Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 57
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Filtros aplicados

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene ; 62(1): 11-18, Jan. 2000. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17779

RESUMO

The expense and ineffectiveness of drift-based insecticide aerosols to control dengue epidemics has led to suppression strategies based on eliminating larval breeding sites. With the notable but short-lived exceptions of Cuba and Singapore, these source reduction efforts have met with little documented success; failure has chiefly been attributed to inadequate participation of the communities involved. The present work attempts to estimate transmission thresholds for dengue based on an easily-derived statistic, the standing crop of Aedes aegypti pupae per person in the environment. We have developed these thresholds for use in the assessment of risk of transmission and to provide targets for the actual degree of suppression required to prevent or eliminate transmission in source reduction programs. The notion of thresholds is based on 2 concepts: the mass action principal-the course of an epidemic is dependent on the rate of contact between susceptible hosts and infectious vectors, and threshold theory-the introduction of a few infectious individuals into a community of susceptible individuals will not give rise to an outbreak unless the density of vectors exceeds a certain critical level. We use validated transmission models to estimate thresholds as a function of levels of pre-existing antibody levels in human populations, ambient air temperatures, and size and frequency of viral introduction. Threshold levels were estimated to range between about 0.5 and 1.5 Ae. aegypti pupae per person for ambient air temperatures of 28 degrees C and initial seroprevalences ranging between 0% to 67%. Surprisingly, the size of the viral introduction used in these studies, ranging between 1 and 12 infectious individuals per year, was not seen to significantly influence the magnitude of the threshold. From a control perspective, these results are not particularly encouraging. The ratio of Ae. aegypti pupae to human density has been observed in limited field studies to range between 0.3 and >60 in 25 sites in dengue-endemic or dengue-susceptible areas in the Caribbean, Central America, and Southeast Asia. If, for purposes of illustration, we assume an initial seroprevalence of 33%, the degree of suppression required to essentially eliminate the possibility of summertime transmission in Puerto Rico, Honduras, and Bangkok, Thailand was estimated to range between 10% and 83%; however in Mexico and Trinidad, reductions of >90% would be required. A clearer picture of the actual magnitude of the reductions required to eliminate the threat of transmission is provided by the ratio of the observed standing crop of Ae. aegypti pupae per person and the threshold. For example, in a site in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the ratio of observed and threshold was 1.7, meaning roughly that about 7 of every 17 breeding containers would have to be eliminated. For Reynosa, Mexico, with a ratio of approximately 10, 9 of every 10 containers would have to be eliminated. For sites in Trinidad with ratios averaging approximately 25, the elimination of 24 of every 25 would be required. With the exceptions of Cuba and Singapore, no published reports of sustained source reduction efforts have achieved anything near these levels of reductions in breeding containers. Practical advice on the use of thresholds is provided for operational control projects.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/virologia , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Processos Estocásticos , Temperatura , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Honduras/epidemiologia
2.
Am J Trop Med ; 62(1): 112-4, Jan. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-744

RESUMO

The annual incidence of leptospirosis in Barbados is approximately 13 severe cases/100,000. The peak incidence occurs in October to December of each year, coinciding with the months of heaviest rainfall. During the second half of 1995, the epidemic of dengue type 1 infection produced almost 1.000 laboratory-confirmed cases. During the same period, leptospirosis mortality was twice the average, suggesting that some cases of leptospirosis were being misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. Sera from patients investigated for dengue or leptospirosis were analyzed retrospectively to determine the extent of misdiagnosis. During 1995 and 1996, 31 of 139 and 29 of 93 patients, respectively, were confirmed as having leptospirosis. Sera from the remaining leptospirosis-negative patients were tested for IgM antibodies to dengue virus. During 1995 and 1996, 48 of 108 patients and 21 of 64 patients, respectively, were found to have dengue. In 1997, sera from all patients investigated for leptospirosis were treated prospectively for IgM antibodies to dengue: 38 of 92 leptospirosis-negative patients (41 percent) were dengue IgM-positive, while 2 of 25 leptospirosis cases also had serologic evidence suggesting acute dengue infection. A second large outbreak of dengue caused by serotype 2 occurred in 1997 dengue epidemics in Barbados, dengue cases outnumbered leptospirosis cases investigated in the leptospirosis diagnostic protocol. During, 1997, patients investigated but negative for dengue were also tested for anti-leptospiral IgM: 7.3 percent (19 of 262) were IgM-positive. Substantial misdiagnosis of both dengue and leptospirosis can occur and greater public awareness and clinical suspicion of the similar presentations of these two diseases are necessary. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Barbados/epidemiologia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Incidência , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/urina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 62(1): 11-8, Jan. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-766

