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1.
In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the proportion of attendees in a primary care setting consuming alcohol at levels which put them at risk of alcohol-related harm using the CAGE and AUDIT-C Screening tools. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was used. The population consisted of all adults ≥18 years in a primary care setting. The CAGE and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tools were administered to 865 randomly selected participants. RESULTS: Of the 865 participants entered into this study, 514 participants drank alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, 142 (27.6%) were found to be CAGE positive (≥2) where more men (100, 11.5%) than women (42, 4.9%) were CAGE positive. A larger proportion of South-East Asians 60 (11.7%) were found to be CAGE positive than Africans 51 (9.9%) (ρ = 0.6221). For the AUDIT-C, 460 individuals participated with a response rate of 89.5%. With the score ≥ 4 in men, among the male drinkers 150 (32.6%) of the AUDIT-C screens were positive. For women, with the score ≥ 4, 100 (21.7%) of those who drank alcohol, screened positive. A larger proportion of South East Asians 101 (39.2%) were found to be AUDIT-C positive than Africans 105 (42%) (ρ = 0.7893). The Cronbach Alpha values for AUDIT-C and CAGE were 0.792 and 0.636 respectively. CONCLUSION: The CAGE screening tool identified 27.6% of the participants attending primary care facilities to be at risk of developing alcohol related disorders (ARDS). AUDIT-C identified 48.6% of participants to be at risk of developing an ARDS.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Trinidad e Tobago , Estudos Transversais
2.
In. Maharajh, Hari D. ; Merrick, Joav. Social and cultural psychiatry experience from the Caribbean Region. New York, Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2010. p.223-227. (Health and human development).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17524

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to report the aggressive sexual behaviour of alcohol dependent men and its implications on clinical practice. A total of thirty women of male alcohol dependent partners were taken from the psychiatric clinic and matched with a control group of spouses of healthy non-drinking men for the variables of age, gender, ethnicity and social class. These groups were tested for sexually induced marks over a one month period, areas of the body that were marked, duration of the body marks and love making experiences. Our findings indicate that the spouses of alcohol dependent men are subjected to more aggressive and painful sexual experiences, more body marks in more regions that lasted an average of 7 days and more biting of body surfaces than wives of non-alcohol dependent men. These behaviours are interpreted as subtle signs of domestic violence which should not be ignored in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Alcoolismo , Violência Doméstica , Trinidad e Tobago
3.
In. Maharajh, Hari D. ; Merrick, Joav. Social and cultural psychiatry experience from the Caribbean Region. New York, Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2010. p.229-244, graf, ilus, tab, mapas. (Health and human development).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17525

