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1.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1026444

RESUMO

Objective: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infestations of sheep are considered a major constraint to sheep production in the West Indies. Sheep are semiintensively managed under tropical conditions which are favorable for the development and survival of GIN. This study was conducted to determine if there was a relationship between GIN burdens in sheep with seasonality and management practices of farmers in Trinidad and Tobago (TT). Design and Methodology: Eighteen (18) farms were visited in Trinidad and 23 in Tobago on a monthly basis between January and December 2017. A maximum of ten sheep between three to nine months of age were selected using non-random sampling at each farm. Results: A total of 3053 fecal samples were collected and analyzed using the Modified McMaster Technique. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was constructed to analyze the relationship between eggs per gram (EPG) with season, management and deworming. The standard error was adjusted for clustering according to farm. EPG decreased according to wet season vs. dry season (coef. = - 0.6, 95% CI = -1.17 - -0.03, p = 0.039). Semiintensive management system experienced higher EPG than intensive system (coef. = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.72, - 2.14; p < 0.001). EPG did not vary significantly according to whether the farmer dewormed or not over the period (p = 0.54). Conclusion: Proper management is required for reducing the occurrence of GIN in sheep of TT throughout the year. Further investigation is needed to elucidate why EPG appear to be higher in the dry season than the wet season.


Assuntos
Animais , Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Ovinos , Trinidad e Tobago , Região do Caribe/etnologia
2.
Veterinary parasitology ; 166(1-2): 119-123, Dec. 2009. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17638

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important parasites that infects sheep and exerts its pathogenic effects by sucking blood, causing disturbances of organ-functions and thus inducing alterations in various normal physiological parameters. Changes in live body weight, faecal egg count, kinetics of circulating eosinophils and PCV value were studied at weekly interval for a period of 84 days in 18 lambs of local breed after infection with a single dose of 5000 H. contortus (L(3)). In the two groups of lambs infected with nematodes both non-treated and treated with ivermectin (HcNT and HcIT), similar egg excretion patterns was observed starting from third week after infection, with a regular increase in FEC. Examination of whole abomasum of each animal revealed no developmental stage of nematode from treated and control lambs on day 84. The total mean number of H. contortus worms recovered at necropsy from abomasa of untreated infected lambs (group HcNT) was 2576.2 (+/-221.0). The significant loss of body weight, development of heavy worm burden and severe anaemia as indicated by reduced PCV in untreated infected lambs indicated high susceptibility of the lambs to H. contortus. On the other hand, complete absence of the parasite, improved PCV value and body weight after treatment of infected animals (HcIT) proved 100% efficacy of ivermectin against H. contortus.


Assuntos
Animais , Eosinófilos , Anemia , Haemonchus , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos
3.
West Indian veterinary journal ; 5(2): 24-30, December 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17835

RESUMO

This paper points out that several breeds of prolific sheep in the world possess a major gene for prolificacy. However, the existence of such a major gene in the prolific breeds of hair sheep in the Caribbean remains to be researched. This paper assumes that this gene (F) exists in the Barbados Blackbelly sheep and goes on to outline a strategy to exploit it for the benefit of the small farmer as well as the large private producer. The strategy aims at developing one type of sheep for the small farmer by selective reduction in the frequency of the F gene thereby reducing the frequency of multiple births. The development of another type of highly prolific sheep is suggested for use by the large producer through selective increase in the frequency of the F gene. Large producer is expected to employ high levels of feeding and management including artificial rearing of lambs so as to minimise mortality of multiplets. The paper further discusses within breed selection for genetic improvement in general fitness of hair sheep. In this connection, the development of an open nucleus flock is suggested involving cooperation among participant smallholders.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Genética , Melhoramento Genético , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe
4.
West Indian veterinary journal ; 5(2): 24-30, December 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18163

RESUMO

This paper points out that several breeds of prolific sheep in the world possess a major gene for prolificacy. However, the existence of such a major gene in the prolific breeds of hair sheep in the Caribbean remains to be researched. This paper assumes that this gene (F) exists in the Barbados Blackbelly sheep and goes on to outline a strategy to exploit it for the benefit of the small farmer as well as the large private producer. The strategy aims at developing one type of sheep for the small farmer by selective reduction in the frequency of the F gene thereby reducing the frequency of multiple births. The development of another type of highly prolific sheep is suggested for use by the large producer through selective increase in the frequency of the F gene. Large producer is expected to employ high levels of feeding and management including artificial rearing of lambs so as to minimise mortality of multiplets. The paper further discusses within breed selection for genetic improvement in general fitness of hair sheep. In this connection, the development of an open nucleus flock is suggested involving cooperation among participant smallholders.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Genética , Melhoramento Genético , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe
5.
Canadian veterinary journal ; 46(11): 1017-1021, Nov. 2005. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17647

RESUMO

Endoparasitism is a problem in Trinidad, as it is in most tropical countries. Parasite infection has been suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of swayback disease (which is also prevalent in Trinidad), but the mode of action has not been clearly defined, although it has been suggested that parasites interfere with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract. The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of endoparasitism on blood copper levels and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in sheep in Trinidad. Copper was administered intramuscularly to parasite infected and noninfected animals. The results showed that parasitism has a depressing effect on blood copper and Hb levels, even when administered parenterally. It is concluded that parasitism can aggravate existing hypocupremia and possibly influence the expression of swayback disease.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/sangue , Cobre/deficiência , Hemoglobinas/análise , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia , Lordose Equina/sangue , Lordose Equina/complicações , Infecções por Nematoides/sangue , Infecções por Nematoides/complicações , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Trinidad e Tobago
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17091

RESUMO

The effect of lambing season-year, sex and type of birth on lamb weights at birth, weaning at 56 days and 6-months, and daily gain and preweaning mortality was studied. Data were based on 131 lambs from 103 lambings by Blackhead Persian ewes in 1982-85 at the Blenheim Sheep Station in Tobago (West Indies). The effect of the lambing season-year on measures of ewe reporductive performance (number of lambs borm total, born alive and, weaned per ewe lambing) and total lamb weight weaned was also studied. The average values for lamb body weights at birth, weaning and 6-month, and daily gain mortality were: 2.57 kg, 10.9kg, 16.6kg, 147g and 14.6 percent respectively. The flock means for number of lambs born total, born alive, weaned and for total weight of lambs weaned at 56 days were 1.27, 1.24, 1.08 and 13.2 kg, respectively. The lambing season-year effects caused significant variation in body weights at birth and 6-month, and lamb mortallity only. Sex of lamb had no significant effect on any of the traits studied. The effect of type of birth was apparent for all traits except 6-month body weight and lamb mortality. Single born lambs. Ewes with twins weaned 54 percent more lamb than ewes with singles (16.0 vs. 10.4 kg). Lambs with below average birth weight had significantly higher mortality than those with above average birth weight (20.7 vs 8.5 percent)(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Desmame , Trinidad e Tobago , Região do Caribe
7.
Canandian veterinary journal ; 44(1): 56-58, Jan. 2003. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17763

RESUMO

A case of cephalothoracopagus in sheep complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported.


Assuntos
Animais , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/veterinária , Cabeça/anormalidades , Cabeça/patologia , Ovinos/anormalidades , Tórax/anormalidades , Tórax/patologia , Trinidad e Tobago , Gêmeos Unidos/patologia
8.
Canadian veterinary journal ; 42(3): 227-228, Mar. 2001. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17603

RESUMO

A 2-year old, Barbados black belly sheep was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, with a history of sudden onset of anorexia, extreme dyspnea, and unilateral mucohemorrhagic nasal discharge.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Zigomicose , Trinidad e Tobago
9.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical ; 34(1): 29-35, Jan.-Feb. 2001. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17780

RESUMO

A longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. The enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica), parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and Cryptosporidium spp.) and viruses (group A rotavirus and parvovirus). The prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species was related to age and month of the year. Generally, younger animals presented a higher prevalence of infection by enteropathogens than older animals while most infections occurred between the months of January and April.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Animais , Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't , Fatores Etários , Animais Domésticos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Suínos , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
10.
Theriogenology ; 51(5): 985-97, Apr. 1, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-737

RESUMO

Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAl). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n=18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n=18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n=18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2 alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4 percent of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2 percent of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P<0.06). The time from ram introduction to ovulation was not different (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n=23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7 percent) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9 percent (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a higher concentration rate was achieved in ewes synchronized with CIDR devices during the second trial. This may reflect an increase in the skill level of the TAI technician.(AU)


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , 21003 , Masculino , Sincronização do Estro/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Administração Intravaginal , Dinoprosta/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ovulação/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Progesterona/fisiologia , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Clima Tropical , Ilhas Virgens Americanas
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 35(3): 149-63, Jun. 1, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1621

RESUMO

Ethnoveterinary research was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago in 1995, in order to document existing ethnoveterinary practices. This paper describes 20 medicinal plants and used to treat ruminants. The main plants used were Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa. Medicinal plants were used predominantly for endoparasities, internal and external injuries and pregnancy-related conditions. A 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. This documentation could provide a foundation for the further scientific study and verification of those practices which merit such study(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Bovinos , Feminino , Medicina Herbária , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Doenças das Cabras/terapia , Plantas Medicinais , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/terapia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Cabras , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Placenta Retida/terapia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , /metabolismo , Ovinos , Trinidad e Tobago , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
12.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 791: 369-77, July 23, 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2982

RESUMO

A serological survey was performed of 1788 cattle, goats and sheep on 13 islands in the Lesser Antilles. Sera were tested by microscopic agglutination (MAT) using a panel of 22 live antigens. Evidence of past exposure, at a titer of > or = 100, was found in 101 animals (5.6 percent). Antibodies were more common in cattle and goats (7.2 percent in each) than in sheep (1.7 percent). Seroprevalence was highest in cattle in Martinique (20 percent) and in goats in St. Vincent (23 percent). The predominant serogroups were Sejroe (largely confined to cattle in Martinique), Autumnalis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, and Cynopteri. Eleven cattle from Martinique and 2 sheep with titers of > or = 800 showed evidence of recent infection. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Geografia , Cabras , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos , Ovinos , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
13.
Revue Elev Med Vet Pays Trop ; 46(1/2): 57-9, 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7151

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence rates of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi in sheep in coastal Guyana. Blood samples were taken from a systematic random sample of one hundred and ninety-three (193) sheep on twenty-two (22) farms in Region 5, Mahaica/Berbice, a coastal area of Guyana. Age, breed, sex, and farm of origin were recorded for all sampled sheep. One hundred and seventy-six (176) serum samples were submitted for Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) testing for T. vivax and T. evansi. Fluorescence was graded as 0 (negative), 1+(very weak), 2+(weak), 3+(strong) or 4+(very strong), as measured at 1:160 dilution of serum. Samples were considered to be sero-positive if any fluorescence was observed. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody results were received for one hundred and sixty-one (161) samples. One hundred and three (64 percent) sera were sero-positive for Trypanosoma sp. Of these, 38 (23.6 percent) sera were positive to T. evansi only, 11(6.8 percent) were positive to T. vivax only and 54 (33.5 percent) were positive for both. As cross reactions occur between T. vivax and T. evansi, it was difficult to determine the true species of exposure for the sera which tested positive to both species. The overall sero-prevalence rate of 64 percent suggests that trypanosomosis is endemic in sheep in coastal Guyana. This was the first serological evidence of T. evansi in Guyana. Although T. vivax is believed to be pathogenic in sheep, the clinical siginficance of T. evansi remains unknown. The vector of both species of trypansomes in sheep on the north of South America also is not known (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma vivax , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Guiana , Testes Sorológicos , Ovinos , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia
14.
J Vet Med ; 38(8): 635-8, Oct. 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15951

RESUMO

Cattle, horses, sheep and goats in all areas of St. Lucia were examined to ascertain the prevalence and distribution of streptothricosis on the island and to investigate its association with the occurrence of Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Although the disease was found to occur throughout St. Lucia it was more prevalent and generally of a more severe form in areas where A. variegatum ticks are present. A tick control programme in the north of the island appeared to have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of the disease. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Infecções por Actinomycetales/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Cabras , Cavalos , Ovinos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
16.
Med Vet Entomol ; 4(3): 289-95, July 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15943

RESUMO

Variations in the percentages of lambs seroconverting to bluetongue viruses was seen between sites and years in Barbados. Transmission at some sites was nearly absent whereas all lambs at one site became seropositive. The agar gel immunodiffusion test for bluetongue gave consistent results in series of serum samples from 112 of 121 sentinel lambs. Collections of biting midges in association with sheep yielded six species. Culicoides insignis Lutz, C. pusillus Lutz, C. phlebotomus (Williston), C. furens (Poey), C. jamaicensis Edwards and C. trilineatus Fox. The first two species comprised 92 percent of those caught during a sentinel lamb study and were the predominant species trapped for virus isolation. No viruses were recovered from 5517 C. insignis, 614 C. pusillus, three C. trilineatus and two C. furens placed into pools during two brief intensive trapping operations. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Ceratopogonidae/isolamento & purificação , Insetos Vetores/isolamento & purificação , Barbados/epidemiologia , Bluetongue/transmissão , Imunodifusão , Ovinos
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 56(3): 590-4, Mar. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12542

RESUMO

Leucaena leucocephala, a tropical leguminous shrub, contains a toxic amino acid, mimosine. Successful utilization of leucaena as a ruminant forage depends on colonization of the rumen by bacteria that degrade dihydroxypyridines (DHP), which are toxic intermediates in the metabolism of mimosine. Populations in the rumina of animals in some parts of the world, however, do not include bacteria that are able to carry out this degradation. We thus describe tests for the presence of DHP degraders in ruminal populations that are based on degradation (loss) of DHP compounds from culture media. Results obtained with the tests indicate that DHP degraders were not part of microbial populations in the rumina of cattle, sheep, and goats in Iowa, while most rumen samples examined from animals from the Virgin Islands and Haiti contained DHP degraders. These results confirm and extend the findings of others about geographic limits to the distribution of these important ruminal bacteria. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Bactérias/metabolismo , Mimosina/metabolismo , Piridinas/metabolismo , Piridonas/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bovinos , Fezes/microbiologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Estados Unidos , Índias Ocidentais
18.
Int J Parasitol ; 20(1): 51-6, Feb. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12362

RESUMO

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG antibodies against a South American (New World) strain of Trypanosoma vivax was developed and used for mass screening of cattle from 20 islands in the Eastern Caribbean Basin. The sensitivity and specificity of antigens prepared from a bovine-derived field strain and a nurine-adapted laboratory strain of T. vivax, both of New World origin, were compared using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, and an antigen prepared from murine-adapted strain was subsequently used to develop an ELISA test. The results of the ELISA test were then compared with the results of a concurrently run IFA test. There was no cross-reactivity with either test using serum from a Trypanosoma theileri-infected cow. Both tests were weakly cross-reactive with sera from a T. brucei-infected steer, and the IFA test was moderately cross-reactive with several serum samples from a T. evansi-infected steer. For bovine sera collected from herds on islands in the Eastern Caribbean region, only five of 640 tested positive with the ELISA test. Thirty five of 653 sera tested were positive by IFA although the fluorscence elicited was weak as compared to that elicited by sera from known infected animals. Sera collected from 27 cattle in a region known to be free of T. vivax (OH, U.S.A) were negative with the ELISA test, whereas seven of 30 sera from a herd in French Guiana known to be infected with T. vivax were positive. None of 45 caprine and 60 ovine sera collected from islands in the Eastern Caribbean region were positive by the IFA test, therefore an ELISA system for these species was not developed (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Trypanosoma/imunologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
19.
Br Vet J ; 146(1): 93-4, Jan.-Feb. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12232

RESUMO

Trypanosomes identified as Trypanosoma vivax were found infecting nine sheep (4.6 percent) and one goat (1.3 percent) on four of 11 farms surveyed on coastal Guyana. Animals sampled on another farm situated in the Rupununi savannahs gave negative results. Haematological techniques preferred for studies of this nature were the hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT) and the thick blood smear technique. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Cabras , Guiana/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia
20.
Med Vet Entomol ; 3(2): 101-5, Apr. 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15937

RESUMO

When monitored by the agar gel immunodiffusion test for antibody to bluetongue viruses, a sentinel flock of twenty-five lambs remained seropositive through the year, whereas in a sentinel herd of twenty calves only two individuals seroconverted and these became negative again within 2 months. A light trap operated with the calf herd yielded high numbers of culicoides insignis Lutz (over 18,000 per trap night) along with C. filariferus Hoffman, C. pusillus Lutz, C. leopoldi Ortiz, C. foxi Ortiz, C. limai Barretto, C. diabolicus Hoffman and C. guyanensis Floch and Abonnenc. Culicoides were trapped at the sheep station which had housed the lambs 3 years following the sentinel study. No virus was isolated from pools of C. insignis, C. filariferus and C. pusillus. Six outer species were collected in insufficient numbers to warrant attempted virus isolations. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ceratopogonidae/isolamento & purificação , Insetos Vetores/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Bovinos , Ovinos , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
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