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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 844-846, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618261

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism in returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19. All returning travelers to Reunion Island with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and were included in the cohort. Thirty-five patients were returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 and had recently returned from one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 outbreak (mainly from France and Comoros archipelago). Five patients (14.3%) were found to have pulmonary embolism and two (5.9%) were incidentally found to have deep vein thrombosis on CTPA. Patients with pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis had higher D-dimer levels than those without pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.04). Returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 should be systematically screened for pulmonary embolism.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia , Betacoronavirus , Comores , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , França , Humanos , Hipóxia/virologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Reunião , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viagem , Trombose Venosa/virologia
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(2): 155-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009440

RESUMO

AIMS: Complex displaced osteoporotic acetabular fractures in the elderly are associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Surgical options include either open reduction and internal fixation alone, or combined with total hip arthroplasty (THA). There remains a cohort of severely comorbid patients who are deemed unfit for extensive surgical reconstruction and are treated conservatively. We describe the results of a coned hemipelvis reconstruction and THA inserted via a posterior approach to the hip as the primary treatment for this severely high-risk cohort. METHODS: We have prospectively monitored a series of 22 cases (21 patients) with a mean follow-up of 32 months (13 to 59). RESULTS: The mean patient age was 79 years (67 to 87), and the mean ASA score was 3.3 (3 to 5). Three patients had high-energy injuries and 18 had low-energy injuries. All cases were associated fractures (Letournel classification: anterior column posterior hemitransverse, n = 13; associated both column, n = 6; transverse posterior wall, n = 3) with medialization of the femoral head. Mean operative time was 93 minutes (61 to 135). There have been no revisions to date. Of the 21 patients, 20 were full weight-bearing on day 1 postoperatively. Mean length of hospital stay was 12 days (5 to 27). Preoperative mobility status was maintained in 13 patients. At one year, mean Merle d'Aubigné score was 13.1 (10 to 18), mean Oxford Hip Score was 38.5 (24 to 44), mean EuroQol five-dimension five-level (EQ-5D-5L) health score was 68 (30 to 92), and mean EQ-5D-5L index score was 0.68 (0.335 to 0.837); data from 14 patients. Mortality was 9.5% (2/21) at one year. There have been no thromboembolic events, deep infections, or revisions. CONCLUSION: The coned hemipelvis reconstruction bypasses the fracture, creating an immediately stable construct that allows immediate full weight-bearing. The posterior approach minimizes the operative time and physiological insult in this vulnerable patient population. Early results suggest this to be a safe addition to current surgical options, targeted at the most medically frail elderly patient with a complex displaced acetabular fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):155-161.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Idoso Fragilizado , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Acetábulo/lesões , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Comores , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Suporte de Carga
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1033, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease with a global annual incidence that has plateaued above 200,000 new cases since over a decade. New strategies are required to overcome this stalemate. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with a single dose of Rifampicin (SDR) has conditionally been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), based on a randomized-controlled-trial in Bangladesh. More evidence is required. The Post ExpOsure Prophylaxis for Leprosy (PEOPLE) trial will assess effectiveness of different modalities of PEP on the Comoros and Madagascar. METHODS: PEOPLE is a cluster-randomized trial with villages selected on previous leprosy-incidence and randomly allocated to four arms. Four annual door-to-door surveys will be performed in all arms. All consenting permanent residents will be screened for leprosy. Leprosy patients will be treated according to international guidelines and eligible contacts will be provided with SDR-PEP. Arm-1 is the comparator in which no PEP will be provided. In arms 2, 3 and 4, SDR-PEP will be provided at double the regular dose (20 mg/kg) to eligible contacts aged two years and above. In arm 2 all household-members of incident leprosy patients are eligible. In arm 3 not only household-members but also neighbourhood contacts living within 100-m of an incident case are eligible. In arm 4 such neighbourhood contacts are only eligible if they test positive to anti-PGL-I, a serological marker. Incidence rate ratios calculated between the comparator arm 1 and each of the intervention arms will constitute the primary outcome. DISCUSSION: Different trials on PEP have yielded varying results. The pivotal COLEP trial in Bangladesh showed a 57% reduction in incidence over a two-year period post-intervention without any rebound in the following years. A study in a high-incidence setting in Indonesia showed no effect of PEP provided to close contacts but a major effect of PEP provided as a blanket measure to an entire island population. High background incidence could be the reason of the lack of effect of PEP provided to individual contacts. The PEOPLE trial will assess effectiveness of PEP in a high incidence setting and will compare three different approaches, to identify who benefits most from PEP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.Gov. NCT03662022. Initial Protocol Version 1.2, 27-Aug-2018.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Comores/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rifampina/administração & dosagem
4.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.1, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716410

