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1.
Rev. panam. salud p£blica ; 19(1): 44-53, Jan. 2006. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17317

RESUMO

The first description of the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was made in 1980 followed closely by the discovery of HTLV-2, in 1982. Since then, the main characteristics of these viruses, commonly referred to as HTLV-1/2, have been thoroughly studied. Central and South America and the Caribbean are areas of high prevalence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 and have clusters of infected people. The major modes of transmission have been through sexual contact, blood, and mother to child via breast-feeding. HTLV-1 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and HTLV-associated uveitis as well as infectious dermatitis of children. More clarification is needed in the possible role of HTLV in rheumatological, psychiatric and infectious diseases. Since cures for ATL and HAM/TSP are lacking and no vaccine is available to prevent HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 transmission, these illnesses impose enormous social and financial cost on infected individuals, their families, and health care systems. For this reason, public health interventions aimed at counseling and educating high-risk individuals and populations are of vital importance. In the Americas this is especially important in the areas of high prevalence(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano , Retroviridae , Doadores de Sangue , Medicina Preventiva , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , América
2.
Postgrad Doc - Caribbean ; 12(4): 185-92, July 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3420

RESUMO

HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus endemic in the Caribbean and Japan. The crude prevalence in Jamaica is 5-6 per cent but there is a steady increase with age peaking in the 8th decade at 17 per cent among females and 9 per cent among males. The majority of persons infected with HTLV-1 do not manifest any clinical disease. However, some persons develop adult T-cell lymphoma, tropical spastic paraparesis or infective dermatitis. Associations with arthropathy, uveitis, polymyositis and panbronchiolitis have also been reported. HTLV-1 is transmitted via sexual contact, mother to child (mainly through breast milk) and by transfusion of cellular blood product. Male to female sexual transmission is far more efficient than female to male. Control of HTLV-1 requires screening blood transfusions and reducing sexual and vertical transmission. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto/epidemiologia , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Retroviridae , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Jamaica/epidemiologia
3.
Mol Chem Neuropathol ; 28(1-3): 237-43, May-Aug. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2381

RESUMO

Reports of an 18-fold higher incidence of schizophrenia among second-generation Afro-Caribbeans, and especially Jamaican migrants in the United Kingdom were soon called an epidemic of schizophrenia, with the inference that a novel virus, likely to be perinatally transmitted, was a possible etiological agent. This intriguing observation led us to explore a possible link with human T-cell lympotropic virus type one (HTLV-I), because it is a virus that is endemic in the Caribbean Island, is perinatally transmitted, known to be neuropathogenic, and the cause of a chronic myelopathy tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I associated myelopathy. We therefore examined inpatients as the Bellevue Mental Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica and did standard serological tests for retroviruses HTLV-I and HTLV-II and HIV-I and HIV-II on 201 inpatients who fulfilled ICD-9 and DSM II-R criteria for schizophrenia. Our results produced important negative data, since the seropositivity rates for HTLV-I, the most likely pathogen, were no greater than the seropositivity range for HTLV-I carriers in this island population, indicating the HTLV-I and the other retroviruses tested do not play a primary etiological role in Jamaican schizophrenics(AU)


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Retroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Esquizofrenia/virologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Incidência , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Jamaica/etnologia , Classe Social
4.
Lupus ; 4(2): 138-41, Apr. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4703

RESUMO

A retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), is an essential but not a sufficient aetiological factor for tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). Because some TSP patients have biological false positive tests for trepomemal infections (BFP-STS), we used EISA to study BFP-STS and anticardiolipin antibodies in 42 Jamaican TSP patients. The data indicate that in TSP anticardiolipin antibodies accur in about 26 percent of patients, are associated with biological false positive treponemal serology, are relatively restricted to the IgA isotype and may be induced by HTLV-I or other non-treponemal infections. (Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Técnicas In Vitro , Imunoglobulina A , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos , Paraparesia Espástica Tropical , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Retroviridae , Manifestações Neurológicas , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/patogenicidade , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Região do Caribe
5.
West Indian med. j ; 41(Suppl. 1): 22, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6473

RESUMO

The seroprevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), hepatitis B (HBV), human immunodeficiency nirus (HIV) and human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-I) was investigated in a high-risk group, patients from a sexually transmitted diseases clinic and prostitutes, as well as a low-risk group, antenatal group. In the STD group 100 sera were tested. Seropositivity for Ct was 82 percent,for HBsAg 3 percent, HBcAb 23 percent, HIV-Ab 2 percent and HTLV-1 Ab 8 percent. Among the 76 prostitutes, the seropsitivity was even higher: Ct 97 percent, HBsAg 8 percent, HBc,Ab 41 percent, HIV-Ab 9 percent and HTLV-1 Ab 17 percent. The antenatal women studied as a normal control population had lower levels: Ct 52 percent, HBsAg 0.7 percent, HBcAb 9 percent, HIV-Ab 0.7 percent and HTLV-1 Ab 2.8 percent. It is noteworthy that the seroprevalence for all the STDs investigated was markedly higher in the promiscuous group. Although the level for Ct antibodies was in the antenatal women, even this group showed a high prevalence of this very commonly occurring STD. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Chlamydia trachomatis , Hepatite B , Retroviridae , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por HTLV-I
6.
Bull Pan Am Health Organ ; 23(1-2): 76-80, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12405

RESUMO

Transmission of HIV in many Caribbean countries has followed the pattern of initial predominance among homosexual and bisexual male, with the infection subsequently spreading into the heterosexual community. However, on Saint Lucia the epidemic began among heterosexual contacts of Saint Lucia labourers from Florida; in Bermuda 58 percent of AIDS cases have been in interavenous drug abusers; and in the infected via the perinanatal route. Seroprevalence of the human T-lymphotropic virus, type 1 (HTLV-), whose modes of transmission resemble those of HIV, has been found to range from 2.3 percent in Trinidad and Tobago to 5.4 percent in Jamaica. In a study of HIV and HTLV-1 infection patterns in homosexuals males in Trinidad and Tobago, the cohort was too small for confirmation that coinfection with these two viruses hastended progression to AIDS, but further investigation is warranted. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Retroviridae/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Índias Ocidentais
8.
Lancet ; 2(8341): 61-4, July 1983.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14871

RESUMO

19 (34 percent ) of 56 Jamaicans with lymphoproliferative neoplasia had antibody to the human t-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV) in their sera. 17 of those positive had either non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or chronic lynphocytic leukemia. Of 16 consecutive patients presenting with NHL 11 (69 percent ) were HTLV seropositive. Virus-positive patients with NHL, among whom females were over-represented, had the clinical features and poor survival typical of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. HTLV-associated leukemia/lymphoma is a distinct clinicopathological entity, and the high incidence in this series suggests that HTLV is an important cause of lymphoreticular neoplasia in Jamaica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , 21003 , Masculino , Feminino , Leucemia Linfoide/microbiologia , Linfoma/microbiologia , Retroviridae , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Jamaica , Leucemia Linfoide/epidemiologia , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Retroviridae/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia
9.
Int J Cancer ; 30(3): 257-64, Sept. 15 1982.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14448

RESUMO

Type-C RNA tumour viruses have been implicated in the etiology of naturally occurring leukemias and lymphomas of animals. Human T-cell leukimia/lymphoma virus (HTLV) is the first human virus of this class consistently identified in association with a specific type of human leukemia/lymphoma. The isolation of HTLV was made possible by the ability to grow mature T-cell in tissue culture usually with T-cell growth factor (TCGF). We now report a cluster usually with T-cell leukemia/lymphoma among Blacks from the Caribbean in which all eight cases are positive for HLV virus and/or antibody. These patients have diseases that appears indistinguisable from Japanese adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma which, as we have also reported, is associated with HTLV in over 90 percent of cases. The finding of HTLV antibodies in some of the normal population in the Caribbean and Japan, and the clustering of a specific form of T-cell leukemia/lyphoma in these virus-endemic areas, suggest that HTLV infection may be associated with the occurrence of a distinctive clinico-pathologic entity (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , 21003 , Masculino , Feminino , Leucemia/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Retroviridae/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antígenos Virais/análise , Células Cultivadas , Leucemia/patologia , Linfoma/patologia , Radioimunoensaio , Linfócitos T , Índias Ocidentais
10.
St. Augustine; Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies; s.d. none p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16434
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