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Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 55(1): 1-11, July 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3156


More than 18 million persons in the the world are estimated to have been infected with human immunodefeiciency virus (HIV), the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As immunodeficiency progresses, these persons become susceptible to a wide variety of opportunistic infections (OIs). The spectrum of OIs varies among regions of the world. Tuberculosis is the most common serious OI in sub-Saharan Africa and is also more common in Latin America and in Asia than in the United States. Bacterial infections such as toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and isosporaisis are also common in Latin America. Fungal infections, including cryptococcosis and Penicillium marneffei infection, appear to be prevalent in Southeast Asia. Despite limited health resources in these regions, some measures that are recommended to prevent OIs in the United States may be useful for prolonging and improving the quality of life of HIV-infected persons. These include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections; isoniazid to prevent tuberculosis; and 23-valent pnemococcal vaccine to prevent disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Research is needed to determine the spectrum of OIs and the efficacy of various prevention measures in resource-poor nations, and health officials need to determine a minimum standard of care for HIV-infected persons. An increasing problem in the developing world, HIV/AIDS should receive attention comparable to other tropical diseases (AU).

Humanos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Anti-Infecciosos , Antituberculosos , Vacinas Bacterianas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Isoniazida , Sulfametizol , Trimetoprima , Pesquisa , África , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , América Latina/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
West Indian med. j ; 41(suppl 1): 52, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6551


Forty-eight paediatric patients admitted with bacterial meningitis during a 10-year period, comprising 22 males (46 percent) and 26 females (54 percent), were reviewed. Ages ranged between 7 weeks and 12 years (mean 2.7 years). The mean 10-year incidence was 29/10,000 ward admissions, with a peak incidence of 69/10,000 admissions in 1989. The highest seasonal prevalence occurred during the dry months. Twenty-five patients (52 percent) were less than 2 years of age. Predominant symptoms were fever (85 percent), gastrointestinal (65 percent), and lethargy (40 percent). Frequently associated illnesses included upper respiratory infections in 21 (44 percent), and otitis media in 5(10 percent) of cases. H. influenzae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid in 34 cases (71 percent), S. pneumoniae in 4 cases (8 percent), and no organism in 10 cases (21 percent). Thirteen patients (27 percent) had received antibiotic therapy within a week of admission. Initial therapy consisted of parenteral ampicillin and chloramphenicol in 37 cases (77 percent), penicillin and chloramphenicol in 9 cases (19 percent) chlodramphenicol in 1 (2 percent), and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole in 1 case (2 percent). These data support a case for routine administration of H. influenzae B vaccine which will lead to the eradication of, or reduction of the overall incidence of bacterial meningitis in childhood (AU)

Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Meningite/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Barbados/epidemiologia , Febre , Gastroenteropatias , Fases do Sono , Infecções Respiratórias , Otite Média , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Cloranfenicol/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Haemophilus influenzae/imunologia
West Indian med. j ; 37(4): 201-4, Dec. 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11665


The in-vitro sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofuratoin, nalidixic acid and mecillinam was determined for 511 organisms isolated from 399 consecutive urine specimens. Urine specimens were divided into those of hospital in-patient origin (group B). Group B organisms were more sensitive than group A organisms. Over 75 percent of all group B organisms were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and mecillinam. Organisms resistant to multiple antibiotics were more frequently isolated from group A catheterized patients and are now less frequently isolated than in 1983. The antibiotic implications of these findings are discussed (AU)

Humanos , Andinocilina Pivoxil/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Andinocilina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Nalidíxico/uso terapêutico , Nitrofurantoína/uso terapêutico , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos