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Rev. panam. salud p£blica ; 19(2): 112-117, Feb. 2006. maps
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17093


OBJECTIVES: West Nile Virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV) has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America. METHODS: We reviewed the published literature and consulted with key public health officials to obtain unpublished data. RESULTS: West Nile virus infections first appeared in human residents of the Cayman Islands and the Florida Keys in 2001, and in appparently healthy Jamaican birds sampled early in 2002. Serologic evidence of WNV infection in 2002 was detected in horses, chickens and resident free-ranging birds in Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic, and eastern Mexico. In 2003, WNV spread in Mexico and northern Central America, and serologic evidence was detected in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Cuba. In 2004, the first serologic evidence of WNV activity in South American ecosystems surfaced in September-October in Colombia and Trinidad, where domestic animals circulated WNV-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The sparse reports of equine, human and avain disease in Latin America and the Caribbean is puzzling. Isolates are needed to evaluate viral attenuation or other possible explanations for reduced disease burden in tropical ecosystems (AU)

Humanos , Animais , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , América Latina , Vigilância da População , Flavivirus , Região do Caribe , Arbovirus
Virology ; 324(1): 48-59, June 2004. mapastab^cilus
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17551


We sequenced the envelope (E) genes of 59 DEN-2 isolates collected from ten Caribbean islands, six South American countries, and two Central American countries between 1981 and 2000, a period characterized by hyperendemicity and increased incidence of severe dengue. Fifty-two isolates belonged to “American/Asian” subtype IIIb, possessing a characteristic polar residue at envelope aa position 390 (N [n = 48] or S [n = 4]) common to that group. Six isolates from Trinidad (1981), Honduras (1991 [4]), and El Salvador (1987) fell into the “Native American” subtype V (D at aa 390), and one from Honduras (1986) belonged to “Asian” subtype I. The data suggest that after its first isolation in the Caribbean in 1981, genotype IIIb spread throughout the Americas and effectively replaced subtype V throughout the Caribbean basin. The strain also evolved into several distinct lineages, based on substitutions in the E glycoprotein (amino acids 91 and 131), two of which were still in circulation in 2000. Interestingly, a molecular clock did not fit the data well, suggesting that other sources of rate variation, such as differential selection or differences in effective population sizes, may exist among lineages. Our results indicate the importance of large temporal- and geographical-scale phylogenetic studies in understanding disease dynamics, particularly where replacements between regions can occur.

Animais , Evolução Molecular , Flavivirus , Dengue/genética , Dengue/patologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
West Indian med. j ; 42(Suppl. 1): 25, Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5153


The temporal distribution of dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 4 recovered from the investigation of 9,968 specimens obtained from several Caribbean countries over a ten-year period (1983 - 1992) were studied. The use of insect cell cultures and serotype-specific monoclones allowed dengue virus to be detected in 539 instances. Of the specimens typed, 108 (20 per cent) were serotype one, 274 (50.8 per cent), serotype 2 and 157 (29.2 per cent), serotype 4. Annual changes in the frequency of individual serotypes 1, 2 and 4 were observed, with serotype 2 being detected over the entire period of investigation, except in 1984. The use of a group-specific flavivirus antiserum demonstrated that other viruses belonging to this group may not be characterized with the monoclones currently available for designating dengue virus serotypes (AU)

Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Flavivirus , Região do Caribe , Insetos Vetores
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 13(3): 452-4, 1964.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9396


A strain of St. Louis encephalitis virus was isolated from Culex nigripalpus in Jamaica. It is the first isolation of St. Louis virus on that island. (Summary)

21003 , Culicidae , Culex , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/isolamento & purificação , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis , Jamaica
West Indian med. j ; 9(2): 146, June 1960.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7611


Clinical and detailed laboratory features of two cases of yellow fever seen in Trinidad in early 1959 are presented. The difficulty of recognizing such cases, either clinically or by serological tests in the laboratory are pointed out. In these particular cases, diagnosis was by virus isolation. Virus isolation may be the only reliable technique in regions where infections with other members of the Group B ARBOR viruses occur (AU)

Febre Amarela , Humanos , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Trinidad e Tobago