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Kingston; s.n; 1996. 45 p.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3005


The primary focus of the study is the prevalence of pneumoconioses diagnosed at the National Chest Hospital during the decade 1980-1989, with a view to determining the characteristics of the patients and the characteristics of the environment to which patients had been exposed. It is hoped that the finding will give a general picture of the status of the disease in Jamaica. The methodology used for data collection was primarily the perusal of dockets at the hospital. A total of thirty cases were diagnosed over the decade representing four disease in the category namely, pulmonary fibrosis, asbestosis, anthracosis and silicosis. Owing to the rarity of the diseases and consequently the few cases diagnosed over the period the data did not lend itself to certain statistical analyses. The cases diagnosed were more frequent among males in the older age groups. Most cases were also from Kingston due to the fact that it is the primary urban centre in Jamaica. Based on occupation, it was easy to fathom why some persons were diseased. (AU)

Adulto , Adolescente , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ambiental , Transtornos Respiratórios , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Fatores Sexuais
World Health Stat Q ; 43(3): 153-67, 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12455


In the last few years, air pollution has become a major issue in some countries of Latin America and the Caribbean because of urben development and growing industrialization. In addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, vehicle emission and stationary-source fuel combustion are the primary source of air pollution. Although air-quality standards have been established in some Latin American countries, these are frequently exceeded. Adverse health effects of air pollution have been mainly associated with the following pollutants: sulfur dioxide and pariculate matter, photochemical oxidants, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, and lead. Short-term as well as long-term effects can be expected at levels exceeding WHO guidelines. The Latin American urban areas most affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are: the area of Sao Paulo (Brazil), the city of Santiago (Chile) and the metropolitan area of Mexico city. However, situations similar to those prevailing in these cities could well occur in other cities of latin America and the Caribbean. The population exposed to air-pollutant levels exceeding WHO guidelines can be estimated to 81 million or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America and 19 percent of its total population. These estimates correspond to 30 million children (0-14), 47 million adults (15-59) and 4 million elderly people (60+). To date a very limited number of epicemiological studies have been carried out to determine the potential health effects of air pollutants in Latin America. To obtain a rough estimate, a scenario was hypothesized in which subjects living in cities would be exposed to a given level of air pollutant, using data from the international literature to extrapolate the expected number of events in different strata of the hypothetical population. The estimated health effects are considerable and warrant priorty control intervention. This is true although epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate the health impact of specific pollutant compounds as well as their interactions in Latin American populations exposed to high levels of pollution. (AU)

Humanos , Lactente , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nível de Saúde , População Urbana , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Métodos Epidemiológicos , América Latina , Chumbo/sangue , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/toxicidade , Óxidos de Enxofre/toxicidade , Índias Ocidentais
West Indian med. j ; 34(3): 176-9, Sept. 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-11525


During the last decade there has been a rapid proliferation of lead smelters, particularly illegal backyard smelters in Jamaica which has increased the risk of lead poisoning to employees and those living in proximity to these operations. Blood samples from 351 persons working in or living near lead smelting factories were analyzed for lead levels. There were 116 children and 235 adults. The mean age of the children was 5.9 years and the mean period of exposure to environmental lead was 5.2 years. The mean age of the adults was 30 years, with the mean period of exposure being 7.1 years. The mean blood lead level in the children was 62.1 ug/dl which was greater than that in adults in whom the mean level was 43.3 ug/dl. Fifty-one per cent of the children and 60 percent of adults had a blood lead level of 40 ug/dl or greater. Toxic levels occur commonly in adults and especially children working in or living near lead smelting operations. Urgent measures are needed to reduce the risk of lead toxicity to this high-risk population and the community. (AU)

Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Chumbo/sangue , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ambiental , Intoxicação por Chumbo/sangue , Risco , Jamaica
Kingston; s.n; 1985. various p. ills, tabs.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2797