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1.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Supp 2): 39-40, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure height as an indicator of nutritional status in a representative sample of primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. After stratifying for county, schools were sampled with probability proportional size. In each school all children were sampled from the admission class (mean age 5.8 years) and the `rising nines' (mean age 8.6 years). Measurements were made of children's heights. In order to standardize for age, standard deviation scores (SIDS or z scores) were calculated using age and sex specific British growth reference curves for 1990 as standard. In the reference population the mean (SD) SDS is 0.0 (1.0). Results were presented by sex and ethnic group. RESULTS: Measurements were made for 6,731 children in 66 schools. After excluding missing values data were analysed for 6,343 children (3065 boys and 3278 girls). In boys the mean height SIDS in those of African descent was 0.47 (1.04), in those of Indian descent 0.24 (1.08) and in those of mixed ethnicity 0.19 (1.07). The equivalent figures for girls were 0.53 (1.10), 0.19 (1.04) and 0.29 (1.12). Height SDS were higher for children aged 5-6 years than those aged 8-9 years. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of children's heights in Trinidad and Tobago is similar to that observed in African Caribbean and Indian origin children in Britain. Overall the results suggest that nutritional conditions are as adequate as in the reference population.(Au)


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo Comparativo , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Trinidad e Tobago/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Estatura/etnologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Coleta de Dados , Estudos Transversais
2.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Suppl 2): 16-7, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early postnatal growth-chronic disease hypothesis, we decided to trace two total community cohorts of Jamaican children (Studies A & B). DESIGN AND METHODS: Prenatal and postnatal under-nutrition were widespread in the Caribbean in the early-mid 20th century. Current rates of some chronic diseases (high blood pressure (BP), diabetes) may reflect recent lifestyle and body mass index (BMI) changes, superimposed on these early constraints on childhood growth. Study A comprised children born between 1962 and 1963 and their recalled birth weight, weight at 1 month and height from 3 months were noted and other details were measured 1-3 monthly for 5 years, with re-measures at age 10-11 years (n=177). In study B (n=417), similar parameters were noted for all children <5 years, until 5 years of age. If traced, we took lifestyle enquiries, standardised measures of current height, weight, BP and fasting blood glucose. RESULTS: In Study A, 130 children (73 percent) were traced: 35 had migrated overseas (26 with whereabouts known), 3 died, 5 were ill/pregnant, leaving 87 available and known locally. Of 65 invited, 61 (28 men, 33 women) were seen. Of 205 initially sampled in Study B, 24 had migrated, 5 died, and 2 were ill so that 174 (85 percent) were still known locally but not yet followed. Study A: Univariate correlations between growth in height from 3 months to 5 years and current systolic BP (SBP) of adults aged 35+ years were inverse, at -0.21. Adjusted for current BMI, these changed to -0.25; further adjusting for initial 3-month height reduced the co-relation to -0.17 (p<0.02). Earlier height increments (to 2, 3 or 4 years) were more weakly inversely related to adult SBP, as was growth in weight, univariate -0.10, and after adjusting for current BMI and weight, -0.15 (p<0.05). Adjusted correlations with diastolic BP were prominent (-0.37) from 3 months to 4 years but not up to 5 years. Height and weight had tracked markedly from 0 to 5 years, those who grew the least having higher adult BP. CONCLUSION: Tracing adult cohorts from these earlier childhood studies in modern Jamaica is practical, worthwhile sample sizes can be achieved (>70 percent) and from this previously relatively undernourished community, those who grew least from 0 to 5 years had higher BP, even after accounting for initial size.(Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Jamaica , Estudos de Coortes
3.
Arch Dis Child ; 82(3): 204-8, Mar. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-866

RESUMO

Objective: To derive height and weight growth reference curves for children with homozygous sickle cell disease. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects (n = 315) were participants in a population based, longitudinal cohort study of sickle cell disease in Kingston, Jamaica. Regular measurements of height and weight were made from enrolment into the study at birth up to 22 years of age. RESULTS: Sex specific growth reference curve for height for age and weight foir age covering the age range 0-18 years are presented. CONCLUSIONS: These growth reference curves are suitable for identifying coincidental growth problems in children with homozygous sickle cell disease.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Jamaica , Seguimentos , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
4.
West Indian med. j ; 48(2): 69-72, Jun. 1999. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1518

