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1.
Mona; s.n; Oct. 2003. ii,501 p.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17202

RESUMO

Health care for the peoples of the Caribbean, including Jamaica, is overtly dependent on Western Biomedical Sciences and their practitioners but in Jamaica, studies confirm that Traditional Health care, grounded in the cultural practices, continues to be utilized in spite of the availability of the formal health care services (Wedenoja 1978; Barret 1976; Beckwith 1969; Cohen 1953). It could be argued that the contiued use of the Traditional Health Care system is dependent on the layman's understanding of health concepts. This study focuses on the identification of concepts of health and illness, how they are culturally constructed and expressed through health care practises, in a rural community. The Research Setting: The community of Kings Court is situated about twenty miles from Morant Bay, the main town in St. Thomas, a rural parish of Jamaica... Finally, there is the commerical district, predominantly consisting of shops selling consumables. Data Gathering Methods: Participant observation and in-depth interviews were the main data gathering methods used over the duration of the study, between 1993-1999. The data was recorded using tape recordings, written notes and video-tapes where appropriate and were later transcribed using Microsoft Word. Results: In King Court health is perceived in a utilitarian manner, related to the ability to carry out daily activities. Bodily functions provide useful clues for the evaluation of health status. Other concepts of health include 'good living' and 'living good', the former having to do with material comforts while the latter refer to healthy social relations in the community. The quality of food consumed contributes significantly to one's health status. Illnesses are placed into two categories, natural and unnatural, the former to be treated with pharmaceuticals, by the doctor of individuality with 'bush'. The latter, unnatural illness, is believed to be caused by 'duppy' or spiritual entities and is treated by traditional practitioners using rituals, herbs and consecrated oils. Conclusion: People value their health and are positively oriented to taking action to maintain their health status through rituals like the healing ceremonies and baptism (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde , Doença , Medicina do Comportamento , Medicina Tradicional , Jamaica , Região do Caribe
3.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 29, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the antibacterial activity of the crude Carica papaya preparations as used by nurses, on gram negative and gram positive organisms; to determine which part and stage of maturity of the fruit yielded the best antibacterial activity, and determine the effects of storage conditions on the observed activity. METHODS: The pathogens commonly found in human wounds were obtained from the Microbiology Department, University of the West Indies, Biochemistry Section, The University of the West Indies and the Jamaican Bureau of Standards. Cultures were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4§c. Extracts were obtained by separately grinding fractions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds of the immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit and filtering them through guaze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml. of agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10 cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4§c for one hour then incubated at 37§c for 24 hours, after which zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. Antibacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of the zone of inhibition calculated as the difference in radius of the observed zones and the edge of the agar wells. Daily sensitivity tests were carried out on extracts stored at 5§c, 25§c and 35§c for 7 days. RESULTS: The seed extracts from all three stages of the fruit showed an average order of inhibition in the following order: B cereus> E coli> S faecalis> S aureus> P vulgaris> and X flexneri. There was no significant difference in bacterial sensitivity between the immature, mature and ripe fruits tested. The epicarp and endocarp did not produce any inhibition zone in any of the three stages of the fruit tested. There was a gradual reduction in antibiotic activity with increasing storage item. Also, a fall-off of activity was found to be more drastic at higher temperatures. CONCLUSION: The findings show that crude extracts of Carica papaya seed have antibacterial activity that inhibits the growth of both gram positive (B cereus, S aureus and S faecalis) and gram negative (E coli, P vulgaris and S flexneri) organisms. Observed activity was dependent on stage of maturity but tended to decrease with duration and conditions of storage. No antibacterial activity was observed from the epicarp and the endocarp of the fruit. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asimina triloba/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicina Tradicional
4.
West Indian med. j ; 50(Suppl 5): 29, Nov. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several local plant extracts are used in folklore practice as abortifacients. The objectives was to determine the scientific basis, if any, for these claims. METHODS: Aqeous extracts were prepared from 6 plants collected from St.Thomas, Jamaica: Leonotis nepetifolia (LN), Mentha pulegium (MP), Phyllanthus amarus (PA), Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (SJ), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Wedelia gracilis (WG). The extracts were tested for contractile activity on isolated mouse uteri maintained in de Jalons solution. The effects of indomethacin and atropine on the contractions were used to indicate the possible mechanism of action. RESULTS: Three plant extracts (LN, MP and PA) produced dose-dependent contractions of the non-pregnant and pregnant mouse uteri. No contractions were observed with the other three extracts (SJ, GS, and WG). The contractions produced by MP were significantly reduced by indomethacin (p<0.05) but not by atropine. Contractions produced by LN and MP were blocked by either drug. Pregnant mice given LN litterd with live offspring within 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 6 plants evaluated, 3 contracted the uterus in vitro but only one (LN) had a significant action in vivo. The contractile effect of MP may possibly be mediated via prostaglandins. However, this plant extract showed significant toxicity in vivo. (AU)


