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In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18054


OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on middle-aged and older people’s attitude toward older people taking the HIV-test by examining the effect of sociodemographic and HIV-related factors on their agreement with the statement “There is no reason for older people to take the HIV-test because younger ones are more likely to be infected than older ones”. DESIGN AND METHODS: Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyse the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of sociodemographic and HIV/AIDS related factors on attitude toward older people taking the HIV-test. RESULTS: 64.4% of the participants were born in the Virgin Islands; the average age is 65.3 years; 49.7% had at least a secondary level education; 62.5% were married or in a cohabiting relationship; 63.8% lived in male-headed households. 54.8% strongly disagreed with the notion that older people do not have to be tested because younger ones are more at risk for infection. Bivariate examination showed a significant association between attitude toward older people taking the HIV-test and place of birth; age; education; age of head of the household; religious participation, type of relationship; employment status and number of children; as well as HIV/AIDS-related factors. In binary logistic regression analysis, the two most important influences in attitude toward older people taking the HIV-test were education and agreement with the idea that HV can be prevented by always using condoms with a person who is not your spouse. CONCLUSION: There may be a need to scale up HIV services for the older adult.

Atitude , Idoso , HIV , Diagnóstico , Imunoensaio , Índias Ocidentais
West Indian med. j ; 50(suppl 7): 34, Dec. 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-61


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago and is associated with severe morbidity. It is possible that poor antioxidant status, such as low levels of plasma vitamin E and A, may increase the clinical complications of diabetes mellitus. The present study assessed the adequacy of antioxidant protection in Type 2 diabetics by quantitating plasma levels of vitamins A and E. Blood was taken in EDTA tubes from 11 diabetic patients and from 9 healthy individuals, who served as controls. Plasma obtained was stored in Butylated hydroxy toluene at -70§C until susequently assayed for the antioxidants vitamins A and E, using a reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromoatography. Additionally, in the diabetics HbA1c levels were measured by immunoassay, using the DCA 2000 Analyser (Bayer Corporation, USA). In the diabetics HbA1c values ranged from 4.3 percent to 11.3 percent with the mean ñ SEM being 7.79 ñ 0.81 percent. The mean ñ SEM vitamin E concentration in the diabetics was 26.32 ñ 3.14 umol/L; this was not significantly different from the controls (27.39 ñ 1.66 umol/L). Plasma vitamin A in the diabetic group (1.99 ñ 0.19 æmol/L), was significantly higher (p< 0.001) than in controls (1.14 ñ 0.12 æmol/L). The interassay coefficient of variation for the high pressure liquid chromatography method was 4.3 percent and 1.15 percent for vitamins A and E, respectively. In the diabetic group there was a good relationship between vitamin A and HbA1c (r= -o.522; p= 0.099); however, this was not significant. Similarly, the relationship between vitamin A and HbA1c (r= 0.230; n= 11) was not significant. In conclusion, it was found that glycaemic control as measured by HbA1c varied amongst diabetics. The difference in vitamin E status between diabetics and non-diabetics was not significant. However, vitamin A levels for non-diabetics were significantly lower than for diabetes. (AU)

Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Imunoensaio , Estudo de Avaliação
West Indian med. j ; 42(suppl.2): 4, July 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5519


Both hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common diseases, affecting approximately 20 percent and 10 percent of the adult population, respectively, and together they are the largest contributor to the group of patients with end-stage renal failure. Gross proteinuria (dipstick) predicts the onset of inexorable decline in renal function in diabetes mellitus and, to a lesser extent, in hypertension. Microalbuminuria (immunoassay) is an early warning sign of impending renal failure in diabetes mellitus, and might occur while the process is reversible. In hypertension, the natural history of patients with microalbuminuria is unclear. This study was designed to compare the clinical progress of hypertensives and hypertensive diabetics with and without microalbuminuria, and to relate this to their haemodynamics. Patients were selected from the University Hospital of the West Indies Hypertensive Clinic on the basis of urinary albumin excretion: 20-200 mg/l microalbuminuric and less than 20 mg/l normalbuminuric. Controls were matched hypertensives and hypertensive diabetics without microalbuminuria. All measurements were made of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (clearance of 51 Cr EDTA and 125 I Iodohippurate, respectively). Microalbuminuric hypertensives were older, had lower renal flow, higher filtration fraction and renal vascular resistance than controls. Haemodynamic variables were similar in the microalbuminuric diabetics and their controls. After one year, three cardiovascular events occurred among the diabetics with microalbuminuria, supporting the view that microalbuminuria is a marker for widespread vascular pathology. The fourth event occurred in the microalbuminuric hypertensive group (AU)

Humanos , Adulto , Hipertensão , Albuminúria , Diabetes Mellitus , Proteinúria , Imunoensaio , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Albuminúria/mortalidade
J Infect Dis ; 157(6): 1226-34, June 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-10056


Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), a neuromyelopathy predominantly involving the pyramidal tract and commonly observed in tropical and equatorial areas, was recently found to be associated with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). We investigated sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 19 patients with TSP who were from the Caribbean area, French Guiana, and Africa. Our results showed an elevated intra-blood-brain barrier IgG synthesis rate and an elevated IgG index, with an increased HTLV-I antibody-to-albumin ratio and the presence of CSF oligoclonal bands in the majority of the patients. These data, in association with similar HTLV-I antibody patterns between patients with TSP who were from these three regions, strenghten the probable etiologic role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of such chronic neuromyelopathies. (AU)

Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/imunologia , Deltaretrovirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Paralisia/imunologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/imunologia , Estudo Comparativo , Anticorpos Antivirais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Guiana Francesa , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoensaio , Costa do Marfim , Espasticidade Muscular , Paralisia , Senegal , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Clima Tropical , Índias Ocidentais
Am J Clin Nutr ; 23(4): 386-9, Apr. 1970.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12630


Oral glucose tolerance tests on Jamaican children after an average of 3 months treatment in a hospital for malnutrition suggested a diminished peripheral uptake of glucose. This was confirmed with intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Despite 3 months treatment on an optimal diet the children's plasma levels of immunoreactive insulin were still subnormal, and the insulin response to intravenous glucose was much less than in Jamaican children who had never been malnourished. This suggests that malnutrition may produce a permanent reduction in the capacity for insulin secretion (AU)

Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/metabolismo , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/terapia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dietoterapia , Antígenos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacocinética , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Imunoensaio , Anticorpos Anti-Insulina , Taxa Secretória/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Química , Fatores de Tempo , Jamaica
Lancet ; 1(7605): 1075-6, May 1969.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14586


Leucine was the only essential aminoacid to stimulate insulin release from rabbit pancreas in vitri in the absence of extracellular glucose. In the presence of 1.5 mg glucose, per ml leucine, arginine, lysine and isoleucine were effective stimuli of insulin release (Summary)

Coelhos , 21003 , Técnicas In Vitro , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Leucina/farmacologia , Arginina/farmacologia , Lisina/farmacologia , Isoleucina/farmacologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Glucose/farmacologia