RESUMO

Alcoholics Anonymous is well established in Trinidad and serves as an indispensable modality in the rehabilitation of alcoholics. This study seeks to investigate socio-demographic characteristics and gender differences of members attending AA groups in Trinidad. Data was collected along the following variables: age, gender, ethnicity, religion, age of onset of alcohol use, psychiatric diagnosis and intentions for seeking treatment. A descriptive study of 107 members attending AA groups in Trinidad was studied and analyzed utilizing a demographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST). The statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 16) was used to conduct all statistical analyses. The age of the sample ranged from 22 to 78 with a mean of 48.01. Males dominated the sample, accounting for 68% (n=73), while females were 32% (n=34). In terms of ethnicity, East Indians accounted for 62% (n=65) of the sample, Africans 14% (n=15), Mixed 16% (n=17) and Other 7% (n=7). Religious constitution was dominated by Hindus 36% (n=38), Roman Catholics 21% 9n=22), other 14% (n=15), Presbyterian 10% (n=11), Pentecostal 9% (n=10), Muslim 5% (n=6) and Anglican 4% (n=5). Results utilizing the t-test showed that mean scores for males versus females differed significantly from each other (t (1,105) =2.11, p=0.036) with males having a higher score on the MAST compared to females. Overall 14% of individuals indicated to having a co-morbid psychiatric disorder of which 10.5% were depression. There was no significant difference between genders. The composition and structure of AA groups in Trinidad is fashioned on a male gender bias. There is a need to address specific gender issues in the treatment of female alcoholics.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoólicos Anônimos , Trinidad e Tobago
4.
Journal of studies on alchohol and drugs ; 69(6): 834-900, Nov 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical course of alcoholism has been described as a series of distinct, alcohol-related life events that occur in an orderly sequence. However, whether that sequence differs, depending on ethnicity and country of origin, is less clear. The purposes of this study were to investigate the sequence and progression of alcohol-related life events in individuals of East Indian (Indo) and African (Afro) heritage on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, and compare those results with data reported previously by the Collaborative study for the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). METHOD: Participants who were alcohol dependent (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, criteria) and of Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian ancestry or Indo-Trinidadian ancestry were recruited from inpatient treatment facilities. A total of 148 alcohol-dependent men and women completed the Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcoholism, which assessed the physical, psychological, and social manifestations of alcohol dependence and other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: A high degree of similarity in the sequence of alcohol-related life events was found between Indo-Trinidadian, Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian, and COGA participants. However, Trinidadian and Tobagonian alcoholics were more likely to endorse severe alcohol drinking in the form of binges (2 or more days of intoxication), blackouts, withdrawal, and medical consequences; however, they were less likely to endorse aggressive acts associated with drinking. Progression to alcohol dependence was significantly slower in Trinidadian and Tobagonian alcoholics than in the U.S. population of alcoholics, but severe alcohol symptoms were more commonly endorsed in Trinidadian and Tobagonians.


Assuntos
Humanos , Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't , Alcoolismo , Trinidad e Tobago
5.
Rev. panam. salud publica ; 15(6): 417-23, Jun. 2004. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17017

RESUMO

Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether unemployment and alcohol consumption were associated with different types of crime in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods. This study made use of secondary data from the Central Statistical Office of Trinidad and Tobago for the period 1990-1997. Pearson product moment correlations and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to identify significant predictors of crime. Results. Unemployment accounted for 69.2 percent of the variance for serious crimes. Beer availability for home consumption explained 64 percent of the variance for minor offences, and both unemployment and beer available for home consumption accounted for 92.2 percent of the variance for minor crimes. Conclusions. This study provides information that is potentially useful for developing public policies for unemployment and for the sale of beer for home consumption, both of which are associated with crime in Trinidad and Tobago. Reductions in beer available for home consumption-a major public health concern- would significantly reduce the occurence of minor offenses in this country. Further research is needed on the relationship between unemployment and crime (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Trinidad e Tobago , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Região do Caribe , /tendências
6.
New York; University Press of America Inc; 2001. ix,236 p. ilus.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16562