Assuntos
Camundongos , Técnicas In Vitro , Gravidez , 21003 , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional , Abortivos/uso terapêutico , Folclore , Estudo de Avaliação , Jamaica/etnologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. RESULTS: Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). CONCLUSION: Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.


Assuntos
Cães , Animais , Humanos , Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't , Picaduras de Aranhas/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras e Picadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas/classificação , Escorpiões , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Trinidad e Tobago , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Amarela/veterinária
6.
Wageningen; Wageningen University; 2001. vii,318 p. ilus, maps.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16292
7.
Kingston; Pelican Publishers; 2 ed; 2001. xiv,250 p. ilus, tab.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16572

RESUMO

Herbal remedies have always been used by Jamaicans for treating a variety of illnesses. However, although many of these medicinal herbs contain beneficial bioactive ingredients, not all of them are safe! Some have toxic components while others, if taken inappropriately, can harm the body's organs and even mask the symptoms of more serious conditions. The authors propose integrating these "alternative" medicinal practices into the healthcare delivery system, beginning with a systematic testing of the remedies used, so that their bioactive ingredients can be identified and dosages standardized


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Jamaica , Assistência Médica , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Materia Medica , Índias Ocidentais , Região do Caribe , Medicina Herbária
9.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 29(4): 23-7, July-Aug. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1312

RESUMO

In the Caribbean as as in many other areas costly biomedical resources and personnel are limited, and more and more people are turning to alternative medicine and folk practitioners for health care. To meet the goal of providing health care for all, research on nonbiomedical therapies is needed, along with legal recognition of folk practitioners to establish standards of practice.(Au)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapias Complementares , Prioridades em Saúde , Medicina , Medicina Tradicional , Terapias Complementares/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapias Complementares/normas , Orçamentos , Região do Caribe , Custos e Análise de Custo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ética Médica , Previsões , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde/economia , Prioridades em Saúde/tendências , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde , Medicina Herbária
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 64(3): 265-70, Mar. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1325

RESUMO

Antibacterial activity in 51 extracts from 29 plant species currently used in traditional medicine in Trinidad and the neighbouring Caribbean islands was tested for by the agar dilution streak method using six bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella tophimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts from eight of the plants tested showed significant activity against one or more micro-organisms and the most susceptible bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus. In the bioassays for toxicity towards the Aedes aegypti mosquito the most effective plant extracts were from Justicia pectoralis, Manihot utilissima and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis.(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Aedes/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicina Tradicional , Trinidad e Tobago
12.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 51(12): 1455-60, Dec. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-865

RESUMO

We have started a systematic scientific study of folklore medicinal plants currently used as alternative medicine in Jamaican society. In this initial study, extracts of plants widely used by the islanders are studied for antibacterial activity against five common pathogens; Streptococcus group A, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. These studies revealed that 25 percent (approximately) of the plant extracts had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the microbes used. Subsequent to these observations, extracts from Mikania micrantha were examined in detail. This led to the isolation of two sesquiterpenoids, mikanolide and dihydromikanolide, with activity against S. aureus and C. albicans. The results suggest that traditional folk medicine could be used as a guide in our continuing search for new natural products with potential medicinal properties.(Au)