RESUMO

For the first time large numbers of thecideide brachiopods have been collected from the Mozambique Channel, more particularly from the western part of the Comorian Island of Mayotte (France). The moderately diverse brachiopod fauna is from a submarine cave situated on the second barrier reef encircling this island, with three different genera being found: Thecidellina, Ospreyella and Minutella. The last genus is represented by M. cf. minuta (Cooper, 1981), which was first discovered around Madagascar. Ospreyella is represented by a new species (O. mayottensis sp. nov.) as is Thecidellina, which is represented by T. leipnitzae sp. nov. This species is markedly distinct from T. europa Logan et al., 2015 from Europa Island in the southern Mozambique Channel (1,200 km south of Mayotte), providing an example of allopatric speciation in an isolated cryptic habitat.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Animais , Comores , França , Ilhas , Madagáscar , Moçambique
5.
Zootaxa ; 4567(1): zootaxa.4567.1.7, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716442

RESUMO

Except for the introduced species, Telostylinus lineolatus Wiedemann, all Neriidae occurring in the Ethiopian Region belong to the genus Chaetonerius Hendel and only one species, C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos), is known from the East African islands, described from Seychelles and also recorded for Madagascar and Mauritius. Herein, we describe four new species of Chaetonerius from the East African islands, including the first species of Neriidae from the Comoros (C. kotrbae sp. n.) and three new species from Madagascar (C. ebejeri sp. n., C. kirkspriggsi sp. n. and C. madagasikara sp. n.). Additionally, a redescription of C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos) with new record for Réunion and a key for identification of Chaetonerius from the East African islands are provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Comores , Ilhas , Madagáscar , Maurício , Seicheles
6.
Zootaxa ; 4630(1): zootaxa.4630.1.1, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712497