RESUMO

The objective was to compare the pregnancy outcome of teenage girls and mature women. The design was a retrospective study of births from January to December 1990, based on the antenatal clinic and labour ward, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. Teenage mothers, 13 to 19 years old, and a control group of mothers, 22 to 23 years old, were selected from the records of 2,394 live, singleton births between 200 and 305 days' gestation. The main outcome measures were birth weight, crown heel length, head circumference: length ratio, ponderal index and placental weight. The results showed that in the teenage group, weight body mass index at booking, haemoglobin concentration in each trimester, and minimum haemoglobin level during pregnancy were lower than in the control group. Systolic blood pressure in the first and the second trimesters was lower than in controls, but there was no significant difference in the third trimester nor in the delivery systolic blood pressure. Babies of teenage mothers had lower birth weights and smaller head circumferences than the babies of the control group, but there was no significant difference between the groups in crown heel length, ponderal index, head circumference: length ratio, and placental weight. These data support the hypothesis that teenaged girls are not physically mature and, as a consequence, their offspring have lower birth weights and smaller head circumferences (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudo Comparativo , Adulto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Jamaica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Etários , Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estatura , Cefalometria , Estatura Cabeça-Cóccix , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Tamanho do Órgão , Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Trimestres da Gravidez
5.
West Indian med. j ; 48(2): 61-8, Jun. 1999. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1519

RESUMO

Blood pressure levels in adults and children are related to body size and composition, but some of these relationships are unclear and they have been incompletely described in the Jamaican population. In a cross-sectional survey of 2,332 school children (6-16 years old; 1,046 boys, 1,286 girls), we measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate, and explored their relationship to weight, height, and waist, hip and mid-upper arm circumferences. The effect of these and other derived measures of body composition on blood pressure was explored in univariate and multivariate analysis. Blood pressure increased with age in both boys and girls, although the increase was greater for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. The increase of systolic blood pressure among boys continued after age 11 years, but that for girls levelled off. Height and weight were the major predictors of blood pressure, but were highly correlated with each other and with all measures of body composition. Age, height and height-sex interaction explained 11.4 percent of systolic blood pressure variation, and the largest incremental contribution to this model was provided by the addition of body mass index or hip circumference, each explaining an additional 2.6 percent of the variance. Lean body mass made a larger contribution to blood pressure than percent fatness. Blood pressure in Jamaican children rises with age and this rise may be steeper in boys than girls. Blood pressure variation is significantly related to several measures of body composition including measures of fatness and fat free masses.(AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Hipertensão , Antropometria , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jamaica , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Antropometria , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Diástole , Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Análise Multivariada , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Pulso Arterial , Fatores Sexuais , Sístole
6.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 18(3): 213-22, Jun. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation of vitamin A and/or zinc (Zn) improved serum levels of these nutrients and/or height and weight gains in preschool children, 22 to 66 months, living in Belize, Central America. METHODS: Subjects received either Zn, vitamin A, Zn and vitamin A or a placebo (70 mg Zn and/or 3030 RE vitamin A, once per week) for 6 months in a 2x2 factorial design. Forty-three children, from a population of 104 prescreened, completed the study; they were selected, prior to treatment, for low/marginal serum concentrations of these micronutrients. RESULTS: Serum Zn levels were greater (16 percent, p < 0.001) for those who received Zn. In contrast, after vitamin A treatment, there were no differences in serum vitamin A among groups. Although increases in height (+4.4 cm, p<0.001) and weight (+0.79 kg, p<0.001), compared with baseline values, were numerically greatest for children who received both supplements, only the vitamin A supplementation effect was significant, resulting in increased height (+1.4 cm, p<0.002) and greater weight gain (+0.15 kg, p<0.03) compared to those receiving no vitamin A. Vitamin A supplementation alone significantly increased (p<0.001) hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the preschool children in this study, prescreened for low/marginal serum concentrations from a larger population prior to treatment, were enduring inadequate vitamin A and, to a lesser degree, Zn nutriture. Height and weight gain were significantly increased in the subjects who received a single weekly supplement 3030 RE of vitamin A.(Au)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudo Comparativo , Humanos , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/sangue , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , El Salvador/etnologia , Hemoglobinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Refugiados
7.
Hum Biol ; 71(3): 417-30, Jun. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1391