RESUMO

The expense and ineffectiveness of drift-based insecticide aerosols to control dengue epidemics has led to suppression strategies based on eliminating larval breeding sites. The present work attempts to estimate transmission thresholds for dengue based on an easily-derived statistic, the standing crop of Aedes aegypti pupae per person in the environment. We have developed these thresholds for use in the assessment of risk of transmission and to provide targets for the actual degree of suppression required to prevent or eliminate transmission in source reduction programs. The notion of thresholds is based on 2 concepts: the mass action principal- the course of an epidemic is dependent on the rate of contact between susceptible hosts and infectious vectors, and threshold theory - the introduction of a few infectious individuals into a community of susceptible individuals will not give rise to an outbreak unless the density of the vectors exceeds a certain critical level. We use validated transmission models to estimate thresholds as a function of levels of pre-existing antibody levels in human populations, ambient air temperatures, and the size and frequency of viral introduction. Threshold levels were estimated to range between about 0.5 and 1.5 Ae. aegypti pupae per person for ambient air temperatures of 28 degrees C and initial seroprevalences ranging between 0 percent to 67 percent. Suprisingly, the size of the viral introduction used in these studies, ranging between 1 and 12 infectious individuals per year was not seen to significantly influence the magnitude of the threshold. From a control perspective, these results are not particularly encouraging. The ratio of Ae. aegypti pupae to human density has been observed in limited field studies to range between 0.3 and >60 in 25 sites in dengue-epidemic of dengue-susceptible areas in the Caribbean, Central America, and South East Asia. If, for purposes of illustration, we assume an initial seroprevalence of 33 percent, the degree of suppression required to essentially eliminate the possibility of summertime transmission in Puerto Rico, Honduras, and Bangkok, Thailand was estimated to range between 10 percent and 83 percent; however in Mexico and Trinidad, reductions of >90 percent would be required.(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Humanos , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Dengue/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Honduras/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/virologia , México/epidemiologia , Porto Rico , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medição de Risco , Processos Estocásticos , Temperatura , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
4.
Infection ; 27(6): 365-7, Nov.- Dec. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-748

RESUMO

A 21-year-old woman presented with an acute febrile illness after a two-week holiday in Jamaica. Her symptoms started two days after return, with sudden onset of continuous high fever (> 39 degrees C), dizziness and nausea. Three days later she developed a generalized macular rash, which led to the tentative diagnosis "acute dengue fever." Laboratory confirmation was achieved by demonstrating anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies in paired sera; in addition, flavivirus particles were directly visualized by electron microscopy. (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relatos de Casos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Cromatografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Microscopia Eletrônica
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 37(5): 1600-1, May 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1394

RESUMO

We evaluated two new commercial dengue diagnostic tests, the MRL Diagnostics Dengue Fever Virus IgM Capture ELISA and the PanBio Rapid Immunochromatographic Test, on serum samples collected during a dengue epidemic in Jamaica. The MRL ELISA method correctly identified 96 percent (78 of 80) of the samples as dengue positive, while the PanBio test identified 100 percent (80 of 80). Both tests were 100 percent (20 samples of 20) specific.(Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
6.
West Indian med. j ; 48(1): 36-7, Mar. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1235

RESUMO

A 44 year old female presented with fever, muscle aches, rash and a low platelet count. IgM antibody to dengue virus was positive. Two weeks later she developed a flaccid areflexic quadriparesis. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly demyelitinating sensory motor polyneuropathy consistent with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Despite the relatively common occurence of dengue fever, an associated polyradiculoneuropathy is distinctly uncommon.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Relatos de Casos , Feminino , Humanos , Dengue/complicações , Polirradiculoneuropatia/etiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Doenças Desmielinizantes/fisiopatologia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Polirradiculoneuropatia/fisiopatologia , Reflexo Anormal/fisiologia
7.
Int J Cancer ; 80(3): 339-44, Jan. 29, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1409

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely accepted as the primary etiologic agent in the development of cervical cancer. DNA of a particular HPV type, HPV 16, is found in about half of tumors tested. Inconsistent with this causal relationship, however, population-based studies of HPV DNA prevalence have often failed to find high rates of anogenital HPV infection in countries with high cervical cancer rates. To examine this issue, we used serology to compare HPV 16 exposure in healthy volunteer blood donors in the United States (n = 278) and similar subjects from a country with 3-fold higher cervical cancer rates, Jamaica (n = 257). Jamaican sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients (n = 831) were also studied to examine in detail the relation of HPV 16 antibodies with sexual history. Serology was conducted using an ELISA employing HPV 16 virus-like particles (VLPs). Age-adjusted seroprevalence rates were greatest among male (29 percent) and female (42 percent) STD patients, intermediate in male (19 percent) and female (24 percent) Jamaican blood donors and lowest among male (3 percent) and female (12 percent) U.S. blood donors. The higher seroprevalence in women was significant, and prevalence tended to increase with age. In multivariate logistic regression, controlling for age and gender, Jamaican blood donors were 4.2-fold (95 percent CI 2.4 - 7.2) and STD patients 8.1-fold (95 percent CI 5.0 - 13.2) more likely to have HPV 16 VLP antibodies than U.S. blood donors. Among STD patients, HPV 16 antibodies were associated with lifetime number of sex partners and years of sexual activity, as well as other factors. Our data suggest that HPV 16 VLP antibodies are strongly associated with sexual behavior. Moreover, exposure to HPV 16 appears to be much greater in Jamaica than in the United States, consistent with the high rate of cervical cancer in Jamaica (Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo Comparativo , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/sangue
8.
Dermatology ; 199(4): 356-60, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-859

RESUMO

Reports from Jamaica have indicated that some patients with infective dermatitis or atopic dermatitis (AD) are seropositive for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We describe a 32-year-old Israeli woman with long-term AD and paresthesia in the distal parts of the extremities. Neurological examination revealed a positive Babinski's sign. HLA typing demonstrated that this patient has the common HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis haplotype for DRBI* DQBI*. The presence of HTLV-1 was demonstrated with polymerase chain reaction; HTLV-1-antibodies were detected by the Western blot method and by inoculation of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells into F344 rats. This study confirms the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies and proviral genome in a patient with AD which later evolved into HAM/TSP. We cannot yet conclude whether these two diseases are associated or coincidental disorders.(Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Ratos , 21003 , Relatos de Casos , Feminino , Humanos , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Infecções por HTLV-I/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/complicações , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Hemofilia B , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo VI , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genes/genética , Genes/fisiologia , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/sangue , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
9.
Virology ; 246(2): 317-28, July 5, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1655

RESUMO

Although dengue (DEN) virus is the etiologic agent of dengue fever, the most prevalent vector-borne viral disease in the world, precise information on the antigenic structure of the dengue virion is limited. We have prepared a set of murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) specific for the envelope (E) glycoprotein of DEN 2 virus and used these antibodies in a comprehensive biological and biochemical analysis to identify 16 epitopes. Following domain nomenclature developed for the related flavivirus, tick-bourne encephalitis, three functional domains were identified. Five epitopes associated with domain A were arranged in three spatially independently regions. These A-domain epitopes were destroyed by reduction, and antibodies reactive with these epitopes were able to block virus hemagglutination, neutralize virus infectivity, and block virus haemagglutination, neutralize virus infectivity, and block virus-mediated cell membrane fusion. Domain-A epitopes were present on the full-length E glycoprotein, a 45-kDa tryptic peptide representing its first 400 amino acids (aa) and a 22-kDA tryptic peptide representing at least aa 1-120. Four epitopes mapped into domain B, as determined by their partial resistance to reduction and the localization of these epitopes on a 9-kDa tryptic or chymotryptic peptide fragment (aa 300-400). One domain-B-reactive MAb was also capable of binding to a DEN 2 synthetic peptide corresponding to aa 333-351 of the E glycoprotein, confirming the location of this domain. Domain-B epitopes elicited MAbs that were potent neutralizers of virus infectivity and blocked hemagglutination, but they did not block virus-mediated cell-membrane fusion. Domains A and B were spatially associated. As with tick-bourne encephalitis virus, determination of domain C was more problematic: however, at least four epitopes and biochemical characteristics consistent with C-domain epitopes(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Jamaica , Fusão de Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/síntese química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Competitiva , Linhagem Celular
10.
Viral Immunol ; 11(3): 109-17, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1333

RESUMO

An improved vaccine is needed against Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus because the existing live attenuated vaccine, TC-83, causes a high incidence of adverse effects, and the Formalin-inactivated vaccine, C-84, does not protect against airborne infection. A recombinant vaccine had previously been constructed in which the VEE structural proteins were expressed by vaccinia virus. Although protection against subcutaneous challenge with VEE was achieved, the vaccine had limited efficacy against aerosolized virus. We made a similar construct (WR100) and compared its performance as a vaccine: a synthetic promoter was inserted upstream of the VEE coding sequence to increase the amount of VEE proteins produced, and a single nucleotide in the E2 glycoprotein gene was altered to enhance immunogenicity. The WR103 virus expressed greater amounts of VEE proteins on the surface of infected cells than did WR100, and this difference was production. Sera from mice immunized with WR103 contained elevated levels of antibody to VEE, and enhanced protection against subcutaneous challenge with the pathogenic Trinidad donkey strain was achieved. This altered construct could form the basis for a better vaccine against VEE.(Au)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/imunologia , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Engenharia Genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinação , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/análise , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
11.
Int J Cancer ; 38(6): 801-8, Dec. 1986.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2092

RESUMO

The presence of antibody to human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV-I) has been assessed in 2,143 men and women who represent 83 percent of all adults aged 35 to 69 years resident in a defined urban community in Trinidad. Individuals of African descent had a higher sero-positivity rate (7.0 percent) than those originating from India (1.4 percent), Europe (0 percent) or of mixed descent (2.7 percent). Women were infected more frequently than men, and the prevalence of infection increased with age in both sexes. Sero-positivity rates were significantly increased in adults who lived in housing of poor quality (p less than 0.001) or close to water courses (p less than 0.025). These data and others raise the possibility that one route of HTLV-I transmission may be via insect vectors under particular domestic circumstances.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Habitação , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/etnologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/transmissão , Trinidad e Tobago
12.
Mol Chem Neuropathol ; 28(1-3): 237-43, May-Aug. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2381

RESUMO

Reports of an 18-fold higher incidence of schizophrenia among second-generation Afro-Caribbeans, and especially Jamaican migrants in the United Kingdom were soon called an epidemic of schizophrenia, with the inference that a novel virus, likely to be perinatally transmitted, was a possible etiological agent. This intriguing observation led us to explore a possible link with human T-cell lympotropic virus type one (HTLV-I), because it is a virus that is endemic in the Caribbean Island, is perinatally transmitted, known to be neuropathogenic, and the cause of a chronic myelopathy tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I associated myelopathy. We therefore examined inpatients as the Bellevue Mental Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica and did standard serological tests for retroviruses HTLV-I and HTLV-II and HIV-I and HIV-II on 201 inpatients who fulfilled ICD-9 and DSM II-R criteria for schizophrenia. Our results produced important negative data, since the seropositivity rates for HTLV-I, the most likely pathogen, were no greater than the seropositivity range for HTLV-I carriers in this island population, indicating the HTLV-I and the other retroviruses tested do not play a primary etiological role in Jamaican schizophrenics(AU)


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Retroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Esquizofrenia/virologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Incidência , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Jamaica/etnologia , Classe Social
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 5(6): 497-500, Nov. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3176

RESUMO

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infections seems to be ubiquitous early in life, but antibody responses vary by geographic area. We compared HHV-6 antibody titer in 123 West African and 122 Caribbean serum samples. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antigens derived from an HSB-2 cell line was used to test for IgG HHV-6 (GS strain) antibodies. The prevalence of HHV-6 antibodies was high (98 percent) in both sites. African samples had a significantly higher geometric mean titer (GMT: 697) than did Caribbean samples (GMT: 99). There was no difference between males (GMT: 260) and females (GMT: 270) overall. Children up to and including 9 years old had significantly higher titers (GMT: 483) than did all others (GMT: 237), and female children tended to have higher titers than did male children. In both areas there was a trend towards highest titer at younger age, followed by a decrease in titer in the oldest age group. Environmental and host factors may explain these geographic differences in antibody responses between two groups of African origin. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 6/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Distribuição por Idade , Imunofluorescência , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Gana/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
14.
Lancet ; 346(8973): 475-6, Aug 19, 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5343

RESUMO

Glomerulonephritis with proteinuria of sufficient degree to manifest the nephrotic syndrome followed aplastic crises induced by human parvovirus (B19) in seven patients with homozygous sickle-cell disease, within 7 days in five patients and 6-7 weeks in two. Segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis was found in all four patients who underwent acute renal biopsies and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was found in the fifth patient who had a biopsy 4 months later. One patient recovered completely, one died in chronic renal failure after 3 months, and the others had impaired creatinine clearance, four with continuing proteinuria (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Relatos de Casos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Eritema Infeccioso/complicações , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/etiologia , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Biópsia , DNA Viral/análise , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/patologia , Homozigoto , Rim/patologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/etiologia , Parvovirus B19 Humano/genética , Parvovirus B19 Humano/imunologia , Proteinúria/etiologia , Jamaica
15.
J Infect Dis ; 170(1): 44-50, July 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8399

RESUMO

A community survey of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in Montserrat, West Indies, identified 22 instances in which 2 HTLV-I-seropositive adults lived within 60 m of each other (close pairs), compared with 7.8 expected (P<.001). Five of these close pairs were mother offspring or husband-wife. The remaining 17 pairs were of unrelated members in separate households. The percentages of male-female (41 percent), female-female (41 percent), and male-male (18 percent) types in these 17 pairs were similar to those among the 1377 similarly defined pairs in which neither or only 1 member was seropositive, affording no support for extramarital heterosexual activity as an explanation for the clustering observed. Thus, the demography of HTLV-I was not accounted for completely by sexual and mother-to-offspring tranmission. The predominace of clustering of unrelated HTLV-I-seropositive individuals in locations with high mosquito infestation raised the possibility of sporadic transmission of HTLV-I by hematophagous insects (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Aedes , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Demografia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Infecções por HTLV-I/transmissão , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 110(2): 361-72, Apr. 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8499

