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1.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 20(2): 80-7, Apr. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1369

RESUMO

This study was designed to identify psychosocial variables affecting early infant feeding practices in Barbados. The sample included 93 healthy women and infants born at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital who were extensively evaluated 7 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after birth. Maternal moods were assessed with the Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales and the General Adjustment and Morale Scale. Feeding practices were evaluated using a questionnaire developed for this population. The prevalence of mild depression in this population was 16 percent at 7 weeks and increased to 19 percent at 6 months, whereas there were very few cases of moderate-to-severe depression. Disadvantaged environmental conditions, including less information-seeking by the mother, lower family income, and poor maternal health, were closely associated with increased symptoms of depression and anxiety in all women. However, significant predictive relationships between mood and feeding practices remained even when the effects of the home environment were controlled. Specifically, depressive symptoms at 7 weeks postpartum predicted a reduced preference for breastfeeding at current and later infant ages. Conversely, feeding practices did not predict maternal moods at later ages. These findings have important implications for public policy dealing with programs promoting breastfeeding. Early interventions designed to treat mild postnatal depression should be instituted early in the postpartum period to improve the chances for successful breastfeeding.(Au)


Assuntos
Adulto , