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1.
West Indian med. j ; 45(Supl. 2): 29, Apr. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4621

RESUMO

The sensitivity of hospital-active-surveillance (HAS) system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was reviewed at six acute-care hospitals and one rehabilitation facility in Jamaica for the years 1991, 1992 and 1993. HAS evaluated cases at a rate of 0.70, 0.35, and 0.35 AFP cases per 100,000 population under 15-years-of-age for the years 1991, 1992 and 1993, respectively. Analysis of admission registers and discharge diagnoses determined six additional cases meeting the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) case definition of AFP in 1991, and one additional case in 1993. Thus, the prevalence of AFP was 1.41, 0.35 and 0.47 for the three years under review. In only one year (1991) did the prevalence of AFP exceed 1.0, the rate considered by PAHO norm was derived from large continental countries in South America. This rate may not apply to small island nations (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/epidemiologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia
2.
CAREC surveillance report ; 16(8): 1-3, August 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17235

RESUMO

A technical working group was convened at CAREC to discuss a variety of issues related to measles elimination and acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname. Presentations and discussions were held on the above topics. Inparticular the need to develop sensitive surveillance systems for measles and acute flaccid paralysis was addressed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sarampo , Paralisia , Vírus do Sarampo , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Suriname/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe
3.
J Med Virol ; 29(4): 315-9, Dec. 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12251

RESUMO

An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis in Jamaica in 1986 associated with echovirus type 22 is described. Six patients aged 1 to 27 years developed acute onset of severe flaccid paralysis, with inability to walk. Three cases had facial weakness, four required intensive care with assisted ventilation and two died. Echovirus type 22 was isolated from the stool of two patients who showed a significant increase in antibody titre. Echovirus type 22 was also isolated from the stool of another patient who had aseptic meningitis without any neurological deficit. There was no evidence of poliovirus infection in any of these patients, most of whom were fully immunized. Of the four surviving cases with flaccid paralysis, three had residual weakness in their lower limbs and walked with an abnormal gait 3 years after the acute paralytic attack. This is the first report in the literature of acute flaccid paralysis associated with type 22 echovirus. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Echovirus , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus Humano B/imunologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Paralisia/complicações
4.
J Infect Dis ; 157(6): 1226-34, June 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-10056

RESUMO

Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), a neuromyelopathy predominantly involving the pyramidal tract and commonly observed in tropical and equatorial areas, was recently found to be associated with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). We investigated sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 19 patients with TSP who were from the Caribbean area, French Guiana, and Africa. Our results showed an elevated intra-blood-brain barrier IgG synthesis rate and an elevated IgG index, with an increased HTLV-I antibody-to-albumin ratio and the presence of CSF oligoclonal bands in the majority of the patients. These data, in association with similar HTLV-I antibody patterns between patients with TSP who were from these three regions, strenghten the probable etiologic role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of such chronic neuromyelopathies. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/imunologia , Deltaretrovirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Paralisia/imunologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/imunologia , Estudo Comparativo , Anticorpos Antivirais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Guiana Francesa , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoensaio , Costa do Marfim , Espasticidade Muscular , Paralisia , Senegal , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Clima Tropical , Índias Ocidentais
5.
West Indian med. j ; 36(3): 163-5, Sept. 1987.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11636

RESUMO

Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) in West African countries is caused by a combination of excess cyanide from the ingestion of cassava and a deficiency of the sulphur-containing amino-acids required to detoxify the cyanide. Free radical damage to long axons has also been reported to result in damage similar to that seen in Jamaican TSP. To investigate the possibility that these mechanisms may be responsible for Jamaican TSP, venous blood from non-smoking blood donors and 22 patients with TSP were analysed for thiocyanate, superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Serum thiocyanate is an index of cyanide exposure. Superoxide damage is an important sulphur-containing peptiae. Levels of thiocyanate in the patients with TSP were similar to those in control patients. Glutathione was elevated in all the patients, and a superoxide dismutase activity was normal. The low levels of thiocyanate suggest that cyanide toxicity is not the primary cause of Jamaican TSP and, in any event, sufficient amounts of sulphur-containing amino-acids are present to detoxify cyanide. Free radical mechanisms are also unlikely to be responsible for damage to the neurons in these patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Glutationa/sangue , Paralisia/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Tiocianatos/sangue , Cianetos/envenenamento , Radicais Livres , Espasticidade Muscular/sangue , Paralisia/etiologia , Jamaica
7.
Lancet ; 1(8530): 415-6, Feb. 21, 1987.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15687

