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1.
In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of Moringa oleifera (moringa) seeds on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed standard chow or high cholesterol diet. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups and fed standard chow (control), standard chow + 1% moringa seed powder, 4% cholesterol diet alone, or 4% cholesterol diet + 0.5% or 1% moringa seed powder for 12 weeks. Moringa seeds and rat chow were crushed and mixed with cholesterol powder as required. Serum lipid concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12, and fecal cholesterol concentration was measured at week 12. Liver and kidney functions were evaluated by biochemical assessment of relevant parameters including aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine and urea. RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations were significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in rats fed the cholesterol diet alone or with moringa seed powder (0.5% or 1%) in comparison to rats fed standard chow. Fecal cholesterol concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in rats fed the cholesterol diet alone as compared to the control group. Moringa did not have a significant effect on serum and fecal cholesterol concentrations in rats fed standard chow. There was no significant difference in concentrations of liver and kidney parameters or relative organ weights between groups. CONCLUSION: Despite popular belief of antilipemic potential, moringa seed powder increases serum cholesterol concentration, specifically LDL, in the presence of a high cholesterol diet. Moringa seed powder inhibited the fecal elimination of dietary cholesterol in rats.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera/efeitos adversos , Colesterol , Ratos , Soro
2.
West Indian Med. J ; 49(4): 302-6, Dec. 2000. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-457

RESUMO

We carried out a case control study at the University Hospital of Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe, during eight months. Seventy patients with ischaemic stroke and seventy age- and sex matched controls were involved. A standard questionnaire reported clinical characteristics and medical history. Seventy-six per cent of patients suffered from hypertension. Obesity and diabetes were more frequent in the case group than in the control group. Serum creatinine concentration (86 vs 74umol/l; p <0.001), total cholesterol (5.9 vs 5.2 mmol/l; p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (1.2 vs 1.0 g/l' p < 0.001) and lipoprotein (a) (82 vs 48 mg/dl; p< 0.001) were significantly higher in patients than controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that in addition to serum creatinine, serum apolipoprotein B, hypertension, obesity, serum lipoprotein (a) and diabetes mellitus were associated independently and significantly with ischaemic stroke. These findings have implications for clinical practice and further research particularly with respect to serum creatinine concentration as a marker of renal damage from hypertension and as risk factor itself for cerebrovascular disease.(Au)


Assuntos
Humanos , Creatinina/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos
3.
Kingston; Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute; 20000100. 1-3 p. (Nyam News, 1 & 2).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18334

RESUMO

Many of the more popular Caribbean dishes abound with fat and cholesterol-filled foods. Chicken, pork and shellfish are among the very popular ones. Check out any Caribbean country and you are sure to find out that fat-filled foods 'carry the swing'.


Assuntos
Humanos , Colesterol/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/fisiologia
4.
In. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Eighth Annual Research Conference 1999. Kingston, s.n, 1999. p.1. (Annual Research Conference 1999, 8).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1427

RESUMO

The sample population was selected from 3 municipals of Havana City. The population size was selected using the programme EP16 with the option statcalc. From a population size of 17,068 diabetics, a sample size of 100 diabetics was calculated as the minimum population size required to obtain a confidence level of 95 percent. Patients were divided into two groups (yoga and traditional group) and were matched according to the following criteria: Age +/- 5 years, Sex, Type of treatment, Evolution of NIDDM, BMI. The two groups of 63 diabetics were matched according to the criteria described above and were then grouped as "yoga exercise group" and "traditional exercise group". Biochemical analysis was done at the start of the investigation, and included: HDL - C Tryglyceride, LDL - C, Total cholesterol, Glycated haemoglobin, Insulinic receptors, Microalbuminuria, Blood glucose, quantification of T3, T4 Insulin, GH, and TSH, Oxidative stress enzymes serum, creatinine. The Second Stage: Both groups had similar diet and practised their respective physical exercise at the same duration and frequency for periods of 3 and 6 months. The biomedical analysis was done at these intervals. The biochemical analysis at the start showed: In most cases there were alterations in lipid metabolism, renal function as seen as hyperlipidaemia and hypercortisolaemia and a reduction in the union and internalization of insulin in the receptors of lymphocytes. There was a correlation between GH and T4. These findings show that it is necessary to deepen the investigation of these patients as there exists a difference in the laboratory results and the clinical manifestations of endocrine metabolc diseases.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Terapia por Exercício , Ioga , /terapia , Lipoproteínas HDL , Receptores de LDL , Colesterol , Hemoglobina A , Receptor de Insulina , Glicemia , Estresse Oxidativo , Creatinina , Cuba
5.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 1): 30, Mar. 5-8, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1552

RESUMO

An experimental study was performed at the Higher Institute of Medical Sciences "Victoria de Giron" of Havana City, Cuba, between April 1997 and June 1997 to examine the effect of Yoga Discipline in the control of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). Of 64 subjects there were 32 NIDDM on traditional treatment (Yoga Group). The prinicpal results revealed that the body mass index (BMI), at the beginning and the end, in the Traditional Group did not change significantly (BMI-beginning-28.0kg/m2; the end = 28.7 kg/m2 p=0.0831). However, the BMI in the Yoga Group decreased significantly (beginning = 29.7 kg/m2, the end = 27.0kg/m2; p=0.0001). At the end the frequency of normal glycosylated haemoglobin was higher in the Yoga Group (88.4 percent) than in the Traditional group (46.9 percent) showing a significant difference (p =0.0007). Also, for the Traditional Group, at the end the mean triglyceride 0.025 mmol/l (2.23mg/dl) and the mean total cholesterol concentrations 0.126 mmol/l (4.88mg/dl) were not significantly different from the beginning 0.025 mmol/l (2.22mg/dl) and 0.125 mmol (4.83mg/dl) respectively. In the Yoga Group at the end of the mean triglyceride 0.019 mmol/l (1.68 mg/dl) and the total cholesterol concentrations 0.110 mmol/l (4.24 mg/dl) were lower than the beginning 0.026 mmol/l (2.30 mg/dl) and 0.126 mmol/l (4.88 mg/dl), respectively, showing significant differences, p<0.05. Our results indicate that Yoga Discipline combined with the traditional treatment of NIDDM can benefit these patients.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudo Comparativo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Ioga , Cuba , Colesterol/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal
6.
BMJ ; 312(7024): 156-60, Jan. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE-- To determine relationship between school children's blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level and cholesterol concentration and their anthropometry, socioeconomic status, and birth measurements. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study. SETTING--27 schools closest to University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. SUBJECTS--2337 children aged 6-16 years who were born at University Hospital were recruited, and their birth records were recovered: 1610 had suitable records, 659 had records including birth length, and 610 of these were prepubertal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level, serum cholesterol concentration, anthropometry at birth, current anthropometry, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS--Multiple regression analysis showed that children's systolic blood pressure was inversely related to their birth weight (P < 0.0001) and directly related to their currrent weight. Glycated haemoglobin level was higher in children with thicker triceps skinfolds (P < 0.001) and who had been shorter at birth (P = 0.003). Serum cholesterol concentration was inversely related to current height (P = 0.001) and to length at birth (P = 0.09) and was directly related to triceps skinfold thickness and higher socio-economic status (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Blood pressure in children was inversely related to birth weight and directly to current weight. Glycaemic control and serum cholesterol were related to short length at birth, height deficit in childhood, and childhood obesity (Au).


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Jamaica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes
7.
West Indian med. j ; 44(Suppl. 2): 40, Apr. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5739

RESUMO

The Curacao Health Study is a cross-sectional population-based study designed to give insight into the determinants of health on Curacao. This study presents prevalence data for lipid risk factors and interactions with demographic and socio-economic variables. Serum was collected from 1001 (44.5 percent) respondents included in the CHS study. These respondents were representative for all respondents. Cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured and LDL-cholesterol was calculated. Cholesterol levels increased significantly in women > 50 years of age, as did LDL-cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was higher in women than in men (52 ñ 13 mg/dl vs 48 ñ 15 mg/dl). Mean total and LDL-cholesterol levels were comparable to Western European and Northern American populations. Multiple regression indicated that race (Black vs non-Black) did not contribute to cholesterol levels, whereas education, living in the East District, age, and gender did. These associations need further study before definitive conclusions can be drawn. We conclude that lipid risk factors are as prevalent on Curacao as in most Western societies (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lipídeos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Colesterol , Triglicerídeos , Fatores de Risco , Curaçao
8.
J Clin Pathol ; 47(12): 1105-7, Dec. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5861

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate differences in serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations in pregnant women of different ethnic origin. METHODS: Serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 232 women (114 Caucasians, 118 Africans/Afro-Caribbeans), who presented consecutively for screening for gestational diabetes in the third trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS: African/Afro-Caribbean pregnant women had lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations compared with Caucasian women. Apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were similar in the two groups. The differences were not attributable to differences in weight, age, parity, or postload plasma glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Ethnic origin is an important determinant of serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolioprotein concentrations during pregnancy (AU)