RESUMO

Fluctuating asymmetry, small deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, is negatively correlated with health and positively correlated with sexual selection in human adults, but the accumulation, persistence, and fitness implications of asymmetries during childhood are largely unknown. Here, we introduce the Jamaican Symmetry Project, a long-term study of fluctuating asymmetry and its physical and behavioral correlates in rural Jamaican children. The project is based on an initial sample of 285 children (156 boys and 129 girls), aged 5 to 11 years. We describe the design of the project and the methodology of measuring 10 paired morphometric traits. All traits except hand width showed fluctuating asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetries of the legs tended to be related and were less than half as great as fluctuating asymmetries of the arms and ears. Therefore the legs may show high developmental stability resulting from selection for mechanical efficiency. A fluctuating asymmetry composite score revealed that boys have significantly lower fluctuating asymmetry than girls and that this effect resides mainly in the elbows. There were significant positive relationships between composite fluctuating asymmetry and age, height, and weight, but multiple regression analyses showed that age was negatively related to fluctuating asymmetry, whereas body size was positively correlated. These findings are compared with results from recent English studies (Au)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antropometria , Estatura/genética , Variação Genética , Análise de Variância , Vigilância da População , População Rural , Amostragem , Jamaica
8.
West Indian med. j ; 46(Suppl.2): 40, Apr.1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2452

RESUMO

The biochemical markers of growth, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of the type 1 procollagen (PICP) have been related to anthropometric indicators of growth. We have demonstrated a relationship among plasma levels of IGF-1 and height (ht) for age and weight (wt) for age Z-scores in children 2-10 years. PICP has been associated with height (kit) velocity. We therefore looked at plasma levels of these indicators in adolscents expected to attain maximum growth velocity during the year: boys ( n=20) 13-14 years old (mean age, 13.7 years) and girls ( n=18) 11-12 years old (mean age, 11.6 years). Ht, wt, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were measured at baseline, then every 3 months for a year. At each visit, a venous blood sample was taken for plasma determinations of IGF - 1 and PICP by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The girls were slightly above and the boys were slightly below the NCHS references for their age with the exception of the triceps skinfold. The observed mean ht and wt velocities among the boys were 5.5 cm/year and 5.3 kg/year and the girls, 5.3 cm/year and 4.9 kg/year. The mean plasma level of IGF -1 in the adolescents were double those in the 2 - 10 year old age group with the girls (41.02 nmol/ml 95 percent CI22.0, 60.0) higher than the boys (35.39 nmol/ml 95 percent CI15.4,55.39). The difference was statistically significant. The mean plasma levels of PICP were similar for boys, (399.63 ng/ml 95 percent CI59.83, 739.43) and for the girls (398.76 ng/ml 95 percent CI 114.36, 683.16). These values were slightly higher than those in the 2-10 year-old age group. These values of IGF-1 and PIUCP are comparable to those of other populations. Mean percent body fat (PBF) increased linearly during the year in the girls, was related to the their body mass index (BMI) and was significantly higher than that in the boys. There was no association between PBF and BMI in the boys. Unlike the 2-10 year-old age group, there were no consistent relationships demonstrated among the anthropometric and the biochemical markers of growth in adolscents. This may reflect the mixed levels of maturity and the influence of the pubertal hormones in this group of adolescents. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Pró-Colágeno , Antropometria , Fatores Etários , Peso-Estatura , Estatura , Peso Corporal
9.
J Soc Psychol ; 136(5): 567-78, Oct. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2369

RESUMO

An analysis of the family drawings of a nonclinical sample of 502 Barbadian children aged 7-11 years is reported. The inclusion or omission of figures and the size and positioning of the figures of parents and self were examined with reference to sex, age, and household structure. The view that cultural values about the structure of the family unit and parental roles are reflected in children's representations of their parents in family drawings was supported. (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arte , Psicologia da Criança , Características da Família , Fatores Etários , Barbados , Estatura , Características Culturais , Núcleo Familiar , Fatores Sexuais , Pais Solteiros
10.
Acta Paediatr ; 85(6): 666-9, Jun. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2073