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Plantas Medicinais/química , Jamaica , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
St. Augustine; Caribbean Network of Integrated Rural Development (CNIRD); 1999. x,143 p.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16486
15.
Psychol Med ; 28(5): 1231-7, Sept. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent anthropological studies have documented the importance of understanding the relation of culture to the experience of mental illness. The use of interviews that elicit explanatory models has facilitated such research, but currently available interviews are lengthy and impractical for epidemiological studies. This paper is a preliminary report on the development of a brief instrument to elicit explanatory models for use in field work. METHOD: The development of the SEMI, a short interview to elicit explanatory models is described. The interview explores the subject's cultural background, nature of presenting problem, help-seeking behaviour, interaction with physician/healer and beliefs related to mental illness. RESULTS: The SEMI was employed to study the explanatory models of subjects with common mental disorders among Whites, African-Caribbean and Asians living in London and was also used in Harare, Zimbabwe. Data from its use in four different ethnic groups is presented with the aim of demonstrating its capacity to show up differences in these varied settings. CONCLUSIONS: The simplicity and brevity of the SEMI allow for its use in field studies in different cultures, data can be used to provide variables for use in quantitative analysis and provide qualitative descriptions.(Au)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Cuidadores/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , África/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Etnopsicologia , Londres/epidemiologia , Magia , Medicina Tradicional , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicometria , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
16.
Nurs Health Care Perspect ; 19(4): 178-85, July-Aug. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1347

RESUMO

While completing the clinical portion of my bachelor's in nursing degree in southern Belize in Central America, I had the unique opportunity to converse with and observe traditional healers in their natural surroundings, lush rain forests abounding with medicinal plants. The rain forests play a vital role in the lives of the several thousand Mopan and Ketchi Maya who live in southern Belize. Their strong cultural identity is rooted in tradition, especially among the older generations.(Au)


Assuntos
Humanos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Tradicional , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Belize , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Medicina Herbária , Saúde da População Rural
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 35(2): 125-42, May 1, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1623

RESUMO

In 1995 research conducted in Trinidad and Tobago with the aim of collecting knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicines in order to lay a foundation for further scientific study and validation. This paper describes only the ethnoveterinary practices used in the poultry sub-sector. A four stage process was used to conduct the research and document these ethnoveterinary practices. 28 ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using a modified Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) technique, the student essay method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal health assistants/agricultural officers, and the 7 key respondents that they identified. 5 participatory workshops were then held with 55 of the repondents interviewed to discuss the data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. 12 plant species were used to treat 4 categories of health problems common to poultry production. Aloe vera, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Citrus sp. and Momordica charantia were the main medicinal plants being used(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Medicina Tradicional , Aves Domésticas , Agricultura , Educação em Veterinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Trinidad e Tobago
19.
Trincity; Al Falaah Productions; 1998. vi,109 p. ilus.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16479
20.
In. United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's & St. Thomas' Hospitals; King's College School of Medicine & Dentistry of King's College, London; University of the West Indies. Center for Caribbean Medicine. Research day and poster display. s.l, s.n, Jun. 30, 1997. p.1.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerasee (vines and leaves of the Momordica charantia Linn.) is used to prepare a tea employed in Caribbean folk medicine to treat hypertension. In one survey, it was found to be the most popular anti-hypertensive herb used on the island of St. Kitts, West Indies. There is also evidence that it is used by African Caribbean hypertensive patients living in the United Kingdom, and that reliance on this and other herbal remedies may interfere with adherence to prescribed anti-hypertensive therapy. AIMS: The broad aims of the project are (1.) examine the effects of cerasee tea on blood pressure and heart rate using a rat model in order to assess its potential hypotensive effects. (2.) determine the pharmacological mechanism by which any such effects are mediated. (3.) to isolate the phytochemicals present in cerasee tea which cause these effects. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A sample of cerasee tea obtained in the United Kingdom was extracted with hot water. The "tea" was filtered, and serially diluted solutions administered to anaesthetised rats by intravenous infusion. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Cerasee tea produced a transient fall in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot data support a claim for the pharmacological activity of cerasee tea. The data conform with a case report of hypotension in two children following consumption of the tea and with the traditional use, for high blood pressure, of M. charantia in the Caribbean, and the related species M. foetida in Southern Africa. FUTURE WORK: Funding is being sought for a larger project to confirm the preliminary data obtained above, and fulfil aims (2) and (3) listed above. Further studies are required to determine whether cerasee or its component phytochemicals have any therapeutic potential or toxic effects following acute or chronic administration. This will indicate whether cerasee consumption in conjunction with prescribed anti-hypertensive therapy should be discouraged. The work will complement a proposed parallel study examining the botanical and chemical variation of "cerasee" samples available in London and their parents of the use by the African Caribbean community. (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Momordica charantia/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais , Medicina Tradicional , Região do Caribe , Coleta de Dados
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