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Gravidez/metabolismo , Lipídeos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Apolipoproteínas/sangue
9.
Diabetologia ; 37(8): 765-72, Aug. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5865

RESUMO

Afro-Caribbeans have low mortality rates from coronary heart disease, despite a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. We examined 1166 Afro-Caribbean and European men and women aged 40-64 years in a community survey in London, UK. Prevalence of glucose intolerance (combining impaired glucose tolerance, new and known diabetes) was 31 percent in Afro-Caribbeans and 14 percent in Europeans (p<0.001). In men, the prevalence of probable coronary heart disease was 6 percent in Afro-Caribbeans and 13 percent in Europeans (p<0.01). Triglyceride was lower in Afro-Caribbeans than Europeans; in men, HDL cholesterol was higher. Afro-Caribbeab men were less centrally obese, while Afro-Caribbean women were more centrally obese than their European counterparts. Fasting and 2-h insulin levels were higher in Afro-Caribbeans than Europeans. Glucose intolerance was associated with high triglyceride, low HDL cholesterol and central obesity in European but not in Afro-Caribbean men. In Europeans, fasting triglyceride was 1.49 mmol/l in normoglycaemic and 1.89 mmol/l in glucose intolerant men (p<0.05), in Afro-Caribbean men triglyceride was 1.08 and 1.22 mmol/l, respectively. Waist hip ratio was 0.94 in normoglycaemic, and 0.98 in glucose intolerant European men (p<0.001). In Afro-Caribbean men, waist hip ratio was 0.93 in both groups. At each level of insulin, glucose or central obesity, triglyceride was lower in Afro-Caribbean men and women than in Europeans. We speculate that despite high insulin levels, Afro-Caribbeans have a favourable lipoprotein pattern which persists in the presence of glucose intolerance, and may be related to body fat distribution. This could begin to explain their low rates of coronary heart disease (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteínas , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Fatores Etários , Fatores Sexuais , Prevalência , Pregas Cutâneas
10.
West Indian med. j ; 43(suppl. 1): 25-6, Apr. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5457

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis occurs over decades and begins in childhood. Hypertension, elevated serum cholesterol levels and obesity are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. In population-based studies, the presence of these two risk factors in childhood has been shown to be predictive of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in adulthood and ultimately of coronary heart disease mortality rates. There is evidence that much of the risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia is due to exposure to an unfavourable environment. Therefore it should be possible to reduce or eliminate this risk. In this study of 2337 Jamaican school children aged 6 to 16 years, girls were found to have higher cholesterol levels than boys (4.2ñ0.82vs4.1ñ0.83mM;p<0.003). At all ages (except 11), the cholesterol concentration in girls was higher than in boys, and girls had significantly more body fat. Cholesterol levels were found to be associated with socio-economic status (SES), 4.0mM in children from the lowest SES and 4.4mM in those from the highest (p<0.0000). Multiple regression analysis revealed signigicant correlation between cholesterol, weight, body fat and SES. This result for SES is different from studies in the developed world which report an inverse relationship between cholesterol and SES. In our population there was also correlation between SES and height and weight. Obesity and weight are important contributors to the risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. Differences in dietary intake and levels of activity between the SES groups may contribute to this difference. The greater adiposity evident from the first decade of life is also worthy of note. Combined with the higher serum total of cholesterol levels, this may be an important indicator of the likelihood of future cardiovascular disease in this group (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Colesterol/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais
12.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 84: 853-5, 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9445

RESUMO

This study investigates the alteration of serum cholinersterase levels in diabetics and its possible relationship to blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. Fourteen phasic insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients were comapared with 10 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 10 noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 10 normal controls. Each group was matched for age, sex, body mass index and duration of diabetes. Mean age was 56.7 ñ 2.5 years; mean body mass index, 24.00 ñ 0.8 kg/mý; and mean duration of diabetes, 14.2 ñ 2.2 years. Serum acetylcholinesterase, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels as well as fasting blood sugar were all assayed using standard techniques. Results suggest an associated increase of serum acetlycholinesterase with triglyceride levels in diabetics and may point to a possible association between increased serum acetylcholinesterase and vascular complications in Jamaican diabetics. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , /enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Glicemia/análise , Colesterol/sangue , /epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Jamaica/epidemiologia
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 53(5): 1197-204, May 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12566