RESUMO

Of 13 West-Indian-born UK residents with spastic paraparesis of unknown cause, 11 were tested for serum antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and all were positive. Their magnetic resonance imaging scans were normal or showed only minor abnormalities in the brain, and the spinal cord was normal in the 5 investigated. Of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis, mainly caucasian, none had antibody to HTLV-1 in the blood.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Paralisia/imunologia , Reino Unido , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/imunologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Paralisia/etiologia , Clima Tropical , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
10.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 66(3): 463-70, 1972.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14767

RESUMO

The characteristics of 10 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi from British Honduras are reviewed and discussed. The strains were isolated from the faeces of wild-caught Triatoma dimidiata and all proved to be highly pathogenic to white mice and rats and to certain species of wild rodents. All the strains were characterized by a high cardiotropism, which did not diminish even after prolonged passage in further animals. A variable degree of neurotropism, characterized by parlysis of the limbs, produced by the strains was observed in many laboratory animal as well as in some of the experimentally infected wild rodents. Histological studies of organs from several of the paralized animals failed to provide definitive clues as to the origin of the paralysis. A wide range of dimorphism was observed in the blood-forms of T. cruzi from each of the isolated strains; this dimorphism and the mean nuclear index number changed during each passage. The morphogenisis of the parasites in tissues, in the insect vector, and in NNN culture medium, was found to include amastigote, sphaeromastigote, epimastigote and transitional trypomastigote forms, all leading to the formation of the infective trypanosome form. The importance of co-ordinated studies on the biological and physiological characteristics of T. cruzi strains from man, animal reservoirs, and triatomine insect vectors, from the regions where Chagas' disease is endemic, is emphasized as one of the fundamental requirements for the experimental chemotherapy of Chagas' disease (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , 21003 , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Chagas/microbiologia , Belize , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Meios de Cultura , Reservatórios de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Insetos Vetores , Morfogênese , Paralisia/etiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trypanosoma cruzi/citologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Virulência , Zoonoses
11.
West Indian med. j;19(2): 94-100, June 1970.
em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-10965

RESUMO

A brief study has been made of the problems that presented at the Polio Rehabilitation Centre following a polio epidemic in 1962 in Guyana. These problems presented in 1966, when the Centre was opened, allowing a period of four years to elapse. 219 cases have been followed up and treated. 149 surgical operations were performed, 113 patients required bracing and as can be imagined the physiotherapy department had a full-time job with all of these patients. Treatment was aimed at early ambulation and this purpose has been achieved. It has not been possible in this paper to go into detailed study of any of the operations done, but it is hoped that other papers will follow which will give some idea as to the practical value of many of these operations (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Paralisia/reabilitação , Poliomielite/complicações , Surtos de Doenças , Guiana
12.
West Indian med. j ; 13(3): 154-7, Sept. 1964.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11012

RESUMO

Neurological complications following whooping cough are rare. A case report involving a seven year old girl in which blindness and recurrent bilateral paralysis of the limbs occurres with slow recovery after treatment with steroids. It is postulated that these neurological complications were due to haemorrhage associated with edema and possibly anoxia. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Cegueira/etiologia , Paralisia/etiologia , Coqueluche/complicações , Edema , Hipóxia/complicações , Hemorragia/complicações
13.
West Indian med. j ; 10(3): 149-55, Sept. 1961.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12739

RESUMO

Three proven cases of paralytic rabies in humans have been described. These were almost certainly due to rat bites. In main, agreement was found between these cases of human paralytic rabies and the others reported from Trinidad in 1931-32. Once the disease is fully developed, treatment appears to be useless. It is noted that variants of rabies virus have caused encephalitis and myelitis elsewhere and it is probable that this is caused by mutation of the virus. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Raiva/complicações , Quirópteros , Paralisia/etiologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/mortalidade , Guiana , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações
17.
West Indian Med. j ; 3(1): 66-71, Mar. 1954.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-10469

RESUMO

The anatomy of the inferior cervical ganglion is described. The theory of the effects of its infiltration in paralysis is briefly discussed. The technique of infiltration and a recommended course of treatment are described. Twelve case reports are presented (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Gânglios Simpáticos/anatomia & histologia , Paralisia , Bloqueadores Ganglionares
18.
Jamaica Med Rev ; 2(1): 36, 1948.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15517
19.
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