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West Indian med. j ; 43(suppl. 1): 25-6, Apr. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5457


The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis occurs over decades and begins in childhood. Hypertension, elevated serum cholesterol levels and obesity are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. In population-based studies, the presence of these two risk factors in childhood has been shown to be predictive of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in adulthood and ultimately of coronary heart disease mortality rates. There is evidence that much of the risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia is due to exposure to an unfavourable environment. Therefore it should be possible to reduce or eliminate this risk. In this study of 2337 Jamaican school children aged 6 to 16 years, girls were found to have higher cholesterol levels than boys (4.2ñ0.82vs4.1ñ0.83mM;p<0.003). At all ages (except 11), the cholesterol concentration in girls was higher than in boys, and girls had significantly more body fat. Cholesterol levels were found to be associated with socio-economic status (SES), 4.0mM in children from the lowest SES and 4.4mM in those from the highest (p<0.0000). Multiple regression analysis revealed signigicant correlation between cholesterol, weight, body fat and SES. This result for SES is different from studies in the developed world which report an inverse relationship between cholesterol and SES. In our population there was also correlation between SES and height and weight. Obesity and weight are important contributors to the risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. Differences in dietary intake and levels of activity between the SES groups may contribute to this difference. The greater adiposity evident from the first decade of life is also worthy of note. Combined with the higher serum total of cholesterol levels, this may be an important indicator of the likelihood of future cardiovascular disease in this group (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Colesterol/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais
West Indian med. j ; 41(Suppl 1): 70, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6511


This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in a general practice population in Barbados, and to determine whether hypercholesterolaemia is a public health problem for which screening would be worthwhile. A total of 498 patients (96 percent over 35 years) drawn from a general practice population of 15,000 patients, were studied. Two hundred and two (202) non-diabetic, non-hypertensives, 152 hypertensives, 123 diabetics and 21 hypertensive diabetics were selected, comprising every third patient in each diagnostic category to visit the clinic. One hundred and forty-two (28. percent) of all patients had a cholesterol level in the desirable range, 185 (37.1 percent) had a borderline high level, and 171 (34.4 percent) had a high-risk level of serum cholesterol. The prevalence of high-risk serum cholesterol was lowest in non-diabetic/non-hypertensive patients, and highest in diabetic hypertensives. The results suggest that the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in the Barbadian population is high and that screening is worthwhile (AU)

Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Barbados/epidemiologia
West Indian med. j ; 29(4): 279, Dec. 1980.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6748


The Port-of-Spain cardiovascular survey will eventually include approximately 1,500 women aged 35-69 years. Casual blood pressures are measured on two occasions. Venepuncture is performed for fasting blood glucose and serum lipid concentrations. Glucose tolerance tests are arranged when fasting glucose is between 111-139 mg/100ml. At mid-January, 1980, 171 African and 165 East Indian women had been examined. Up to 55 years systolic pressure increased with age similarly in both ethnic groups, averaging 132 mmHg in Africans and 12 mmHg in Indians (p<0.002). Above 54 years mean systolic pressures were 148 mmHg in both groups. Diastolic pressures did not differ significantly with age, sex or ethnic group (overall mean, 82 mmHg). Hypertension (<160/95 mmHg) occurred in 35 percent of African and 20 percent of Indian women. Mean blood glucose and total cholesterol concentrations increased with age and did not differ significantly with ethnic group (<55 years, 85 and 229 mg/100ml: o55 years, 95 and 248 mg/100 ml respectively), although concentrations tended to be slightly higher in Indian women. Twenty-four per cent of Indians and 19 per cent of Africans had diabetes melitus. Between 35 and 54 years, mean high-density lipiprotein cholesterol (HDLc) concentration was significantly lower in Indian (41 mg/100 ml) than African (52 mg/100 ml) women (p<0.001). Between 55 and 69 years, concentrations were similar in both groups (combined mean, 47 mg/100 ml). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia appear at least as common in women as in men in this community, but HDLc concentrations are higher in women than men in both ethnic groups (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias , Fatores de Risco , Colesterol/sangue , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensão
Bull World Health Organ ; 42(2): 205-23, 1970.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-13044


Characteristics relevant to cardiovascular disease, including anthropometry, arterial blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels, chest radiography and electrocardiography, were investigated in a survey of 843 men and women aged 35-54 years of African and Indian origin living in 2 communities in Guyana. Clinical experience suggested a high incidence of hypertension and a low incidence od ischaemic heart disease. Africans were taller and heavier than Indians but their other characteristics were, in general, similar except that their mean blood pressure levels and R amplitudes in certain ECG leads were consistently higher. Hypertension was common and was more significantly correlated with obesity and , probably independently, with body size. Serum cholesterol levels, with mean values of about 222mg/100ml, were strongly correlated with factors associated with obesity in men but not women. Cardiothoracic ratios, measured from chest films, were greater than values regarded as normal for Europeans because of a relative narrowness of thoracic diameters. Prevalence of S-T-segment and T-wave defects in ECGs classified by the Minnesota Code was as high as reported from communities where ischaemic heart disease is clinically more frequent. Hypertension, cardiac enlargement, obesity and cholesteraemia were more prevalent when defects involved lateral leads(I, aVL, V5 and V6) than in subjects with normal ECGs, suggesting that the majority of important abnormalities occurred primarily in the left ventricle and were probably related to hypertension rather than to coronary insufficiency without hypertension. Analysis od S-T and T-wave defects, both of blood pressure and by lead position, might show meaningful differences between populations which, by present methods of presentation, appear to have surprisingly similar prevalences of ECG abnormalities.(AU)

Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Grupos Étnicos , Antropometria , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Guiana , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiomegalia/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Radiografia Torácica