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1.
Rev. panam. salud p£blica ; 22(2): 83-90, Aug. 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17320

RESUMO

Objective: To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticide and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Results: Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91 percent response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9 percent (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2 percent (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9 percent utlization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand and colloquial names of pesticide used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Conclusions: Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide imports and use, and partnership with the Rotterdam Convention are recommended for Trinidad and Tobago. A strengthened Poisons Information Centre can provide educational initiatives and information on early management of pesticide exposure (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Agricultura , Comércio , Regulamentação Governamental , Uso de Praguicidas , Intoxicação por Plantas , Praguicidas/provisão & distribução , Trinidad e Tobago , Praguicidas/normas
2.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 22(2): 83-90, Aug 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. RESULTS: Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91 per cent response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9 per cent (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2 per cent (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9 per cent utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago;...


Assuntos
Humanos , Agricultura , Comércio , Regulamentação Governamental , Praguicidas , Envenenamento , Trinidad e Tobago
3.
Chemosphere ; 40(6): 671-8, Mar.,2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-743

RESUMO

Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletti) were collected from Gold Botton (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n=24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100 percent and 29 percent of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p, p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p, p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Jacarés e Crocodilos , Ovos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inseticidas Organoclorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Belize , DDT/análise , DDT/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Endossulfano/análise , Endrin/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Heptacloro/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Metoxicloro/análise
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1659

RESUMO

To monitor resistance to insecticides, bioassays were performed on 102 strains of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) from 16 countries ranging from Suriname in South America and through the chain of Caribbean Islands to the Bahamas, where the larvicide temephos and the adulticide malathion have been in use for 15 to 30 years. There was wide variation in the sensitivity to the larvicide in mosquito populations within and among countries. Mosquito strains in some countries such as Antigua, St Lucia, and Tortola had consistently high resistance ratios (RR) to temephos, ranging from 5.3 to 17.7. In another group of countries - eg. Anguilla and Curacao - mosquitoes had mixed levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 2.5 - 10.6), and in a third group of countries, including St. Kitts, Barbados, Jamaica, and Suriname, mosquitoes had consistently low levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 1-4.6) (P < 0.05). On occasion significantly different levels of resistance were recorded from neighboring A. aegypti communities, which suggests there is little genetic exchange among populations. The impact of larval resistance expressed itself as reduced efficacy of temephos to kill mosquitoes when strains were treated in the laboratory or in the field in large container environments with recommended dosages. Although a sensitive strains continued to be completely controlled for up to 7 weeks, the most resistant strains had 24 percent survival after the first week. By week 6, 60 percent to 75 percent of all resistant strains of larvae were surviving the larval period. Responses to malathion in adult A. aegypti varied from a sensitive population in Suriname (RR = 1.3) to resistant strains in St. Vincent (RR = 4.4), Dominica (RR = 4.2), and Trinidad (RR = 4.0); however, resistance was generally not on the scale of that observed to temephos in the larval stages and had increase only slightly when compared to the levels that existed 3 to 4 years ago. Suggestions are made for a pesticide usage policy for the Caribbean region, with modifications for individuals countries. This would be formulated based on each country's insecticide-resistance profile. Use of physical and biological control strategies would play a more critical role than the use of insecticides.(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Humanos , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/química , Praguicidas , Bioensaio , Região do Caribe , Malation/farmacologia , Monitorização Fisiológica
5.
West Indian med. j ; 41(suppl 1): 65, Apr. 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6523

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a survey of 130 pesticide users designed to identify attitudes, gaps in knowledge, and unsafe practices which contribute to the risk of pesticide usage to health. A tintometric field method was compared to a standard laboratory method to detect cases of cholinesterase inhibition (pesticide poisoning). Sixty-five per cent of the agricultural workers and vector control officers never wear protective clothing. Their knowledge of routes of absorption was inadequate, but even if warnings are printed boldly on the product labels, <50 percent of the users were capable of consistently understanding written warnings. However, <60 percent of the individuals who understood the labels generally followed the advice provided. The 53 percent of respondents who had received training were no more likely than their untrained colleagues to adhere to safety practices. No significant differences existed between the cholinesterease levels of the exposed and the unexposed workers, but this may be the result of several conservative biases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Praguicidas , Santa Lúcia , Colinesterases
6.
Anon.
Weekly Epidemiol Rec ; 67(40): 293-300, Oct. 2 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6349

RESUMO

Saint Lucia. The use of chemicals for pest and vector control has led to reductions in the incidence of several communicable diseases and improvements in food quality and production. Nevertheless, the toxic properties of these pesticides present a separate threat to human health and to the environment. The potential for occupational exposure is of particular concern in the Caribbean where agriculture and vector control programmes employ more than 40 percent of the labour force. Within Saint Lucia alone, over 1500 tonnes of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) were imported in 1990. A project has been developed to asses and reduce the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning and the prevalence of chronic pesticide poisoning in Saint Lucia and in Trinidad and Tobago. Collaborators in this intersectoral undertaking include the Ministries of Agriculture/Health in Saint Lucia and in Trinidad and Tobago, the Caribbean Environmental Health Institue (CEHI), and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC). This article summarizes the results of the first phase of the project: a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs (KAPB) of vector officers in Saint Lucia and members of the Saint Lucia Banana Growers Association (SLBGA) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Uso de Praguicidas/administração & dosagem , Saúde do Trabalhador , Agroquímicos/administração & dosagem , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Produção de Alimentos , Região do Caribe , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
7.
CAREC surveillance report ; 18(1): 1-3, January 1992.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17252

RESUMO

The use of chemical for pest vector control has lead to the reduction in the incidence of several communicable diseases and improvement in food quality and production. Nevertheless, the toxic properties of these pesticides present a separate threat to human health and the health of the environment. The potential for occupational exposure is of particular concern in the Caribbean where agriculture and vector control programs employ more than 40 percent of the labour force. Within Saint Lucia alone, 1,500,000 kilograms of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) were imported in 1990. A multi-phasic project was developed to assess and reduce the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning and the prevalence of chronic pesticide poisoning in Saint Lucia and in Trinidad and Tobago. Collaborators in this intersectoral undertaking include the Ministries of Agriculture/Health in Saint Lucia and in Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI), and Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC). This paper will summarize the results of the first phase of the project: a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs (KAPB) of vector control officers in Saint Lucia and members of the Saint Lucia Banana Growers Association (SLBGA)(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Praguicidas , Controle de Pragas , Inseticidas , Herbicidas , Santa Lúcia/epidemiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Controle de Vetores , Epidemiologia , Região do Caribe
8.
Bridgetown; United States Agency for International Development; December 1989. 48 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4948

RESUMO

Summarizes issues raised during a number of pest control interviews in Grenada. These interviews discuss the use of pesticides on agricultural crops and the effect of pesticide residues on the environment. Concludes that pesticide monitoring is becoming increasingly important especially as recently the United States has implemented strict rules on the importation of agricultural products which have been chemically treated during post harvesting. Similar actions are foreseen in Europe with the formation of the single market in 1992. Points out that Grenadian farmers have a limited knowledge of appropriate pesticide use and that training is needed in this area. Attachments include texts of pesticide legislation and regulations since 1973


Assuntos
Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , /efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Granada
10.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.50-5.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14239
11.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.45-9.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14240
12.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.38-44.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14241

Assuntos
Praguicidas , Jamaica
13.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.30-7.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14242
14.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.18-29.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14243
15.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.8-17.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14244
16.
In. Leslie, Kenneth A. Papers of the seminar on pesticides and food. Kingston, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, 1987. p.1-7.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14245
17.
Kingston; Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute; 1987. 61 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14246
20.
Paramaribo; Ministerie van Landbouw, Veeteelt, Visserij en Bosbouw; 1983. 56 p.
Monografia em Nl | MedCarib | ID: med-2254

RESUMO

With the rise of agricultural production and the protection of public health, the importance of pesticides keeps increasing. However, pesticides are not without danger for man, animal and environment, so its application should be with the necessary knowledge, precaution and care. The public policy is to intensify research and education on this matter. This working-paper from the "Working-group Pesticides" provides information on the necessity, benefit and danger of pesticides. That is why the use, structure, safety precautions, dangers, legislation, consequences, research and future perspectives are being discussed. Some advice on using pesticides safely is given as an appendix


Assuntos
Humanos , Resumo em Inglês , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Política Pública , Segurança , Saúde Pública , Suriname , Agricultura/tendências , Assistência à Saúde
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