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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17769

RESUMO

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of strains of Escherichia coli isolated between 1994 and 1998 were studied. Of the 1,283 strains examined, 75% were recovered from urine, 8.7% from wounds, 3.2% from blood, 2.6% from pus, and 10.5% from other sources. Isolates from inpatients and outpatients accounted for 46.1% and 53.9%, respectively. Gentamicin and nalidixic acid showed the greatest efficacy against isolates from both inpatients and outpatients, revealing a >90% sensitivity. Drugs with the lowest efficacies were ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, which showed a >45% resistance. Tetracycline showed a significant decline in resistance from 1994 to 1998 among strains from both inpatients and outpatients (P < 0.001). This decline may be related to a policy of restrictive antibiotic reporting by the Microbiology Laboratory and seminars for general practitioners, subsequent to an island-wide survey an antibiotic resistance. A similar pattern of declining resistance was also observed for cefuroxime. E. coli sensitivity to co-trimoxazole was relatively stable during the study period. Although the overall prevalence of resistance among E. coli strains is relatively low, on-going surveillance of bacterial resistance must continue. The microbial antibiogram can provide general practitioners and clinicians with data essential for optimum empiric choices. Further, the introduction of a policy of restrictive reporting may act "synergistically" with the education of doctors on resistance patterns, to effect island-wide reduction of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudo Comparativo , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/farmacologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Cefuroxima/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Hospitais Privados , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ácido Nalidíxico/farmacologia , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Trinidad e Tobago
2.
West Indian Med. J ; 49(4): 340-43, Dec. 2000. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-449

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is relatively uncommon in children. Two cases of severe leptospirosis occurred in teenaged boys who shared a common exposure via immersion in fresh water. While both patients had laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis, their symptoms differed in many respects.(Au)


Assuntos
Criança , Relatos de Casos , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Natação , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Doce , Leptospirose/etiologia , Leptospirose/terapia , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Testes Sorológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Microbiologia da Água
3.
West Indian med. j ; 48(4): 242-3, Dec. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1560

RESUMO

Recurrent acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease can be prevented by antibiotic intervention. We report the case of genetically identical twins, one of whom had overt rheumatic fever, received penicillin prophylaxis and did not have rheumatic heart disease. The other must have had inapparent rheumatic fever, received no chemotherapy prophylaxis and proceeded to develop rheumatic heart disease. A greater clinical and laboratory vigilance is required for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the asymptomatic identical twin of a patient with rheumatic fever. This case provides further evidence of a genetic predisposition of rheumatic fever and demonstrates the continued value of penicillin in the prophylaxis of acute rhuematic fever. It emphasises the need to maintain the integrity of preventive programmes against rheumatic fever worldwide. Studies which explores the HLA and other genetic linkages with rheumatic fever should be encouraged.(AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Relatos de Casos , Feminino , Humanos , Febre Reumática/prevenção & controle , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Doenças em Gêmeos/prevenção & controle , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatia Reumática/etiologia
4.
J Pediatr ; 134(3): 304-9, Mar. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and splenectomy are at greater risk of death, overwhelming septicemia, or other complications. METHODS: A total of 130 patients with SS treated by splenectomy (46 recurrent acute splenic sequestration, 84 chronic hypersplenism) over a 22.5-year period at the Sickle Cell Clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, were compared with a control group matched for sex, age, and duration of follow-up in a retrospective review. Deaths and bacteremias were examined over the whole study period. Painful crises, acute chest syndromes, and febrile episodes were compared in the 90 patients completing 5 years of postsplenectomy follow-up. FINDINGS: Mortality and bacteremic episodes did not differ between the splenectomy and control groups. Painful crises were more common in the splenectomy group than in the control group (P = .01) but did not differ between splenectomy indications. Acute chest syndrome was more common in the splenectomy group than in the control group (P < .01) and was more common in the acute splenic sequestration group than in the hypersplenism group (P = .01). Febrile events did not differ between the groups or between the indications for splenectomy. CONCLUSION: Splenectomy does not increase the risk of death or bacteremic illness in patients with SS disease and, if otherwise indicated, should not be deferred for these reasons (Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Estudo Comparativo , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Homozigoto , Esplenectomia/normas , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Seguimentos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/cirurgia
5.
West Indian med. j ; 45(3): 95-6, Sept. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3498

RESUMO

Penicillin prophylaxis against infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is now routine in young children with homozygous sickle-cell (SS) disease and the emergence of penicillin-resistant strains is a serious clinical concern. The first death associated with such resistance in a Jamaican child with SS disease is reported (AU)


Assuntos
Relatos de Casos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência às Penicilinas , Anemia Falciforme/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Homozigoto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal
6.
BMJ ; 311(7020): 1600-2, Dec. 16 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether simple interventions in a sickle cell clinic improve survival in sickle cell disease. DESIGN: Survival curve analysis and hazard ratios in a cohort study followed from birth. SETTING: MRC Laboratories (Jamaica) at the University of the West Indies, and Victoria Jubilee Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica. SUBJECTS: 315 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease detected during the screening of 100,000 consecutive non-operative deliveries between June 1973 and December 1981 at the main government maternity hospital, Kingston, Jamaica. INTERVENTIONS: Prophylactic penicillin to prevent pneumococcal septicaemia, parental education in early diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration, close monitoring in sickle cell clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival. RESULTS: Survival appeared to improve, the log rank test for trend comparing the first, second, and last third of the study reaching borderline significance (P = 0.05). Combined deaths from acute splenic sequestration and pneumococcal septicaemia-meningitis declined significantly (test for trend, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and simple prophylactic measures significantly reduce deaths associated with homozygous sickle cell disease (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Homozigoto , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Meningite/mortalidade , Meningite/prevenção & controle , Pais/educação , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico , Esplenopatias/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
West Indian med. j ; 41(suppl 1): 52, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6551

RESUMO

Forty-eight paediatric patients admitted with bacterial meningitis during a 10-year period, comprising 22 males (46 percent) and 26 females (54 percent), were reviewed. Ages ranged between 7 weeks and 12 years (mean 2.7 years). The mean 10-year incidence was 29/10,000 ward admissions, with a peak incidence of 69/10,000 admissions in 1989. The highest seasonal prevalence occurred during the dry months. Twenty-five patients (52 percent) were less than 2 years of age. Predominant symptoms were fever (85 percent), gastrointestinal (65 percent), and lethargy (40 percent). Frequently associated illnesses included upper respiratory infections in 21 (44 percent), and otitis media in 5(10 percent) of cases. H. influenzae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid in 34 cases (71 percent), S. pneumoniae in 4 cases (8 percent), and no organism in 10 cases (21 percent). Thirteen patients (27 percent) had received antibiotic therapy within a week of admission. Initial therapy consisted of parenteral ampicillin and chloramphenicol in 37 cases (77 percent), penicillin and chloramphenicol in 9 cases (19 percent) chlodramphenicol in 1 (2 percent), and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole in 1 case (2 percent). These data support a case for routine administration of H. influenzae B vaccine which will lead to the eradication of, or reduction of the overall incidence of bacterial meningitis in childhood (AU)


Assuntos
Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Meningite/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Barbados/epidemiologia , Febre , Gastroenteropatias , Fases do Sono , Infecções Respiratórias , Otite Média , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Cloranfenicol/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Haemophilus influenzae/imunologia
8.
West Indian med. j ; 40(suppl.1): 45, Apr. 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5561

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of prophylactic penicillin in young children with homozygous sickle-cell (SS) disease, on clinical manifestations other than the known effect of preventing pneumococcal septicaemia. Thirty-nine patients received monthly injections of intramuscular penicillin for the 30-month period between age 6 and 36 months (treatment group) and 36 SS patients were followed without penicillin prophylaxis (control group). The features investigated included common manifestations before the age of 3 years such as haematological abnormalities, dactylitis, acute chest syndrome, acute splenic sequestration, and growth delay. No significant differences were found between the two groups in haematology, the incidence of dactylitis, acute chest syndrome, or acute sequestration during the study period, or in attained weight and height at age 3 years or at 8 years. Prophylactic penicillin given as monthly IM injections has no beneficial effect for children under 3 years with homozygous sickle-cell disease, other than the known effect of preventing pneumococcal sepsis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Penicilinas/administração & dosagem , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Sepse , Anemia Falciforme , Transtornos do Crescimento/induzido quimicamente
9.
West Indian med. j ; 38(Suppl. 1): 21, Apr. 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5705

RESUMO

A cord blood screening programme from 1973 to 1981 identified all cases with sickle-cell disease among 100,000 consecutive normal deliveries. Follow-up of childern with homozygous sickle-cell (SS) disease revealed a 15 per cent mortality in the first 10 years of life, one-third of which occurred in the first year of life. The principal causes of early mortality were identified as acute chest syndrome, acute splenic sequestration and pneumococcal septicaemia. Following a parental education programme in the significance and domiciliary diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration, and a policy of prophylatic splenectomy in recurrent life-threatening episodes, the mortality from this group of complications has fallen by approximately 90 per cent. The early institution of prophylactic penicillin therapy has significantly reduced the risks of pneumococcal septicaemia. The acute chest syndrome may also be more effectively treated if the underlying diagnosis of haemoglobinopathy is known. Neonatal screening for sickle-cell disease is a technically simple procedure which, by allowing the early institution of educational and prophylactic programmes, may have a profound effect on morbidity and mortality of the disease. It should be instituted throughout the Caribbean (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade , Sepse , Esplenectomia , Penicilinas/farmacocinética
10.
West Indian med. j ; 37(Suppl. 2): 35, Nov. 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5822

RESUMO

Leptospirosis was first documented in Barbados by Bayley in 1939. Since that time it has continued to be a major cause of jaundice on the island, accounting for approximately fifty percent of the cases admitted to the medical wards. In 1979, the Government of Barbados in collaboration with the Medical Research Council (MRC) of the UK set up a laboratory for the diagnosis and study of the disease. In serological surveys carried out on the Island, Everald showed that 18.5 percent of 529 individuals tested from urban and rural areas had significant titres indicating previous exposure. Likewise, in a survey of school childern, he showed that 7.6 percent of 538 samples tested had significant titres. The majority of cases were exposed to the serovar Autumnalis. Autumnalis bim was first isolated by Jones from a stray dog in Bridgetown. It has subsequently been shown that bim is the most frequent cause of severe disease in man in Barbados. Two hundred and seventy-six hospital cases of leptospirosis have been confirmed since the inception of the laboratory in late 1979 to the end of December 1987. The cases seen in hospital have varied from 25 to 57 in any one year. On average, 15 cases per 100,000 population are admitted each year. The overall mortality rate has been 14.1 percent; however, since the inception of clinical research studies and aggressive supportive care in 1983 the mortality rate has been reduced to 9.4 percent. In 1981, a retrospective study of the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leptospirosis confirmed our published retrospective study showing that 30 of 49 (61.2 percent) patients had a platelet count of 100,000 or less. The association of thrombocytopenia and renal failure was also confirmed. In a study of twenty-four patients at the end of the first year of our MRC/UK-sponsored research programme, thrombocytopenia was demonstrated in 14 of these pateints. The only additional laboratory evidence suggestive of a disseminated intravascular coagulation lay in a mild elevation of the fibrinogen degradaton products, but this occurred with equal frequency in the non-thrombocytopenic patients. There was thus no casual relationship between the DIC and thrombocytopenia of leptospirosis. A randomized control study of high dose intravenous pencillin in icteric leptospirosis was conducted over a three-year period ending in December 1986. Thirty-eight patients were randomised to antibiotic therapy and forty-one to recieve intravenous fluids only. The two groups showed no significant difference in the time to defervence, return of biochemical parameters to normal, incidence of iritis or mortality in the two groups. Three patients (7.3 percent) died in the control group and one (2.6 percent) in the treatment group. The overall mortality for the study was 5.9 percent. Leptospires were recovered from urine cultures in six patients from the control gorup and none in the antibiotic group. It was concluded that while intravenous penicillin may sterilise the urine, it had little effect on the overall clinical outcome of jaundiced patients with leptospirosis. Twenty-four percent of patients had a cardiac arrhythmia, pericarditis or mycarditis when monitored by electrocardiagrams, halter monitor and echocardiagrams. Studies on the high incidence of hyperamylasemia (65 percent) in our leptospirosis patients are now in progress. The laboratory is continuing studies on the early diagnosis of the disease, looking at the application of common and specific DNA sequences from serovars of Leptospira interrogans for the diagnosis and distribution of leptospirosis, with the help of a new grant from the EEC (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , 21003 , Masculino , Feminino , Cães , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Barbados/epidemiologia , Icterícia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Penicilinas/administração & dosagem , Penicilinas/farmacocinética
11.
West Indian med. j ; 37(suppl): 34, 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6603

RESUMO

Many physicians working in Casualty and Outpatient Departments, where adverse conditions prevail, routinely prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of suture repair of simple wounds. In departments and hospitals with a busy practice in wound care, this custom may make considerable demands on limited pharmacy resources. We therefore performed a randomized, controlled study of parenteral chemoprophylaxis of simple wounds undergoing suture repair. Patients whose wounds spared neurovascular structures, tendon, and bone were randomized to either treatment with a combination of benzathine penicillin (2.4 million units) intramuscularly, or a control group. At the time of suture removal, seven days later, all wounds were reviewed for signs of infection. Of 320 patients enrolled in the study, 173 (54.1 percent) returned for review. Seventy-five of 81 (93 percent) treated wounds were healing, compared to 79 of 91 (86 percent) controls (p>0.2). A significantly higher rate of healing was observed, with prophylaxis, for wounds which were repaired 9 or more hours after injury and involved the arms, legs, or trunk (treated - 22 of 23, 96 percent; p>0,05 prophylaxis omitted - 20 of 30, 67 percent; p<0.05). Wounds involving the head, and wounds repaired within nine hours after injury had a high rate of healing (>90 percent), whether or not prophylaxis was given. Based on a 30 percent higher healing rate for the categories of patient who benefited from treatment (arm, leg, trunk wounds repaired after nine or more hours), it was calculated that the drug cost of implementing prophylaxis for this group alone was more than five times that of an expected, non-prophylactic strategy (J$33.94 vs J$6.55). These results serve to remind practitioners of the possibility that a clinically effective mode of therapy may not necessarily be cost-effective in the delivery of health care (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Suturas
12.
Am J trop med hyg ; 39(4): 388-90, 1988. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15021

RESUMO

A prospective, controlled randomized study of penicillin therapy in icteric human leptospirosis was carried out between 1 October 1983 and 31 December 1986. Thirty-eight patients received intravenous crystalline penicillin for 5 days, while 41 assigned tests made on the day of admission revealed no significant differences between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in time for defervescence, return of biochemical parameters to normal, incidence of iritis, or mortality in the 2 groups. Three patients (7.3 percent) in the control group and 1 patient (2.6 percent) in the treatment group died. The overall mortality rate was 5.9 percent. Leptospira were recovered from urine cultures in 6 control patients but from none of the treated patients' post-treatment cultures. We conclude that penicillin has little effect on clinical outcome in icteric leptospirosis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Leptospirose/terapia , Penicilinas/administração & dosagem , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Penicilinas/diagnóstico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Barbados
13.
West Indian med. j ; 36(Suppl): 19, April, 1987.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6029

RESUMO

The efficacy of antibiotic therapy in icteric (severe) human leptospirosis is unknown. We therefore undertook a prospective, randomized, controlled study of penicilin therapy in such patients. All admitted between October 1, 1983 and June 30, 1986 with a history compatible with leptospirosis, were randomized on admission to receive either 2 megaunits of crystalline pencillin intravenously every six hours for five days or intravenous fluids only. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed by a four-fold rise in titre or an initial titre> 1:1600 in the micoagglutination test, and/or by positive leptospira cultures. One hundred and fifty patients were initiated, and leptospirosis was confirmed in seventy-five of them. Seventy-one (94.7 percent) of these were jaundiced. One died before randomization, while four were allergic to penicillin. Thus, thirty-two patients were assigned to receive penicillin, and thirty-four to the control group. A comparison of the results of laboratory tests made on the day of admission revealed no signifcant differences between the two groups. There was no significant difference in time for defervescence, return of biochemical variables to normal, incidence of iritis, or mortality between the two groups. Three patients (8.8 percent) died in the control and one (3.1 percent) in the treatment group. The mortality rate was 5.1 percent for the study and 7 percent overall. Six patients had positive urine cultures in the controls while no cultures were obtained in the treated patients. Penicillin appears to have little effect in icteric leptospirosis (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Weil/tratamento farmacológico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico
14.
Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 7(3): 235-9, 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15907

RESUMO

The Jamaican sickle cell cohort study, based on neonatal diagnosis of all cases of sickle cell disease among 100 000 consecutive births, has identified acute splenic sequestration (ASS) and pneumoccocal disease as the most important complications in early life. The etiology of ASS is unknown and prophylaxis is therefore not possible. For first attacks, attention has been directed to parental education to achieve earlier diagnosis. Recurrent attacks may be prevented by prophylactic splenectomy. A controlled trial on the prevention of pneumococcal disease has indicated many pneumococcal septicemias in children given the 14 valent pneumococcal vaccine between the ages of 6 months and 3 years. No pneumococcal isolations occurred during the same period in children given monthly long-acting prophylactic penicillin. A controlled trial of foliate supplementation for 1 year in children aged 6 months to 4 years indicated no difference between control and treatment groups in hemoglobin levels or weight and height velocity. The MVC was 4 fl less in the supplemented group. A controlled trial of feeder vessel photocoagulation in the therapy of proliferative retionpathy indicated significantly less vitreous hemorrhage in treated patients but choroidal neovascularization was a common complication of xenon arc therapy and retinal tears commonly followed the use of Argon laser. A new trial of scatter therapy is in progress. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/complicações , Esplenopatias/complicações , Doença Aguda , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Vacinas Bacterianas , Peso Corporal , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Alimentos Fortificados , Haemophilus influenzae , Hemoglobinas/análise , Jamaica , Programas de Rastreamento , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Doenças Retinianas/complicações , Doenças Retinianas/prevenção & controle , Esplenectomia , Esplenopatias/mortalidade , Esplenopatias/prevenção & controle
17.
West Indian med. j ; 30(2): 63-7, June 1981.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11346

RESUMO

The antibiotic sensitivity of 113 strains of N. gonorrhoeae collected in Kingston and Montego Bay in 1978 was compared to that of 26 strains collected in Kingston in 1971. In 1971, 38 percent of the gonococcal isolates in Jamaica grew in the presence of >0.25 æg/ml of penicillin (0.4 units) compared to only 8.9 percent in 1978. A similar decrease in the level of tetracycline resistance (MIC>1.0 æg/ml) was also seen from 1971, when 31 percent of gonococcal isolates were resistant, to 1977 when only 13.4 percent were resistant. The percentage of antibiotic resistance of strains of N. gonorrhoeae in Jamaica was higher than were contemporary isolates from the United States in both 1971 and 1978. The level of penicillin and tetracycline resistance of the 1978 strains were less than those of the 1971 strains, but were higher as a group than contemporary gonococci isolated in the United States (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Jamaica , Estados Unidos
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 14(5): 417-24, 1976.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9315

RESUMO

A prospective controlled study of 580 patients who underwent non-radical major gynaecological or obstetrical surgery examined the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The test group of patients (290) showed a significantly lower (P=0.01) incidence of the total complications and the non-infective complication rate as against those among controls (290). The duration of hospitalisation was significantly reduced for both vaginal and abdominal surgery in the test group of patients as against those in the controls. There was no evidence of increased incidence of bacterial resistance or superinfection. The authors recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotic on a short term basis (for a total duration of 4 days), commencing preoperatively to achieve a significant reduction in the infective postoperative morbidity and a shorter stay by the patients. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Genitália Feminina/cirurgia , Histerectomia , Canamicina/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estreptomicina/uso terapêutico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
20.
West Indian med. j;23(4): 226-31, Dec. 1974.
em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11064

RESUMO

The sensitivity of penicillin and tetracycline of 53 strains of gonococci isolated in the Summer of 1971 from routine cases in a clinic in Kingston, Jamaica, has been determined. The level of sensitivity of Jamaican strains to these antibiotics was remarkably similar to the sensitivity to these antibiotics of routine strains isolated over the United States in 1970-71. There was a remarkable correlation of sensitivities to penicillin and tetracycline of individual strains. The similarity of sensitivity of strains in Jamaica to the sensitivity of strains in the United States and the good correlation of the degree of sensitivity of individual strains to the two drugs lend support to the hypothesis of Sparling (1972) and of Maness and Sparling (1973) of a common genetic pathway responsible for the development of most cases of resistance to these antibodies (AU)


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicilinas/farmacocinética , Tetraciclina/farmacocinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Resistência às Penicilinas , Especificidade da Espécie , Jamaica
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