RESUMO

An updated revision of Afrotropical Dryinidae is presented. Nine subfamilies, 23 genera and 430 species (including 60 new species) are treated. Six new species-level synonymies and three new combinations are proposed. Descriptions, geographic distribution, known hosts, natural enemies and type material of each species are presented, together with illustrations of the main morphological characters and keys to the subfamilies, genera and species. A complete list of references concerning the Afrotropical Dryinidae and their hosts is provided. The following new species are described: Anteon ambrense, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon beankanum, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon elongatum, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon hoekense, sp. nov. (South Africa), Anteon mabibiense, sp. nov. (South Africa), Anteon majunganum, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon malagasy, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon musmani, sp. nov. (Kenya), Anteon nigropictum, sp. nov. (South Africa), Anteon nimbense, sp. nov. (Guinea), Anteon pseudohova, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon sakalavense, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Anteon tulearense, sp. nov. (Kenya, Madagascar), Aphelopus sequeirai, sp. nov. (Kenya), Apoaphelopus fisheri, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Apoaphelopus wallacei, sp. nov. (Kenya), Bocchus forestalis, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Bocchus granulatus, sp. nov. (South Africa), Bocchus harinhalai, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Bocchus nigroflavus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Bocchus parkeri, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Bocchus ruvidus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Conganteon hawleyi, sp. nov. (Kenya), Conganteon sensitivum, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Crovettia afra, sp. nov. (Kenya, Madagascar), Deinodryinus ambrensis, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Deinodryinus granulatus, sp. nov. (South Africa), Deinodryinus nigropictus, sp. nov. (South Africa), Deinodryinus piceus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Dryinus bellicosus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Dryinus dentatiforceps, sp. nov. (South Africa), Dryinus erenianus, sp. nov. (Ivory Coast), Dryinus milleri, sp. nov. (Kenya), Dryinus mobotensis, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Dryinus nigrithorax, sp. nov. (Ivory Coast), Dryinus teres, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Dryinus tulearensis, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Dryinus whittleorum, sp. nov. (Kenya), Gonatopus avontuurensis, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus bellicosus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Gonatopus comorensis, sp. nov. (Union of the Comoros), Gonatopus costalis, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus flavotestaceus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Gonatopus gumovskyi, sp. nov. (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Gonatopus hantamensis, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus harinhalai, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Gonatopus karooensis, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus koebergensis, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus marojejyanus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Gonatopus minutus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Gonatopus nigropictus, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus ranomafanensis, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Gonatopus robertsoni, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus rugithorax, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus scholtzi, sp. nov. (South Africa), Gonatopus wikstrandae, sp. nov. (Kenya), Lonchodryinus madagascolus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Madecadryinus ranomafanensis, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Neodryinus bimaculatus, sp. nov. (Madagascar), Neodryinus keleboensis, sp. nov. (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The ♀ of Deinodryinus danielssoni Olmi, 1998, is described for the first time. The following new synonymies are presented: Anteon fiorii Olmi, 1984 (=A. proteicolum Olmi, 2006, syn. nov.); Anteon madagascolum (Benoit, 1954) (=Anteon brooksi Olmi, 2003, syn. nov.); Anteon zairense Benoit, 1951 (=A. terminale Olmi, 2007, syn. nov.); Aphelopus incisus Olmi, 1984 (=A. himyarita Olmi van Harten, 2006, syn. nov.); Bocchus watshami Olmi, 1987 (=Bocchus simoni Olmi, 2005, syn. nov.); Dryinus ugandanus Olmi, 1984 (=Dryinus constantiae Olmi, 2006, syn. nov.). The following new combinations are presented: Dryinus luweli (Benoit, 1951) new comb. in place of Lestodryinus luweli Benoit, 1951; Gonatopus africanus (Benoit, 1951) new comb. in place of Aphelopus africanus Benoit, 1951; Gonatopus ghanensis (Olmi, 1987) new comb. in place of Pseudogonatopus ghanensis Olmi, 1987. Gynander specimens of Deinodryinus rusticus Olmi, 2004 and Deinodryinus steineri Olmi, 1994 are described (first gynander specimens of Dryinidae from the Afrotropical region). The authors provide well-illustrated identification keys to all species of Afrotropical Dryinidae. Online Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix interactive keys are provided at http://www.waspweb.org.


Assuntos
Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Comores , Costa do Marfim , República Democrática do Congo , Quênia , Madagáscar , África do Sul
7.
Zootaxa ; 4646(1): zootaxa.4646.1.5, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717028

RESUMO

The alpheid shrimp Nennalpheus Banner Banner, 1981, hitherto known only from a few records in the tropical western Pacific, is recorded for the first time from the tropical eastern Atlantic, as well as from the Indian Ocean. Nennalpheus gabonensis sp. nov. is described based on a single but complete male specimen collected in mediocre visibility conditions at 11 m depth on a rocky reef north of Libreville, Gabon. The new species presents a substantial number of morphological differences from the two other species of Nennalpheus, especially in the armature of the cheliped fingers. The previously known distribution range of Nennalpheus sibogae (De Man, 1910), the type species of the genus, is extended significantly to include the Central Pacific (Hawaiian Archipelago) and the Indian Ocean (Glorioso Islands in the Scattered Islands group, and Mayotte Island in the Comoro Archipelago). In addition, new illustrations of N. sibogae are provided, including the previously not figured mouthparts and high-quality, contrasting background colour photographs. Field observations indicate that Nennalpheus is able to produce a weak snapping sound by rapidly closing one or both chelipeds, a previously suspected, but never observed behaviour.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Comores , Gabão , Hawaii , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Masculino
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558938

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) in the peri-urban adult population living in the island of Anjouan, Comoros and to investigate the factors associated with diabetes mellitus. Methods: The survey was a cross-sectional study, in which a sample of 902 individuals (540 women and 362 men) aged 25 to 64 was selected using empirical sampling "quotas" or "reasoned choice" survey method. Hypertension and obesity abdominal measurements of these subjects were collected during face-to-face interviews and following day fasting blood glucose was measured in capillary blood. Results: Participation rate was 83.5%. The mean age of subjects was 39.5 ± 11.63 years. The sex ratio was 0.67. Overall crude diabetes and IFG prevalence were 8.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The risk factors for diabetes type 2 onset were a family history of diabetes (P = 0.006), older age (P = 0.000), glycemic control (P = 0.010), excess waist circumference (P = 0.03) and hypertension (p = 0.000), were significantly positively associated with DM, contrary to sex (P = 0.142). Conclusion: These high figures confirm that diabetes and factors associated do not spare Anjouan population. Awareness, primary prevention, are to set up for a better control of non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comores/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2601-2604, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390479

RESUMO

Mayotte is an island located in the Mozambique Channel, between Mozambique and Madagascar, in the South Western Indian Ocean region. A severe syndrome of unknown aetiology has been observed seasonally since 2009 in cattle (locally named "cattle flu"), associated with anorexia, nasal discharge, hyperthermia and lameness. We sampled blood from a panel of those severely affected animals at the onset of disease signs and analysed these samples by next-generation sequencing. We first identified the presence of ephemeral bovine fever viruses (BEFV), an arbovirus belonging to the genus Ephemerovirus within the family Rhabdoviridae, thus representing the first published sequences of BEFV viruses of African origin. In addition, we also discovered and genetically characterized a potential new species within the genus Ephemerovirus, called Mavingoni virus (MVGV) from one diseased animal. Finally, both MVGV and BEFV have been identified in cattle from the same herd, evidencing a co-circulation of different ephemeroviruses on the island. The clinical, epidemiological and virological information strongly suggests that these viruses represent the etiological agents of the observed "cattle flu" within this region. This study highlights the importance of the strengthening and harmonizing arboviral surveillance in Mayotte and its neighbouring areas, including Africa mainland, given the importance of the diffusion of infectious diseases (such as BEFV) mediated by animal and human movements in the South Western Indian Ocean area.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Febre Efêmera/virologia , Ephemerovirus/classificação , Ephemerovirus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Comores/epidemiologia , Febre Efêmera/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
10.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 19(6): 597-605, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been recommended for patients with heart failure, their clinical and prognostic impact in the very acute phase of acute heart failure (AHF) is unclear, mainly because data on their safety and efficacy are lacking. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of the REALITY-AHF trial. Patients with AHF who did not take an ACEI or ARB at admission were enrolled. Patients who received these medications within 48 h of admission were categorized as the ACEI/ARB group, and all other patients were categorized as the no ACEI/ARB group. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death and heart failure readmission within 1 year of admission. RESULTS: Of the 1682 patients in the REALITY-AHF cohort, 900 were enrolled in this study, and 288 (32%) were included in the ACEI/ARB group. After propensity score matching, 152 pairs were evaluated, and no significant difference was found for in-hospital mortality, worsening renal function, or length of hospital stay. The ACEI/ARB group had significantly higher event-free survival (hazard ratio 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.82; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of ACEIs/ARBs within 48 h of admission for hospitalized patients with AHF was not associated with adverse events and correlated with improved outcomes at 1 year from admission.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Comores , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Sexuais
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 501, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The island of Anjouan (Comoros) is highly endemic for leprosy with an annual incidence of 5-10/10,000. In May/June, 2015 single-dose Rifampicin post-exposure prophylaxis (SDR-PEP) was administered to 269 close contacts of 70 leprosy-patients in four villages as a pilot programmatic intervention. Two years later we revisited the villages for follow-up investigations. The main aim of our study was to quantify spatial associations between reported leprosy cases before and after PEP implementation. A secondary aim was to assess the effect of this single round of SDR-PEP at the individual level. METHODS: We conducted door-to-door leprosy screening in all four villages in August/September, 2017. We screened all consenting individuals for leprosy and recorded geographic coordinates of their household. We also recorded whether they had received SDR-PEP and whether they had been diagnosed with leprosy, before or after the 2015 intervention. We fitted a Poisson model with leprosy as outcome and distance to the nearest pre-intervention case and SDR-PEP as predictors. RESULTS: During the survey we found 114 new cases among 5760 contacts screened (2.0% prevalence), in addition to the 39 cases detected in the two preceding years. We found statistically significant associations of incident leprosy with physical distance to index cases ranging from 2.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-3.6) for household contacts to 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.5) for those living at 1-25 m, compared to individuals living at ≥75 m. The effect of SDR-PEP appeared protective but did not reach statistical significance due to the low numbers, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-1.2) overall, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.3) when considering only household contacts. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot demonstrated an increased risk of leprosy in contacts beyond the household, therefore a wider circle should be considered for chemoprophylaxis. Baseline surveys and extended contact definitions are essential for improving SDR-PEP effectiveness.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Comores/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Prevalência , Rifampina/uso terapêutico
12.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(2): 169-174, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116034

