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1.
West Indian med. j ; 43(Suppl. 2): 4, July, 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6506

RESUMO

Over 50 percent of diabetics have measuable neuropathy, but only about 15 percent have symptoms (Dyck et al, 1993), of which pain is the most distressing. The pain of diabetic neuropathy (DN) is thought to arise from regenerating axons and spontaneously firing small nociceptive fibres. In addition, poor diabetic control (hyperglycaemia) may reduce the individual pain threshold. Ordinary analgesics are usually ineffective and opiates should be used cautiously because both in the depressed and non-depressed but side effects are common, especially in the elderly patient. The starting dose should be 10 - 25 mg given at night to controlnocturnal exacerbations of pain. Imipramine, another tricyclic anti-depressant with less anticholinergic inhibitor, are alternatives to amitriptyline. Pain which is lancinating in quality may repond better to carbamazepine at a starting dose of 200 mg daily. Mexilitene has also been shown to be effective in painful DN. Topical capsaicin which depletes nociceptive C fibres of their neurotransmitter, substance P, may be used as an adjunct to oral therapy. The patient with painless symmetrical polyneuropathy is at risk for the development of foot ulceration at areas of abnormally high pressure which arise as a result of destruction of the small joints of the foot. Patienst education regarding daily obsessive foot care is essential. Specific strategies for the management of plantar foot ulceration include non-weight bearing, redistribution of foot pressure by the use of various plaster-of Paris walking devices, treatment of infection with appropriate antibiotics, and the use of hyperbaric oxygen where available. Some complications of autonomic neuropathy which may respond to pharmacotherapy include gastroparesis (metoclopamide, erthromycin, domperidone), nocturnal diarrhoea (tetracycline), gustatory sweating (preprandial propantheline) and postural hypotension (fludrocortisone). The results of the recently reported multicentre trial (DCCI) clearly show that risk of developing neuropathy can be significantly reduced by intensive glycaemic control. Physicians need to be aware of the various syndromes of DN in order to advise and treat complications if and when they arise (AU)


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Imipramina/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico
2.
West Indian med. j ; 22(4): 191, Dec. 1973.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6210

RESUMO

Clomipramine, a chlorinated tricyclic drug, was assessed in 2 groups of outpatients (i) 59 depressed patients in a double blind comparative trial with amitryptiline; and (ii) 7 patients with phobic anxiety states. (i) In the comparative trial no difference in anti-depressant action (assessed by serial Hamilton Rating scores) of clomirpramine and amitryptiline could be demonstrated. Both appeared to relieve depression effectively with maximal anti-depressant action in the second and third weeks of treatment. Patients taking clomipramine, however, had significantly more side effects (p<0.01) and more patients in this group had to be withdrawn for this reason. Postural hypotension was the most serious side effect and occurred in 25 percent of patients taking clomipramine as against 115 of patients taking amitryptiline. (ii) 7 patients with phobic anxiety state with predominantly agoraphobic symptoms ("the agoraphobic syndrome"), who had previously proved resistant to treatment by phenelzine, anxiolytic drugs, supportive psychotherapy and (in 4 cases) desensitisation, were treated with clomipramine orally. 2 patients developed side effects. Of the remaining 5, 3 showed a satisfactory response (in 2 complete alleviation of phobic symptoms with return to normal activities, and in 1 marked alleviation). The other 2 patients showed slight improvements but remained considerably handicapped. Clomipramine (i) has been shown to be an effective anti-depressant drug of comparable efficacy and speed of action to amitryptiline. The higher incidence of side effects, however, make it an anti-depressant of second choice. (ii) appears potentially very useful in the management of agarophobic patients (who are in general resistant to treatment (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Fóbicos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Clomipramina/uso terapêutico , Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
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