream, located in the Euphrates River basin of Turkey, is used for drinking water source, agricultural irrigation and rainbow trout production. Therefore, water quality of the stream is of great importance. In this study, multivariate statistical techniques (MSTs) and water quality index (WQI) were applied to assess water quality of the stream affected by multiple stressors such as untreated domestic sewage, effluents from fish farms, agricultural runoff and streambank erosion. For this, 16 water quality parameters at five sites along the stream were monitored monthly during one year. Most of parameters showed significant spatial variations, indicating the influence of anthropogenic activities. All parameters except TN (total nitrogen) showed significant seasonal differences due to high seasonality in WT (water temperature) and water flow. The spatial variations in the WQI were significant (p < 0.05) and the mean WQI values ranged from 87.6 to 95.3, indicating "good" to "excellent" water quality in the stream. Cluster analysis classified five sites into three groups, that is, clean region, low polluted region and very clean region. Stepwise temporal discriminant analysis (DA) identified that pH, WT, Cl-, SO42-, COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspended solids) and Ca2+ are the parameters responsible for variations between seasons, and stepwise spatial DA identified that DO (dissolved oxygen), EC (electrical conductivity), NH4-N, TN (total nitrogen) and TSS are the parameters responsible for variations between the regions. Principal component analysis/factor analysis revealed that the parameters responsible for water quality variations were mainly associated with suspended solids (both natural and anthropogenic), soluble salts (natural) and nutrients and organic matter (anthropogenic).


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Turquia
20.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520953353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Abortions are difficult to measure; yet, accurate estimates are critical in developing health programs. We implemented and tested the validity of a list experiment of lifetime abortion prevalence in Istanbul, Turkey. We complemented our findings by understanding community perspectives using in-depth interviews with key informants. METHODS: We conducted a household survey between March and June 2018. In a random sample of 4040 married women aged 16-44 years, we implemented a double list experiment. We averaged difference in mean values calculations between the average counts for each list to provide an estimated lifetime abortion prevalence. We conducted in-depth interviews with 16 key informants to provide insights into possible explanations for the quantitative results. RESULTS: The abortion prevalence estimate from the list experiment was close to that of the direct question (3.25% vs 2.97%). Key informant narratives suggest that differing definitions of abortion, inaccessibility, provider bias, lack of knowledge of abortion laws and safety, and religious norms could contribute to under-reporting. Results from the qualitative study suggest that abortion is largely inaccessible and highly stigmatized. CONCLUSION: Measuring experiences of abortion is critical to understanding women's needs and informing harm-reduction strategies; however, in highly stigmatized settings, researchers may face unique challenges in obtaining accurate reports.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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