RESUMO

Background: Alu elements are attractive markers for population genetics, disease, forensics and paternity analyses, due to their particular characteristics. Five polymorphic Alu insertions within the MHC class I region have been little examined in human populations. Aim: The analysis of the genetic diversity of autochthonous Comorians from the three major islands of the archipelago by these polymorphic MHC Alus and to assess their relationships together and with other populations. Subjects and methods: Two hundred and fifty-seven unrelated participants from the Comoros archipelago, Grande Comore (86), Anjouan (93) and Moheli (78), were examined for five MHC Alu insertions. The data were analysed for intra- and inter-population genetic variation. Results: All MHC Alu were polymorphic in the three samples and only one significant differentiation was observed between Anjouan and Moheli. According to the MDS and AMOVA results, the populations included in the inter-population analyses were grouped in three major clusters according to their genetic ancestry. The haplotype diversity showed by the Comorians is higher than in previously studied African populations and occupies an intermediate position between African and Asian clusters. Conclusion: MHC Alu insertions are useful markers to study micro-geographical genetic variations. Using these polymorphisms, new insights have been obtained about the biological history and evolution of the Comoros.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Comores , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético
13.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(5-6): 19, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041592

RESUMO

Previous genetic studies of frogs from Mayotte Island (a French Overseas Department in the Comoros Archipelago) in the Western Indian Ocean have provided evidence for oceanic dispersal in amphibians, which is a rare phenomenon due to the osmotic intolerance of amphibians to saline water. Using an integrative approach including morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic evidence, we here confirm that these frogs correspond to two new species and are the only representatives of the family Mantellidae not endemic to Madagascar. Blommersia transmarina sp. nov. differs from its sister taxon, B. wittei, by several morphological differences including larger body size (snout-vent length up to 34.5 mm) and by slight differences in advertisement calls. Boophis nauticus sp. nov. differs from its closest relatives, B. tephraeomystax and B. doulioti, by slight morphological differences (including larger body size), a reddish (vs. silvery or golden) iris coloration in life, and slightly different advertisement calls. The two new species differ from their closest relatives by a substantial genetic differentiation, with pairwise genetic distances > 5% in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, and based on the limited available data, also by distinct differences in nuclear DNA. They also are both larger than their closest relatives from Madagascar and B. transmarina sp. nov. is the largest Blommersia species, suggesting a moderate form of island gigantism. The Madagascan sister species B. wittei and B. doulioti are among the relatively few amphibian species occurring in the arid western biomes of the island, are adapted to open landscape, and reproduce in stagnant water bodies, which we hypothesize may represent important preadaptations for successful overseas colonization.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Anuros , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Comores , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Madagáscar
14.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 2193-2196, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123961

RESUMO

Using high-throughput sequencing of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), virion-associated nucleic acid (VANA), and double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), we have determined the complete genome sequences of Comorian isolates of two ipomoviruses, cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and a divergent isolate of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV-KM) representing a new strain of this virus. While the large ORF of CBSV shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (95.9%) with a Tanzanian isolate of CBSV, the large UCBSV-KM ORF shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (77.5%) with a Malawian isolate of UCBSV. This low value is near the species demarcation threshold for the family Potyviridae (<76%). Phylogenetic analysis confirms that UCBSV-KM represents a new lineage that is genetically distinct from the currently described UCBSV strains.


Assuntos
Potyviridae/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , Comores , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Manihot/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 135, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The south-west insular territories of the Indian Ocean have recently received attention concerning the diversity of arthropods of medical or veterinary interest. While a recent study highlighted the circulation of Culicoides-borne viruses, namely bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease, with clinical cases in Mayotte (comprising two islands, Petite-Terre and Grand-Terre), Comoros Archipelago, no data have been published concerning the species diversity of Culicoides present on the two islands. RESULTS: A total of 194,734 biting midges were collected in 18 sites, covering two collection sessions (April and June) in Mayotte. Our study reports for the first time livestock-associated Culicoides species and recorded at least 17 described Afrotropical species and one undescribed species. The most abundant species during the April collection session were C. trifasciellus (84.1%), C. bolitinos (5.4%), C. enderleini (3.9%), C. leucostictus (3.3%) and C. rhizophorensis (2.1%). All other species including C. imicola represented less than 1% of the total collection. Abundance ranged between 126-78,842 females with a mean and median abundance of 14,338 and 5111 individuals/night/site, respectively. During the June collection, the abundance per night was low, ranging between 6-475 individuals. Despite low abundance, C. trifasciellus and C. bolitinos were still the most abundant species. Culicoides sp. #50 is recorded for the first time outside South Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports for the first time the Culicoides species list for Mayotte, Comoros Archipelago, Indian Ocean. The low abundance and rare occurrence of C. imicola, which is usually considered the most abundant species in the Afrotropical region, is unexpected. The most abundant and frequent species is C. trifasciellus, which is not considered as a vector species so far, but its role needs further investigation. Further work is needed to describe Culicoides sp. #50 and to carry on faunistic investigations on the other islands of the archipelago as well as in neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Variação Genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Comores , Feminino , Oceano Índico
16.
Arch Pediatr ; 26(3): 161-167, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recreational scuba diving has been authorized for type 1 diabetics over 18 years old - the age of majority in France - since 2004, but it remained forbidden for younger diabetics by the French underwater federation (FFESSM). Here, we present a study to evaluate: - the conditions under which diving could be authorized for 14- to 18 year olds with type 1 diabetes; - the value of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while diving. A secondary objective was to monitor the impact of diving on the teenagers' quality of life. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Sixteen adolescents (14-17.5 years old) were included. Diabetes was known for 6 years (range, 1-14) and Hb1Ac was 9.0% (range, 7.7-11.9). The study was conducted in Mayotte with both capillary glycemia (CG) and CGM measurements taken during five dives. RESULTS: The average CG prior to diving was 283mg/dL and decreased by 75±76mg/dL during the dive. No hypoglycemia occurred during the dives and four episodes occurred after. Glycemia variations during dives and for the overall duration of the study were greater than for adults, most likely due to the general adolescent behavior, notably regarding diet and diabetes management. CGM was greatly appreciated by the adolescents. They had an overall satisfactory quality of life. No significant variations were observed during the entire course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although in need of further studies, these preliminary results show that CGM can be used while diving. CGM records show a continuous decrease of glycemia during dives. Based on these results, the French underwater federation has now authorized diving for adolescent type 1 diabetics following a specific diving protocol that includes HbA1c<8.5%, autonomous management of diabetes by the adolescent, reduction of insulin doses, and target glycemia prior to the dive>250mg/dL.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Mergulho , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Comores , Mergulho/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , França , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(1): 99-107, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014196

RESUMO

East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most serious tick-borne diseases in sub-Saharan and eastern Africa, was introduced to the island of Grande Comore in 2002 through zebu import from Tanzania, resulting in at least a 10% loss of livestock. A participatory epidemiology initiative was launched in 2015 to gain a better understanding of ECF epidemiology. Thirty-six villages were investigated involving 36 focus group sessions and 120 individual questionnaires. Farmers' knowledge of ECF and of priority diseases affecting the country was assessed, and the impacts of ECF and other major diseases were compared by a scoring method. The results showed that 69.4% (95% CI [51.3, 87.5%]) of the farmers had good to very good knowledge of ECF. The most important cattle diseases on Grande Comore were considered to be East Coast fever, heartwater, babesiosis, and cutaneous diseases. About 58% of the farmers (95% CI [49.2, 66.8%]) use curative treatments when cattle were sick. Between January and September 2015, the ECF incidence was estimated at 18.5% (95% CI [15.5, 21.4%]), and 87.5% (95% CI [72.7, 100%]) of the cattle infected by ECF died. The ECF incidence estimated in our study was found to be less when compared to that observed in Tanzania even though the climatic conditions in the Union of the Comoros are suitable for the biological vector of ECF, the tick species Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Access to chemical treatment and its effectiveness against ECF, as well as controlling borders and organizing quarantine, are discussed.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos , Bovinos , Comores/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Rhipicephalus , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle
18.
Acta Trop ; 191: 24-28, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590029

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the epidemiological situation in Mayotte regarding two orbiviruses: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV). In all, 385 individual asymptomatic cattle were blood-sampled (one EDTA and one serum tube per animal) between February and June 2016. Antibody (ELISA) and genome prevalence (PCR) was assessed. Almost all the selected cattle showed antibodies against both BTV and EHDV, at 99.5% (CI95% [98.00, 100]) and 96.9% (CI95% [94.5, 98.3]), respectively. Most of the cattle acquired antibodies in their first years of age. EHDV and BTV genomes were detected in 25.2% (CI95% [21.1, 29.8]) and 18.2% (CI95% [14.6, 22.4]) of samples, respectively. Coinfection with BTV and EHDV was observed in 9.4% of samples (CI95% [6.8, 12.7]). Cattle under three years old were more frequently reported as positive for genome detection by PCR than older cattle. Five serotypes of BTV and one serotype of EHDV were identified from eight samples: BTV-4, BTV-9, BTV-11, BTV-15, BTV-19 and EHDV-6, of which some were reported in neighbouring areas. BTV and EHDV both circulate in Mayotte and in its surrounding territories.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Comores/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544762

RESUMO

Reduction in child mortality is a demographic progress of significant socioeconomic development relevance in Africa. This paper analyzed the effect of maternal education and fertility on child survival in the Islands of Comoros. The 2012 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used. A two-stage probit regression method was used for data analysis. The results showed that about 75% of the children's mothers had given birth to between one and five children, while more than half did not have any form of formal education. The results of the two-stage probit regression showed that while child survival reduced significantly (p < 0.05) with the age of the heads of households, residence in the Ngazidja region, being born as twins, mother's number of business trips, and number of marital unions, it increased with maternal education, fertility, male household headship, and the child being breastfed immediately after birth. It was concluded that efforts to enhance maternal education would reduce child mortality. It is also critical to promote child breastfeeding among women, while regional characteristics promoting differences in child mortality in Comoros Islands should be properly addressed with keen focus on the Ngazidja region.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Escolaridade , Fertilidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comores/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Ecol ; 27(23): 4775-4786, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346079

RESUMO

Thalassohaline ecosystems are hypersaline environments originating from seawater in which sodium chloride is the most abundant salt and the pH is alkaline. Studies focusing on microbial diversity in thalassohaline lakes are still scarce compared with those on athalassohaline lakes such as soda lakes that have no marine origin. In this work, we investigated multiple facets of bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic diversity in the thalassohaline Lake Dziani Dzaha using a metabarcoding approach. We showed that bacterial and archaeal diversity were mainly affected by contrasting physicochemical conditions retrieved at different depths. While photosynthetic microorganisms were dominant in surface layers, chemotrophic phyla (Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes) and archaeal methanogens dominated deeper layers. In contrast, eukaryotic diversity was constant regardless of depth and was affected by seasonality. A detailed focus on eukaryotic communities showed that this constant diversity profile was the consequence of the high predominance of Picocystis salinarum, while nondominant eukaryotic groups displayed seasonal diversity turnover. Altogether, our results provided an extensive description of the diversity of the three domains of life in an unexplored extreme environment and showed clear differences in the responses of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities to environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Lagos/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Comores , Eucariotos/classificação , Ambientes Extremos , Fotossíntese , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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