RESUMO

Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, and tocopherols were determined in colustrum, transitional milk, and mature milk in St. Lucia. With progress of lactation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol and percentage long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased. These changes reflect augmented de novo synthesis of fatty acids (8:0, 10:0, 12:0, and 14:0) in the mammary gland and a tendency of increasing fat-globule size as milk matures. Transitional and mature milks, but particularly colustrum, contained higher concentrations of components considered to be derived from the fat-globule membrane (cholesterol, tocopherols, percentage long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with those reported for Western countries. Percentage medium-chain fatty acids in mature milk was two to three times higher than in developed countries. Differences from data from studies in Western countries are discussed in relation to analytical methods and possible consequences for lipid digestion, lipid absorption, growth, and brain development.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Vitamina E/análise , Colostro/química , Colesterol/análise , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lactação/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Triglicerídeos/análise , Santa Lúcia
14.
In. Levett, Paul N; Fraser, Henry S; Hoyos, Michael D. Medicine and therapeutics update 1990: proceedings of Continuing Medical Education symposia in Barbados, November 1988 & June 1989. St. Michael, University of the West Indies, (Cave Hill). Faculty of Medical Sciences, 1990. p.101-8.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15003

RESUMO

In this article the author discusses the positive benefits of exercise on health. The effects of exercise on coronary heart disease, lipids, hypertension, diabetes, mental well being, the elderly, obesity, osteoporosis and prescribed exercise are examined


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/educação , Terapia por Exercício/tendências , Saúde , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Hipertensão/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Saúde Mental , Obesidade/terapia , Prescrições , Colesterol
17.
Atherosclerosis ; 70(1-2): 63-72, Mar. 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12482

RESUMO

The origins of the high standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for coronary heart disease (CHD) among Indians in Britain, and the low SMR for West Indian immigrants, have been explored by a community survey in London. Serum lipoproteins, plasma glucose, haemostatic factors and other putative risk characteristics were measured in 75 Indian, 64 European and 24 West Indian men aged 45-54 years. These represented 81 percent of men registered with a general practice and resident within a defined area. In 51 men, diet was assessed by 5-day weighed inventory. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PFA) were measured in 18 Indians and 19 Europeans with dietary records. The relatively high HDL and HDL2-cholesterol concentration, reduced fat intake, increased ratio of dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fat, relatively frequent use of alcohol, and lack of obesity in West Indians accorded with thier low SMR from CHD. By contrast, only the relatively low HDL and HDL2-cholesterol concentrations, infrequency of alcohol consumption, and lower proportion of PFA as n-3 fatty acids of marine origin afforded explanations for the high SMR of Indians. Hyperglycaemia appeared similarly prevalent in Indians and West Indians, but less common in Europeans. Of the haemostatic factors, West Indians had a relatively low VIIc (not statistically significant), while Indians had an increased platelet count and reduced platelet volume. Improved understanding of these ethnic differences in CHD mortality may depend upon elucidation of the contrasts in HDL-cholesterol concentration. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Arterial , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Índia/etnologia , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
18.
Lancet ; 2(8560): 656-8, Sept. 19, 1987.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15911

RESUMO

Two populations of immigrants to London and to the West Indies from the Indian subcontinent have greater than expected morbidity and mortality from atherosclerosis but do not show the commonly accepted major risk factors. This study investigated the hypothesis that ghee, a clarified butter product prized in Indian cooking, contains cholesterol oxides and could therefore be an important source of dietary exposure to cholesterol oxides and an explanation for the high atherosclerosis risk. Substantial amounts of cholesterol oxides were found in ghee (12.3 percent of sterols), but not in fresh butter, by thin-layer and high-performance-liquid chromatography. Dietary exposure to cholesterol oxides from ghee may offer a logical explanation for the high frequency of atherosclerotic complications in these Indian population.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Manteiga/análise , Colesterol/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/análise , Gorduras na Dieta , Manteiga/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta Aterogênica , Emigração e Imigração , Índia/etnologia , Londres , Óxidos/análise , Risco , Trinidad e Tobago
20.
West Indian med. j ; 34(3): 158-66, Sept. 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11528

RESUMO

Cardiovascular risk factors and electrocardiographic findings were evaluated in a rural adult Tobago community. High amplitude R-waves, T-waves items and conduction and rhythm disturbances were the common electrocardiographic findings. Codable items suggestive of ischaemia showed no correlation with age, smoking, cholesterol levels, pulse rate or exercise, but showed a positive correlation in women with high serum uric acid levels and high fasting blood sugar levels, and a negative correlation with alcohol consumption in men (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eletrocardiografia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Colesterol/sangue , Risco , População Rural , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Trinidad e Tobago
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