RESUMO

Height-for-age and weight-for-height are commonly used indicators of nutritional status; however, their precise interrelationship remains unclear. We examined the relationship between weight-for-height and linear growth in 127 stunted Jamaican children aged 9 - 24 months. The children were measured every 6 months over a 2 year period. The initial weight-for-height status was positively associated with linear growth in the following 6 month interval. The change in weight-for-height in the preceeding interval was better predictor of linear growth in linear growth in the next interval than attained weight-for-height at the beginning of the interval. The results suggest that variations in weight-for-height may influence the rate of linear growth.(AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Crescimento/diagnóstico , Crescimento , Avaliação Nutricional , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Emaciação/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Longitudinais , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Fatores Etários
11.
Arch Dis Child ; 74(6): 502-6, Jun. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of hematological indices, socioeconomic status, and morbidity in prepubertal growth in homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease from birth to 9 years at the sickle cell clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. RESULTS: Height increment between 3 and 9 years correlated positively with total haemoglobin at age 7 years in boys but not girls. Attained height and weight at 7 years correlated positively with haemoglobin and fetal haemoglobin in boys but not girls. Only the correlation between haemoglobin and weight showed a significant gender difference. Partial correlation analysis suggested that the effect of haemoglobin was accounted for by the effect of fetal haemoglobin and further analysis indicated that height correlated with F reticulocyte count (a measure of fetal haemoglobin production) in both sexes but not with the ratio of F cells to F reticulocytes (a measure of F cell enrichment). Growth was not significantly related to mean red cell volume, proportional reticulocyte count, alpha thalassaemia, socioeconomic status, or morbidity. CONCLUSION: A high concentration of fetal haemoglobin in boys with SS disease is associated with greater linear growth. It is postulated that in boys, low concentrations of fetal haemoglobin increase haemolysis and hence metabolic requirements for erythropoiesis, putting them at greater risk of poor growth. Differences in the relationship to haemotoloy and growth between boys and girls with SS disease dictate that future analyses of growth take gender into account (AU).x


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Hemoglobina Fetal/análise , Homozigoto , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social
12.
West Indian med. j ; 45(supl. 2): 13, Apr. 17-20 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4662

RESUMO

In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the effects of health and nutrition on schoolchildren's ability to learn. This study was conducted to determine whether nutritional status, anaemia and geohelminth infections were related to school achievement after controlling for a wide range of social variables. Eight hundred children were randomly selected from all those enrolled in grade 5 in 16 rural primary schools in Jamaica. School achievement was assessed by the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT). Children's weights and heights were converted to Z-scores using the NCHS references. Haemoglobin was measured using a haemoglobin photometer (Hemocue), and the presence and intensity (eggs per gram stool) of Trichuris trichura and Ascaris lumbricoides assessed by the Kato Thick Smear method. Socio-economic variables were assessed by questionnaire and observation, and school attendance obtained was from the class registers. The mean height-for-age of the children was -0.4 ñ 1.0 SD with 25.3 percent having heights <-ISD of the NCHS references. Fourteen point seven per cent (14.7 percent) of the children were anaemic (Hb < 1lg/dl), 38.3 percent were infected with Trichuris trichura and 19.4 percent with Ascaris lumbricoides. Height-for-age (p<0.001) was positively correlated with scores on the WRAT, and anaemia (p<0.05), Trichons and Ascaris infections (p<0.001) were associated with lower scores. In a multiple regression analysis, after controlling for attendance, sex, socio-economic status, possession of school books and uniform quality, the achievement of children with Trichuris infections was significantly worse than that of uninfected children in spelling, reading and the total WRAT score (p < 0.01). Height-for-age (p < 0.001) and anaemia (p < 0.05) contributed significantly to the variance in arithmetic. Despite the mild levels of undernutrition and the low intensity of the geohelminth infections, they were still associated with achievement. This suggests that efforts to increase school achievement levels in developing countries should include strategies to improve the health and nutritional status of children (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Estado Nutricional , Escolaridade , Helmintíase/complicações , Nutrição da Criança , Peso Corporal , Estatura , Trichuris , Ascaris lumbricoides , Saúde da População Rural , Jamaica
13.
Ann Hum Biol ; 23(1): 23-9, Jan.-Feb. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2995

RESUMO

There is little information on the nutritional status of adolescents in developing countries. In particular there is a lack of data concerning black adolescents. We measured height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds in 452 13-14 year-old girls, randomly selected from those attending nine schools in Kingston, Jamaica. The girls' heights and body mass indices were appropriate for their age. This suggests that undernutrition was not a significant problem in this population. However, the girls' skinfolds were smaller than the US references, both those for the total population and those for blacks only. The fat pattern (triceps/subscapular ratio) was similar to that reported for adult black women in the United States. It is possible that the levels of fat in the references are not appropriate for this population. Data from other black population are needed for comparison. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Antropometria , Estado Nutricional , Afro-Americanos , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Países em Desenvolvimento , Jamaica , Valores de Referência , Pregas Cutâneas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMJ ; 312(7024): 156-60, Jan. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE-- To determine relationship between school children's blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level and cholesterol concentration and their anthropometry, socioeconomic status, and birth measurements. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study. SETTING--27 schools closest to University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. SUBJECTS--2337 children aged 6-16 years who were born at University Hospital were recruited, and their birth records were recovered: 1610 had suitable records, 659 had records including birth length, and 610 of these were prepubertal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin level, serum cholesterol concentration, anthropometry at birth, current anthropometry, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS--Multiple regression analysis showed that children's systolic blood pressure was inversely related to their birth weight (P < 0.0001) and directly related to their currrent weight. Glycated haemoglobin level was higher in children with thicker triceps skinfolds (P < 0.001) and who had been shorter at birth (P = 0.003). Serum cholesterol concentration was inversely related to current height (P = 0.001) and to length at birth (P = 0.09) and was directly related to triceps skinfold thickness and higher socio-economic status (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Blood pressure in children was inversely related to birth weight and directly to current weight. Glycaemic control and serum cholesterol were related to short length at birth, height deficit in childhood, and childhood obesity (Au).


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Jamaica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes
15.
In. Anon. Origins and consequences of obesity: proceeings of a symposium held Kingston, Jamaica, 28-30 November 1995. Chichester, John Wiley, 1996. p.37-48; discussion 48-53, 188-93. (Ciba Foundation Symposium, 201).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2035

RESUMO

People of African descent in the Caribbean and the USA originated from the Bight of Benin in West Africa. Although these populations share a common genetic heritage, they now live under different socioeconomical conditions. Assuming genetic similarity, a cross-cultural examination of these peoples in West Africa, the Caribbean and the USA may attenuate the effect of genetic factors and allow the assessment of environmental contributions to a biological outcome. We carried out an epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of hypertension and the contribution of risk factors to the variation in blood pressure. We measured the height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure of adults in Nigeria, Cameroon, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Barbados and the USA. In urban populations there was a trend towards increasing weight, height, body mass index, and proportions of those overweight and obese going from West Africa to the USA, with the Caribbean being intermediate. The prevalence of hypertension lay on a similar gradient. Given a common genetic susceptibility, urbanization and western acculturation are therefore associated with increasing hypertension and obesity.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , /genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , África Ocidental/etnologia , Pressão Arterial/genética , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana
16.
Nut Res ; 16(11/12): 1821-8, 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2260

RESUMO

Stunting is the nutritional indicator most consistenly correlated with children's mental development. In Third World countries stunting is usually associated with poor development in older children. Moreover, stunting in young children predicts poor later development. Generally, when social background is controlled for, the association between stunting and poor development remains. In a recent Jamaican study, nutritional supplementation given to stunted children for 2 years produced an improvement in psychosocial development. Supplementation and linear growth had shared and independent effects on change in development. There was also a significant relationship between change in developemnt and growth over the 2 year period. It is therefore probably that at least part of the poor development found in stunted children is due to poor nutrition. (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/complicações , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/complicações , Alimentos Fortificados , Estatura , Inteligência , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Jamaica , Jogos e Brinquedos
17.
West Indian med. j ; 44(Suppl. 3): 21, Nov. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5066

RESUMO

Children with trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) tend to have growth and nutritional deficits, as shown by their consistently short stature and variable amount of wasting (low weight for their attained height). Two previous reports have described the accelerated growth of two small series of these children in their homes after treatment of the dysentery and anaemia. We now report on the 6-month post-treatment growth velocities of a complete series of 63 children with TDS. The children had a mean age of 6.4 years (SD 1.9) at the mid-point of their 6 month interval, whereas their height-age at the mid-point was 3.2 y (SD 1.5). This shows the extent of their stunting. Over the 6-month interval after initiation of treatment the average height velocity was 10.9 cm per year (SD 3.3) and the weight velocity was 4.0 kg per year (SD 2.3). There was no effect of age on the ability to initiate catch-up from stunting (although we cannot as yet say anything about the children's final attained heights). The mean growth velocities of this complete series of Jamaican children and the distributions about these means provide the best evidence to date of the tendency to catch-up growth, without change in environment, after treatment of intense infection of Trichuris trichiura (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Tricuríase/complicações , Crescimento , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/parasitologia , Anemias Nutricionais , Estatura , Fatores Etários , Peso-Estatura
18.
Arch Dis Child ; 73(4): 316-20, Oct. 1995. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3600

RESUMO

The intelligence quotient (IQ) of 60 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and 60 age and sex matched controls with a normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype aged 15-18 years, followed up in a cohort study from birth, was assessed by the Wechsler intelligence scales for children and adults. IQ appeared to be normally distributed in both genotypes but mean values in SS disease were 5.6 points (95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 10.2) lower than in AA controls (p=0.016). THe difference occurred in both verbal (5.5 points, p=0.017) and performance (5.0 points, p=0.044) subscales of the IQ defect in SS disease was associated with a significantly lower attention factor score (p=0.005) but not with other factor scores. The genotype difference in IQ was not accounted for by differences in parental occupational level, school absenteeism, or school drop out, or reported activity level. In SS disease, IQ was not related to mean steady state haemoglobin, or mean cell haemoglobin concentration, or clinical severity as judged by the frequency of painful crises, hospital admission, or sick visits. IQ, at age 15-18 years, correlated with the patients' height at all ages from 1 to 10 years (partial correlations increasing from 0.14 (p=0.15) at age 1 to 0.27 (p=0.004) at age 10). Adjusting for height reduced the mean genotype difference in IQ to 5.5 (95 percent CI 0.6 to 10.3) points at age 1 and 10 2.6 points (95 percent CI 0.6 to 10.3) points at age 10. Prepubertal height therefore accounted for much of the genotype difference in IQ. It is speculated that early factors, possibly nutritional, contribute to both impaired growth and mental development in sickle cell disease(AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Homozigoto , Inteligência , Anemia Sideroblástica , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Estatura , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Crescimento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escalas de Wechsler
19.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 49(5): 466-73, Oct. 1995. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3602

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES- to examine the associations of social and biological factors with measures of obesity in children. PARTICIPANTS - The subjects were primary school children aged mainly 5-11 years living in England and Scotland. The "representative" sample included 10 628 children - 6463 living in England and 4165 living in Scotland. The "inner city" sample included 7049 children - 2183 white, 1124 Afro-Caribbean, 2696 Indian subcontinent, and 1046 from other groups. Due to missing values on continuous variables, 8374 children were included in the analyses. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - the relation between the social environment and childhood overweight was studied using several indicators of obesity. Triceps, subscapular, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and weight for height were used as dependent variables. The analyses were carried out in two stages. Firstly, multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with dependent variables treated as continuous. Secondly, multiple linear logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between independent factors and and overweight and fatness defined as binary variables. Birth weight , mother's body mass index (BMI), and father's BMI were consistently associated (p<0.001) in all models and were the variables that contributed most to the explained variation in the dependent variables. In the multiple regression analyses there was a consistent interaction between the effects of ethnic origin and family size on each outcome variable. In the logistic regression analyses the interaction was not significant, and highly significant association between both overweight and fatness with the number of children were shown. Ethnic group was not significantly associated with overweight but it was with fatness. The strengths of the remaining significant associations were slight and inconsistent in relation to the dependent variables or the type of analysis. CONCLUSION - very few variables were associated with measures of overweight and fatness. The only useful factor that was highly associated with all mesaures of fatness was the parents' BMI. Strategies to prevent childhood obesity should be aimed at the total population and special emphasis should be placed on families in which one or both parents are overweight. (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Pregas Cutâneas , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Características da Família , Saúde da Família , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Região do Caribe/etnologia
20.
Parasitology ; 110(pt 4): 457-64, May 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5331

RESUMO

The effects of mild to moderate infections of Trichuris trichiura on cognitive functions were investigated in Jamaican children aged 7 to 10 years. In all, 189 infected children and 100 uninfected classmates were studied. The infected children were randomly assigned to receive treatment (albendazole) or a placebo. All children were given cognitive tests on enrolment and 14 weeks later. These included verbal fluency (generation of ideas), digit span (working memory), number choice (speed of processing of visual stimuli), visual search (sustained attention) and a French Vocabulary test (paired-associate learning). At baseline, the infected children had lower scores than the uninfected ones in fluency (P=0.01), search (P=0.02) and French (P=0.01). Treatment effects were examined among infected children and there was no significant treatment effect for any of the tests. However, there was a significant treatment by weight-for-age interaction in fluency (P<0.05). The children with low weight-for-age (Z-score < -1) improved with treatment while there was no improvement with treatment among the other children. We concluded that treatment of children with mild to moderate T. trichiura infections using albendazole produces little benefit in cognition if they are adequately nourished; however, undernourished children are more likely to benefit (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Cognição , Tricuríase/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/parasitologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricuríase/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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