RESUMO

Sera from an age-stratified sample of 1810 people from the Caribbean island of St. Lucia were tested for antibodies against varicella-zoster virus. The results indicate that very few infections occur in childhood which agrees with clinical survey data from other tropical countries, but contrasts with the observed high case rate in children in temperate countries. The alternative hypothesis which may explain these results are discussed, and it is suggested that high ambient tempertaures interfere with the transmission of the virus. Irrespective of the cause the pattern of varicella incidence observed has important implications for any vaccination policy adopted in tropical countries (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Varicela/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Ásia/epidemiologia , Varicela/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Simplexvirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Incidência , Distribuição Aleatória , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Santa Lúcia
17.
West Indian med. j ; 41(4): 133-5, Dec. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15385

RESUMO

The prevalence of antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) was determined by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a selected population of 2655 in Jamaica. The overall prevalence rate was 95 percent, increasing from 56.2 percent in children 1-4 years of age to 90 percent in the 15-19 years age group and by 25 years of age 97 percent of subjects had been exposed to CMV. The prevalence rate in children (58.4 percent) was significantly lower than that in blood donors (84 percent), sexually transmitted disease clinic attendants (95 percent) and antenatal women (97 percent) (P< 0.001). The prevalence rate in STD clinic attendants and pregnant women was also significantly higher than in blood donors (P< 0.05). The prevalence of CMV infection in the selected population, the clinical implications, routes of transmission and socioenvironmental factors are discussed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Citomegalovirus , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Testes Sorológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue
18.
West Indian med. j ; 40(4): 166-9, Dec. 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-13567

RESUMO

Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus infections (TORCH) and syphilis were determined in order to assess the immune/susceptibility status in Jamaican pregnant women in 1986. The positive rates were 57 percent (T. gondii), 69 percent (rubella), 97percent (CMV), 91 percent (HSV), and 4.9 percent (syphilis), respectively. The rate of reactivity for rubella was over 50 percent in all parishes, the highest being 85 percent in St. Thomas. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was lowest in Trelawny (37.5 percent). There were no significant differences in seropositivity of CMV and HSV infections between women from various parishes. The importance of seroprevalence of the TORCH group of agents and syphilis on perinatal morbidity and mortality in Jamaican women is discussed, and appropriate recommendations for prevention and control of congenital infections in Jamaica are suggested. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Simplexvirus/imunologia , Sífilis/imunologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Testes Sorológicos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Anticorpos Antivirais , Toxoplasmose Congênita/prevenção & controle , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/prevenção & controle , Jamaica
19.
Biologicals ; 18(4): 281-7, Oct. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12241

RESUMO

A candidate rabies reference vaccine of suckling mouse brain (SMB) origin was prepared and standardized at the Pan American Zoonoses Center (PAHO/WHO) and evaluated in a collaborative study involving seven laboratories. On the basis of three different tests, its potency, immunogenicity, and stability were demonstrated to be satisfactory. The vaccine was proposed for consideration of the Latin American and Caribbean countries as a regional standard to determine the potency of SMB vaccines, the most widely used in the region. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Camundongos , 21003 , Vacinas Antirrábicas/normas , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , América Latina , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Padrões de Referência , Índias Ocidentais
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 19(3): 698-702, Sept. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12214

RESUMO

Measles antibody titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition and by neutralization in 221 sets of serum collected from delivering mothers, umbilical cords, and infants when about six months of age. Radio-immunoassay was also used to measure antibody in 120 sera. Total IgG concentration was determined in the infant sera. All mothers had measles antibody and the mean titre was high. At the time of birth, measles antibody had been further concentrated in the infant. Nevertheless, many children lost protective titres before six months of age. The rate of loss was correlated with the infant's total serum lgG so that high lgG levels at six months correlated with rapid loss of measles-specific antibody. It is suggested that in homes where sanitation is poor, antibody is made to many agents as an early age. To maintain physiological balance, homeostatic mechanisms then increase the rate of catabolism of all lgG, including that passively acquired. In keeping with its stage of sanitary development, vaccination in Jamaica can profitably be given earlier than in the United States, but it must be later than in many African countries. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Lactente , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/fisiologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Feto , Sangue Fetal , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/classificação , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Radioimunoensaio
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA