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1.
Aust Vet J ; 98(7): 345-353, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399961

RESUMO

We have described the efforts of the Australian administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (TPNG) to establish a veterinary service and viable animal industries. These efforts began with planning before the end of World War II in 1945 and continued until independence in 1975. Whereas pre-war cattle had mostly been used to control grass on plantations, post-war, the objective was to use the country's extensive, unoccupied grasslands for cattle production. During this period, the cattle population increased from 4000 to more than 150,000. The greatest success was achieved in herds with crosses of Bos indicus and Bos taurus owned by expatriates. The only serious disease constraint on production was myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana, a parasite throughout New Guinea and South-east Asia. Attempts were made to increase the productivity of the indigenous pig population. Success was limited by a failure to manage inadequate nutrition and internal parasites and to fully understand the cultural aspects of pig ownership. Similar problems inhibited chicken production in villages. The serious viral infections of pigs and birds were absent from TPNG, but a border with Indonesian Papua represents a potential route for the incursion of animal diseases exotic to both Papua New Guinea and to Australia.


Assuntos
II Guerra Mundial , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Indonésia , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné , Suínos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 671, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015346

RESUMO

Dingoes are wild canids living in Australia, originating from domestic dogs. They have lived isolated from both the wild and the domestic ancestor, making them a unique model for studying feralization. Here, we sequence the genomes of 10 dingoes and 2 New Guinea Singing Dogs. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses show that dingoes originate from dogs in southern East Asia, which migrated via Island Southeast Asia to reach Australia around 8300 years ago, and subsequently diverged into a genetically distinct population. Selection analysis identifies 50 positively selected genes enriched in digestion and metabolism, indicating a diet change during feralization of dingoes. Thirteen of these genes have shifted allele frequencies compared to dogs but not compared to wolves. Functional assays show that an A-to-G mutation in ARHGEF7 decreases the endogenous expression, suggesting behavioral adaptations related to the transitions in environment. Our results indicate that the feralization of the dingo induced positive selection on genomic regions correlated to neurodevelopment, metabolism and reproduction, in adaptation to a wild environment.


Assuntos
Canidae/classificação , Canidae/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Migração Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Cães/classificação , Cães/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Mitocondrial , Nova Guiné , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Lobos/classificação , Lobos/genética
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 142: 106640, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605811

RESUMO

Molecular data sets and the increasing use of integrative systematics is revealing cryptic diversity in a range of taxa - particularly in remote and poorly sampled landscapes like the island of New Guinea. Green pythons (Morelia viridis complex) are one of the most conspicuous elements of this island's fauna, with large numbers taken from the wild to supply international demand for exotic pets. We test hypotheses about species boundaries in green pythons from across New Guinea and Australia with mitochondrial genomes, 389 nuclear exons, and comprehensive assessment of morphological variation. Strong genetic structuring of green python populations and species delimitation methods confirm the presence of two species, broadly occurring north and south of New Guinea's central mountains. Our data also support three subspecies within the northern species. Subtle but consistent morphological divergence among the putative taxa is concordant with patterns of molecular divergence. Our extensive sampling identifies several zones of hitherto unknown biogeographical significance on the island of New Guinea. We revise the taxonomy of the group, discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Papuan biogeography and the implications of our systematic changes for the conservation management of these taxa.


Assuntos
Boidae/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Boidae/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Melanesia , Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Filogeografia
4.
J Parasitol ; 105(6): 840-845, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760863

RESUMO

The genus Sarahcultrix n. gen. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) is described and illustrated based on 2 new species of chewing lice from New Guinean birds in the genus Peltops Wagler, 1829 (Passeriformes: Artamidae). These species are: Sarahcultrix ypsilophora n. sp. ex Peltops montanus Stresemann, 1921, and Sarahcultrix sphenura n. sp. ex Peltops blainvillii (Garnot, 1827).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Iscnóceros/classificação , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Iscnóceros/anatomia & histologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Nova Guiné
5.
Zootaxa ; 4695(6): zootaxa.4695.6.3, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719324

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus from Karkar Island, an active volcano off the northern coast of New Guinea. It is a member of the C. sermowaiensis species group, which is defined by the absence of enlarged precloacal and femoral scales and the absence of precloacal/femoral pores in males. This species group includes two other species, one of which is widespread along the northern mountain ranges of New Guinea, and the other of which is restricted to Manus Island. The new species differs from each of these in its larger size; more-tuberculate dorsum; wide, even bands across the dorsum; and uniformly brown crown of the head. Distributional data suggest that the C. sermowaiensis species group originated on the former islands of the South Caroline Arc, although only C. sermowaiensis currently occupies terranes derived from that arc. The other two species are now restricted to volcanic islands that originated independent of that arc, but the current restriction of our new species to Karkar Island seems likely to be a relictual distribution of a formerly wider range. The status of Karkar as an active volcano, and the explosive sterilization or virtual disappearance of other islands in the Bismarck Volcanic Arc, suggest that the new species could be at threat of immediate extinction should a similar explosive eruption occur on Karkar.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ilhas , Masculino , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné
6.
Zootaxa ; 4695(2): zootaxa.4695.2.9, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719360

RESUMO

Metanteon poirieri sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae: Anteoninae) is described from New Caledonia. The genus Metanteon Olmi, 1984, was known only from the southern region of Argentina and Chile. The unique species attributed previously to this genus is M. aerias (Walker, 1839), collected in Chile by Charles Darwin during his famous trip on the HMS Beagle. M. aerias is associated only with leafhoppers feeding on Southern Beeches (Nothofagus spp.), a genus of Nothofagaceae including species of trees and shrubs native to the southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Argentina, Chile) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia). Like Nothofagus, Metanteon is a transantarctic organism.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Australásia , Austrália , Chile , Nova Caledônia , Nova Guiné , Nova Zelândia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4691(3): zootaxa.4691.3.11, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719399

RESUMO

The genus Eucyclodes was originally established by Warren (1894) on the basis of Phorodesma buprestaria Guenée, 1858. Eucyclodes is a large genus, which contains more than 90 species (Scoble 1999; Scoble Hausmann 2007), mainly distributed in the Indo-Australian tropics, and more than 50% of all species are found in New Guinea. More than 90% of all Eucyclodes species were described before the 1950s. The most recent additions were made by Inoue (1978, 1986), Holloway Sommerer (1984), Holloway (1996), and Tautel (2016), who each erected one new species per publication. The tribal position of Eucyclodes is still uncertain, for example, Pitkin (1996), Holloway (1996) and Ban et al. (2018) placed it in the tribe Nemoriini (or Nemoriiti), and the most recent research by Murillo-Ramos et al. (2019) found that Eucyclodes is sister to other Nemoriini and the authors did not assign it to any tribe.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Austrália , China , Nova Guiné
8.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.13, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715771

RESUMO

Cyana Walker, 1854 is one of the most species-rich genera within the tribe Lithosiini Billberg of the subfamily Arctiinae Leach, family Erebidae Leach. The genus is widely distributed in tropics of Africa and Madagascar, south of the Arabian Peninsula, South and East Asia (including Russian Far East, Korean Peninsula and Japan), New Guinea and Australia. The African fauna was recently revised by Karisch (2013). In his revision, Karish offered a subdivision of the genus into 24 subgenera based on the differences in venation, configuration of androconial forewing lobes in males, pattern and genitalia structure.