RESUMO

... It is a fact that in the real world, the variance in alcohol consumption has to be shared among many factors, that it is better to adopt a holistic scientific approach to getting a firm grip on the study. In so doing we would be in a stronger position to understand the alcohol problem or even to beat it. Policy-makers believe that they have to spend a mountain of resources on alcoholism, since they do not know where the true (significant) variance lies. I feel nothing is further from the truth. The fact is that one can undertake specific measures to curb unneccessary overindulgence in alcohol consumption, by attempting to identify and analyze new variables or old ones that have not been sufficiently operationalized or explored. This book attempts to debate whether excessive alcohol consumption is a deliberate and voluntary pastime engaged in by persons as a hobby; or serves as a temporary relief from daily problems that have become too heavy a burden; or an uncontrollable substance descending upon unsuspecting at-risk individuals. I think it is the task of the sociologist to put this argument into perspective. I am putting the issue squarely: is it genetic culpability or social irresponsibility, shared at both the individual and governmental levels? (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Alcoolismo/história , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/economia , Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle
7.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Suppl. 2): 54-5, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics, medical histories, drug use patterns, and medical findings in the first 100 clients at a unique, multicultural, not for profit drug and alcohol treatment in Antigua. DESIGN and METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records including laboratory findings in 100 consecutive patients admitted to Crossroads Centre. RESULTS: The age of clients admitted ranged from 22 to 63 years, mean 39.5 years. There were 65 males, 35 female. The population was 19 percent of African descent; 25 percent from the Caribbean (19 Antigua, 2 Barbados, 1 Trinidad, 1 British Virgin Islands, 1 Aruba, 1 Guyana). Non-Caribbean clients were American (80 percent), British (12 percent), Canadian (7 percent), Turkish (1 percent). Polydrug use was seen in 47 percent, with alcohol being the primary drug of choice in 42 percent, heroin 29 percent, cocaine in 22 percent, `pills' in 7 percent, ganja 1 percent. Caribbean clients were less likely to use heroin or `pills'. Prior treatment was seen in 53 percent of clients. A psychiatric diagnosis was known or suspected in 45 percent of clients (depression 28 percent, anxiety 8 percent, ADD 3 percent, chronic pain 3 percent, anorexia, schizophrenia, dyslexia, 1 percent each). Medical conditions included hypertension (8 percent), diabetes (2 percent), ulcers (4 percent), seizures (5 percent). Anaemia was seen in 24 percent, elevated MCV in 52 percent, elevated transaminases in 37 percent, elevated amylase in 3 percent. Hepatitis B was positive in 6 percent (3 with Hep C), VDRL in 1 percent; one client was HIV positive. The 28-days programme was completed by 79 percent of the clients. CONCLUSIONS: Crossroads Centre in Antigua, a not-for-profit drug treatment centre provides care and treatment for Caribbean nationals and international clients suffering from addiction. (Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Dependência de Heroína/terapia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antígua e Barbuda
8.
West Indian med. j ; 48(4): 200-2, Dec. 1999. tab, gra
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1572

RESUMO

Sera from 111 patients with trauma injuries, who presented to the Accident and Emergency Unit (A&E), University Hospital of the West Indies, during a 3-month period, were screened for blood alcohol. Urine specimens were analysed for metabolites of cannabis and cocaine. Sixty-two percent (62 percent) of patients were positive for at least one substance and 20 percent for two or more. Positivity rates were as follows: cannabis (46 percent), alcohol (32 percent) with 71 percent of these having blood alcohol levels (BAC) greater than 80 mg per decilitre; cocaine (6 percent). Substance usage was most prevalent in the third decade of life. The patients who yielded a positive result were significantly younger than those who were negative. There was no significant difference in age or substance usage between the victims of interpersonal violence or road traffic accidents. In the group designated "other accidents", patients were significantly older and had a lower incidence of substance usage that the other two groups. Cannabis was the most prevalent substance in all groups. Fifty percent (50 percent) and fifty-five percent (55 percent) of victims of road accidents and interpersonal violence, respectively, were positive for cannabis compared with 43 percent and 27 percent for alcohol, respectively. There was no significant difference in Hospital Stay or Injury Severity Score between substance users and non-users.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/complicações
9.
Caribbean Health ; 2(3): 12-13, October 1999. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17339

RESUMO

The term 'substance abuse'is popularly seen as the abuse of mind-altering drugs, but the increasing use of agricultural products for suicide in the region should also be seen as substance abuse. Substance abuse can also mean intentionally taking a substance into the body because the user has a desire for a change of inner feelings. This implies that the substance must be mind altering and that maladaptive behaviour results. Substance abuse in the Caribbean is essentially about the use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; the intravenous route is still very rare. However, it becomes a delicate issue to find the dividing line between substance use and substance abuse (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Educação , Barbados , Alcoolismo , Região do Caribe
10.
Ann Dermatol Venereal ; 126(10): 709-11, Oct. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histioplasmosis is a usually asymptomatic fungal infection. In the immunocompetent patient, it leads to chronic disseminated infection. Mucosal involvement is common and can provide the diagnosis. CASE REPORT: A metropolitan Frenchman with a history of alcoholism and smoking and living in Guyana consulted for lingual and tonsil erosion. Squamous cell carcinoma was suspected but not confirmed at pathology. The patient had bi-apical infiltration on the chest x-ray and was treated empirically for tuberculosis. The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was reached when rare Histoplasma capsulatum were evidenced from a buccal swab. Itraconazole led to cure in 6 months. DISCUSSION: This case illustrates the importance of mucosal signs in the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in immunocompetent subjects. Histoplasmosis is rarely the cause of active infection in immunocompetent subjects. In these patients, the fungal infection generally progresses to chronic dissemination. Mucosal signs are frequent in this from but are rare in the case of cutaneous histoplasmosis. Itraconazole (200 mg/d) is indicated for 6 months. (AU)


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Relatos de Casos , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Doenças da Língua/microbiologia , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Imunocompetência , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Tabagismo/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Língua/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
11.
Kingston; s.n; 1999. 60 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-899

RESUMO

The suicide rate of Jamaica was reviewed using available police records. The prevalence of mental disorders and stressful life events in 1998 suicide victims in two parishes in Jamaica was investigated. A psychological autopsy interview method was used to interview relatives and acquaintances of 32 suicide victims over a 4 month period. Hospital records and telephone interviews supplemented information. The DSM IV criteria and a stressful life event categorisation was used to diagnose mental disorders and assess year long exposure to stressful events. It was confirmed that Jamaica's suicide rate (2.8 per 100,000) had increased but remained one of the lowest in the Caribbean. Young men and older men were most at risk. At least 90 percent of the victims were diagnosed as having a mental disorder at the time of suicide. The most common diagnosis was depression, followed by schizophrenia, alcoholism and personality disorder. There was significant comorbidity with substance abuse disorders - marijuana and alcohol abuse. There was a significant level of stressful life events in the suicide victims. The category of interpersonal losses and problems was the most common, followed by health related injuries and living conditions. The category of financial, job related and legal issues was least prominent. The author recognises limitations in time, methodology and analysis. The findings of the prevalence of mental disorders were similar to other psychological autopsy findings. Case controlled studies and regression analysis could give further insight on the role that mental disorders and stressful events play in suicide. Recommendations are made for prevention and control of suicide in Jamaica.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos
12.
Kingston; s.n; 1999. X,77 p. tab, gra.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1401

RESUMO

One of the problems of modern society is the extent to which violence has become a part of everyday life. Daily reports in the news media suggest that the problem is increasing and while previous research findings suggest a number of factors, which contribute to the problem, there is no indication that mitigation measures are actually helping. In fact reported incidents of violence continue to increase both in Jamaica and the world in general. Violence against women has also become a major problem all over the world. Reports indicate that incidents of violence against women range from 22 percent in some countries to a high of 59 percent in others, (Heise, 1994). Measures to address the problem in Jamaica has resulted in the establishment of a Crisis Centre, which seeks to help abused persons, primarily women. This study was carried out at the Crisis Centre and the Family Court located in Kingston in 1998. A total of 87 abused persons who sought help at these facilities within the study period were interviewed. The abuse took many forms and required various degrees of medical and emotional attention. Of weapons used the gun and stick featured prominently. Several reasons were given for the abuse experienced by respondents, however jealousy resulting in quarrels over a third party was the most common reason given for the onset of abuse (81 percent). When asked why they remained in the abusive situation respondents indicated children as the main cause 80.5 percent of the time. Medical attention was received from private medical practitioners 43 percent of the time, while 72.4 percent of respondents expressed a willingness to testify against their abusers in court. The use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine was prevalent, suggesting some link between substance abuse and the violence carried out against female partners. Most respondents indicated that friends and family members were the main sources of support. Very little practical assistance was obtained from the church, an institution of which almost all respondents were members. Respondents cited counselling as the main reason for attending counselling centres. In light of the findings recommendation could include mandatory counselling for males abuse who women and public education programmes to sensitize the society on the consequences of violence against women.(Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Violência Doméstica/etnologia , Intervenção na Crise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Jamaica , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Mulheres Maltratadas/história , Religião e Psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia
13.
Subst Use Misuse ; 32(7-8): 849-76, Jun., 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1961

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies among migrant ethnic groups are potentially important as a way to provide insight into the relative importance of genetic, cultural, and socioeconomic factors in the etiology of substance use disorders. This paper summarizes prior United Kingdom studies of the prevalence of substance-use-associated problems in different ethnic groups before analyzing trends in recent mortality data by country of birth. On this evidence, rates of alcohol-related mortality may be marginally higher for those born in the Caribbean than for the native British, but are substantially raised for those born in Ireland and the Indian subcontinent. There is some indication that rates for the Caribbean and possibly the Irish groups have risen more rapidly than for the national population over a 12-year period. These difference in mortality rates seem to have arisen for complex reasons.(AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudo Comparativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Emigração e Imigração , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos , Drogas Ilícitas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Índia/etnologia , Irlanda/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural
14.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 89(2): 117-23, Feb. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2121

RESUMO

This study compares US-born African Americans with African Caribbeans attending an urban psychiatric outpatient clinic on various items pertaining to sociodemographics, psychiatric history, current psychiatric illness, and physical health. A structured chart review was performed on a sample comprised of 135 native-born African Americans and 91 African Caribbeans who had attended the clinic during an 11-year period. A total of 28 clinical variables were examined. Nine clinical variables were found to significantly differentiate the two groups in bivariate analysis, and these were entered along with three demographic control variables into a logistic regression analysis. Seven variables attained significant independent effects. African Americans were differentiated from African Caribbean on history of greater alcholic abuse or dependence, presence of more delusions, worse health, longer history of previous outpatient treatment, and greater clinical improvement at 6 months. African Caribbeans were found to have a greater frequency of depression and aggressivity. These data underscore the importance of examining intraracial differences in mental illness as well as pointing to the potential benefits of using intraracial comparisons to interpret interracial analyses.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Estudo Comparativo , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Modelos Logísticos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
15.
West Indian med. j ; 45(Supl. 2): 32, Apr. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4613

RESUMO

A prevalence rate for alcoholism of 28 percent was detected after screening 201 out-patients in the Marigot District of Dominica, utilising the CAGE questionnaire. Among CAGE + ve patients there were more males (75 percent), mainly from social classes 4 & 5 (77 percent), Catholics (65 percent), over age 65 (25 percent) used alcohol for more than 20 years (62 percent) with rum being the drink of preference, used by 72 percent of this group. Associated cigarette use was high (82 percent) as was current marijuana use (28 percent). A significantly greater percentage of CAGE + ve patients (65 percent) were admitted in the preceding year and presented more often with trauma (29 percent). The high prevalence of alcoholism in the elderly of this community suggests the need for programmes on the detection, and prevention of alcoholism at a primary care level, as well as for counselling (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia
16.
West Indian med. j ; 45(Suppl. 2): 24, Apr. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4630

RESUMO

The objectives of this paper are to describe the findings on knowledge and attitudes concerning substance use (tobacco and alcohol) among the participants of the Curacao Health Study and to relate these results to their behaviour. A random sample of the adult non-institutionalized population of Curacao (n=2248) were asked about their knowledge and attitudes on health lifestyle patterns and preventive behaviour. In this paper we specifically focus on smoking and use of alcohol. Men in Curacao use more alcohol and tobacco than women. The prevalence of self-reported smokers is markedly lower than, for instance, in the Dutch population and that of the U.S. and the difference between the sexes. In Curacao men generally also score lower on knowledge and attitudes regarding the use of tobacco and alcohol than women. Those actually exhibiting unhealthier lifestyles in this respect have lower scores than those having healthier lifestyles. The same relationship holds true for women, though less pronounced. Although knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are clearly associated with one another, the causal relationship between them is not unequivocal. Other factors may also play a role in influencing lifestyle changes. More research is needed to guide the further development and implementation of health promotion and intervention programmes in Curacao (AU)x


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Kingston; s.n; 1996. v,86 p. tab, graphs.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2942

RESUMO

Alcohol abuse among women in Jamaica remains a "hushed" subject, although the effects of alcohol can have deleterious effects, not only on the the woman in question, but also on the unborn child, if she is pregnant, and the rest of the family. It therefore assumes public health signifcance. This project was a case control study in which 22 cases and 22 controls was identified, based the definition of alcohol dependency syndrome (Alcohol Abuse Handbook, 1990). The cases were taken from various situations between January 1996 to March 1996, where one would find alcoholic females. The controls were matched based on age and socio-economic status. Questionnaires were used to gain data from these individuals with regards to demography, natural history of disease, physical and emotional effects of alcoholism, and influence of family history of alcoholism. Significant statistical associations were found between age at which alcoholics had their first drink, having a low self-esteem, and having a family member who is an alcoholic. Although the sample used was small, the signifcant findings can be useful in planning programmmes and to do further research which is necessary in Jamaica. (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Mulheres , Fatores Sexuais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Kingston; s.n; 1995. vi,75 p.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3396

RESUMO

A three month study of parasuicide presenting in Kingston, Jamaica. A case controlled study of 41 persons who attempted suicide was conducted over a three month period. The risk factors identified in this population are: being unemployed, living in rented accomodation or boarding homes, having a chronic medical illness, experiencing conflicts with parents and family members, family instability, depression and hopelessness. Drug abuse was associated with parasuicide. The more common precipitating factors include: dispute with parents, conflict with other family members and lovers quarrel. The most common method of attempting suicide seem to be the ingestion of medication. Teenagers and young adults made up the majority of cases. Depression and hopelessness were prominent features among the cases and were also identified as risk factors. These findings have important implications for the planning of health services and the management of patients. (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Depressão , Alcoolismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Violência Doméstica , Família , Jamaica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos
19.
Kingston; s.n; 1995. 76 p.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3007

RESUMO

Within recent years, drug abuse has become a priority health problem affecting individuals and threatening the social, political and legal institutions of the region. Sadly, children, including those at school are the main victims of the consequences of drug abuse. A survey was conducted among 200 students, grades 9-11, in 4 new secondary schools in the metropolitan area of Jamaica. Through a self administered questionnaire, the study sought information on the lifetime and current prevalence of licit and illicit drugs, students' perception of the ease of obtaining these drugs, the risk involved and their attitude towards drug use. The findings revealed that there were increases in the lifetime and current prevalence in the use of cannabis, cocaine, crack, psychedelics, opiates, tobacco and alcohol. Students reported increased accessibility to these drugs and less risk involved in drug use, and many reported that they did not disapprove of trying drugs, including cocaine and crack. The highest prevalence of drug use was with alcohol, followed by tobacco and inhalants, and more males reported drugs use than females. These were compared generally to the findings of the NCDA (1987) school survey. The author concluded that drug abuse has increased in this category of students, and made recommendations including, re-evaluation of the drug abuse prevention programmes in schools; strengthening of peer counselling in schools; banning of tobacco and alcohol advertisments, and of smoking in public places and to create a data base on drug abuse for the region. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Jamaica/epidemiologia
20.
Kingston; s.n; 1995. 71 p.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3010

RESUMO

Drug abuse is a serious problem in Jamaica and around the world, affecting people from all walks of life. The most significant impact is among our youths who remain the most affected by drug abuse. A survey designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of students with regard to drug use was undertaken in schools. The study was conducted among 200 students in four all age schools, in the metropolitan area. In order to do the study a random sample was selected and a self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results revealed that drug abuse was rising and was more common in males than females, in some cases the male to female ratio being four to one. Alcohol was the most commonly used drug, followed by tobacco, cannabis and inhalants. 90 percent of alcohol users became regular users. Among the illicit drugs, cannabis was most prevalent. For both crack and cocaine, the prevalence for current usage had increased significantly since 1987. Twenty percent of students believed there was no risk involved in taking drugs. In general the trend of drug use and abuse is on the rise and fifty percent of students taking drugs began before ten year of age. The author concluded that the problem of drug use and abuse had risen and made recommendations, including that institutions should be set up to deal with drug abuse in adolescents and existing educational programmes be strengthened and targeted at the lower age groups. (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha , Cocaína Crack/efeitos adversos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudantes , Jamaica/epidemiologia
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