Assuntos
Mariposas , África , Animais , Arábia , Austrália , Extremo Oriente , Japão , Madagáscar , Masculino , Nova Guiné , Federação Russa
9.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.7, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715913

RESUMO

Of the megadiverse Old-World genus Popillia Dejean, 1821, only seven species are so far recorded from the Sunda Islands (see checklist). The ruteline scarab beetle Popillia biguttata (Wiedemann in Wiedemann Germar, 1821) was originally described from, and was until now known only from Java (Greater Sunda Islands). In 2018, specimens of this species were found in northern New Guinea, far outside its native range, in mixed autochthonous and invasive vegetation.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Nova Guiné
10.
Zootaxa ; 4590(4): zootaxa.4590.4.5, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716083

RESUMO

The genus Theorica Diakonoff, 1966 includes two previously described species that occur in Vietnam (i.e., T. secunda Kuznetsov, 1997) and New Guinea (i.e., T. lamyra (Meyrick, 1911)). We report the first occurrence of this genus in Thailand, represented by a new species: Theorica valuliae Pinkaew, n. sp. In addition to illustrations of the adult and genitalia, we also present photographs of living specimens in their natural resting posture.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Genitália , Nova Guiné , Tailândia , Vietnã
11.
Zootaxa ; 4623(2): zootaxa.4623.2.8, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716265

RESUMO

The Moluccan net-winged beetle fauna remains poorly studied and here, new species of Schizotrichalus Kleine, 1926 and Eniclases Waterhouse, 1879 are reported from Halmahera. Using morphological traits and cox1 mitochondrial DNA sequences, we propose two new species, Eniclases kusyi sp. nov. and Schizotrichalus halmaherensis sp. nov., and redescribe E. moluccanus Kleine, 1930. New molecular data confirm morphology-based sister relationships between Schizotrichalus and Eniclases and the analysis identifies the combined area of the present-day Halmahera and New Guinea as an ancestral area of these genera. Now, Halmahera and New Guinea are quite similar in respect of the number of trichaline genera. Concerning the size of islands and the recent origin of the nowadays northern Moluccas, these results are unexpected and thus the general validity of this distribution pattern should be confirmed with other groups of beetles.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1 , DNA Mitocondrial , Nova Guiné , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.3, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716273

RESUMO

A key is provided to 13 species of Haplothrips recorded from Malesia, the tropical biogeographic region that extends from Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. Three new synonyms are established, and H. aliceae sp.n. is described from Sarawak, Timor-Leste and Thailand. In contrast to recent treatments of Haplothrips, one of the most common members of the genus in Australia, H. angustus Hood is recognised as a syn.n. of H. ganglebaueri Schmutz that is widespread from Iran to Indonesia. Difficulties in distinguishing between three of the most common flower-living, Southeast Asian, species of this genus are discussed: H. anceps Hood from northern Australia, H. chinensis Priesner from Hong Kong, and H. brevitubus (Karny) from Japan.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Hong Kong , Indonésia , Irã (Geográfico) , Japão , Malásia , Nova Guiné , Tailândia , Timor-Leste
13.
Zootaxa ; 4619(1): zootaxa.4619.1.1, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716313

RESUMO

The deep-water epialtid spider crab (superfamily Majoidea) material collected from recent French expeditions to Papua New Guinea (BIOPAPUA 2010, PAPUA NIUGINI 2012, MADEEP 2014, and KAVIENG 2014) was studied. In addition to several new records for the country, five new species of Oxypleurodon Miers, 1885, Rochinia A. Milne-Edwards, 1875, and Tunepugettia Ng, Komai Sato, 2017, are described. The taxonomy of Tunepugettia is reappraised, and a new genus, Crocydocinus n. gen., is established, characterised by its smooth ambulatory legs and a distinct male first gonopod structure. Four species from the Bay of Bengal, Sumatra, and Réunion Island, currently placed in Rochinia and Tunepugettia are transferred to Crocydocinus n. gen. and four new species from Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Vanuatu are described. A new genus, Neophrys n. gen., with one new species from Papua New Guinea, is established, and is characterised by the supraorbital eave being fused with the carapace and the poorly developed pre-orbital angle.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Indonésia , Masculino , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné , Filipinas , Reunião , Vanuatu
14.
Zootaxa ; 4565(3): zootaxa.4565.3.10, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716470

RESUMO

New species of Coronostrongylus and Dorcopsistrongylus (Strongyloidea: Chabertiidae) are described from Dorcopsis muelleri (Macropodidae) from Kumawa Mountains, West Papua, Indonesia. Coronostrongylus hasegawai n.sp .is most similar to C. spearei, the only other species described from New Guinea, in having 24 longitudinal pleats in the buccal cavity and spicules less than 1,400 long. Coronostrongylus hasegawai differs from C. spearei, in a suite of characters including the shape of the cephalic collar, the proportions of the buccal capsule, the disposition of the bursal rays, the length of the spicules and the proportions of the ovejector. Dorcopsistrongylus supriyatnai n.sp differs from all congeners in lacking large anteriorly directed intestinal diverticula. The genus Coronostrongylus is found in Australia and New Guinea while the genus Dorcopsistrongylus appears to be endemic to New Guinea.


Assuntos
Estrongilídios , Animais , Austrália , Indonésia , Macropodidae , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné , Strongyloidea
15.
Zootaxa ; 4564(1): zootaxa.4564.1.7, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716520

RESUMO

Adopting the name Canis dingo for the Dingo to explicitly denote a species-level taxon separate from other canids was suggested by Crowther et al.  (2014) as a means to eliminate taxonomic instability and contention. However, Jackson et al.  (2017), using standard taxonomic and nomenclatural approaches and principles, called instead for continued use of the nomen C. familiaris for all domestic dogs and their derivatives, including the Dingo. (This name, C. familiaris, is applied to all dogs that derive from the domesticated version of the Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, based on nomenclatural convention.) The primary reasons for this call by Jackson et al.  (2017) were: (1) a lack of evidence to show that recognizing multiple species amongst the dog, including the Dingo and New Guinea Singing Dog, was necessary taxonomically, and (2) the principle of nomenclatural priority (the name familiaris Linnaeus, 1758, antedates dingo Meyer, 1793). Overwhelming current evidence from archaeology and genomics indicates that the Dingo is of recent origin in Australia and shares immediate ancestry with other domestic dogs as evidenced by patterns of genetic and morphological variation. Accordingly, for Smith et al.  (2019) to recognise Canis dingo as a distinct species, the onus was on them to overturn current interpretations of available archaeological, genomic, and morphological datasets and instead show that Dingoes have a deeply divergent evolutionary history that distinguishes them from other named forms of Canis (including C. lupus and its domesticated version, C. familiaris). A recent paper by Koepfli et al.  (2015) demonstrates exactly how this can be done in a compelling way within the genus Canis-by demonstrating deep evolutionary divergence between taxa, on the order of hundreds of thousands of years, using data from multiple genetic systems. Smith et al.  (2019) have not done this; instead they have misrepresented the content and conclusions of Jackson et al.  (2017), and contributed extraneous arguments that are not relevant to taxonomic decisions. Here we dissect Smith et al.  (2019), identifying misrepresentations, to show that ecological, behavioural and morphological evidence is insufficient to recognise Dingoes as a separate species from other domestic dogs. We reiterate: the correct binomial name for the taxon derived from Gray Wolves (C. lupus) by passive and active domestication, including Dingoes and other domestic dogs, is Canis familiaris. We are strongly sympathetic to arguments about the historical, ecological, cultural, or other significance of the Dingo, but these are issues that will have to be considered outside of the more narrow scope of taxonomy and nomenclature.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais , Austrália , Cães , Nova Guiné
16.
Zootaxa ; 4671(1): zootaxa.4671.1.9, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716598

RESUMO

We describe a new species of bent-toed gecko in the genus Cyrtodactylus from hill forest in Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Cyrtodactylus manos sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners in New Guinea by its small size in combination with aspects of colouration and body and tail scalation. The new species adds to the growing number of vertebrate species known only from karstic mountains along the southern edge of New Guinea's Central Cordillera, suggesting that this region holds previously overlooked endemic karst-associated biota.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné
17.
Zootaxa ; 4661(2): zootaxa.4661.2.5, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716711

RESUMO

The genus Rhytidaspis Redtenbacher, 1891 is revised. The species R. fusca (Karny, 1911) is removed from the genus and combined with Haudrhytidaspis gen. nov. as type species, leaving only the type species R. picta Redtenbacher, 1891 in Rhytidaspis. The shapes of the male cerci and the complex structure of the male titillators in Rhytidaspis allows to differentiate between seven species and two subspecies of which six species and two subspecies are new to science: R. arfak sp. n., R. camela sp. n., R. genyem sp. n., R. nigropunctata sp. n., R. ornata sp. n., R. variata sp. n., R. variata brevis ssp. n., R. variata meja ssp. n.. A dichotomic key to species and a distribution map are provided. All records of Rhytidaspis known so far are from western New Guinea: Papua and Papua Barat (Indonesia) including Waigeo Island. Haudrhytidaspis fusca (Karny, 1911) had been described from New Guinea without precision.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Indonésia , Masculino , Nova Guiné
18.
Zootaxa ; 4651(2): zootaxa.4651.2.7, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716913

RESUMO

I describe five new species of Lepidodactylus from New Guinea or adjacent islands that are members of Brown Parker's (1977) phenetic Groups I and II and belong to the clades identified as the L. orientalis, L. pumilus, and L. novaeguineae groups of Oliver et al. (2018a). One of the new species is restricted to an isolated mountain range on New Guinea; the remainder inhabit offshore islands ranging from 3-250 km from New Guinea. These species are distinguished from their congeners primarily by unique combinations of toe lamellar numbers and shape, numbers and distribution of enlarged precloacal/femoral scales and pores, toe webbing, toe width, and color pattern. These clades are ancient, and the ancestor of one of them has been on the East Papuan Composite Terrane for at least 28 MY, highlighting the long-term importance of that former large island in generating regional biodiversity. At least one, and probably three, of the new species are inhabitants of forest interiors; one occupies disturbed coastal areas; and the habitat of the last is currently unsurmisable. All of the new species likely have restricted geographic distributions, with four of them being limited to one or a few small islands. As a result of their small ranges, rapid habitat conversion in the ranges of some of these species, and the threat of further habitat loss in the others, most of these species are of conservation concern although it is uncertain if any of them is under immediate threat.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Nova Guiné , Filogenia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4609(3): zootaxa.4609.3.4, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717094

RESUMO

New Guinea is home to the world's most diverse insular frog biota, but only a small number of taxa have been included in genetically informed assessments of species diversity. Here we describe two new species of New Guinea treefrog in the genus Litoria that were first flagged during assessments of genetic diversity (DNA barcoding) and are currently only known from the holotypes. Litoria pterodactyla sp. nov. is a large green species in the Litoria graminea species complex from hill forests in Western Province, Papua New Guinea and is the third member of this group known from south of the Central Cordillera. Litoria vivissimia sp. nov. is a small, spike-nosed species from mid-montane forests on the Central Cordillera. It is morphologically very similar to Litoria pronimia, but occurs nearly 1000 m higher than any known locality for that species. More extensive genetically informed assessment of diversity in New Guinea frogs seems certain to reveal many more as-yet-unrecognised taxa in complexes of morphologically similar species.


Assuntos
Anuros , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Animais , Cor , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné
20.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.6, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717193

RESUMO

A small number of treefrog species (Litoria) from Melanesia are unusual amongst Anura in having distinctive fleshy rostral spikes. Here, we first present an extended description for Litoria pronimia Menzies, a small species that is widespread along the southern edge of the Central Cordillera of New Guinea, and in which males have a long and erectile rostral spike. Second, we describe Litoria pinocchio sp. nov. a new, morphologically similar, yet geographically disjunct species from the Foja Mountains in northern Papua Province, Indonesia. The new species differs from Litoria pronimia in aspects of body shape, proportions and colouration. A review of variation in the size, structure and degree of sexual dimorphism of the rostral spike across different species of Litoria suggests varying function including mate selection and camouflage.


Assuntos
Anuros , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Indonésia , Masculino , Melanesia , Nova Guiné
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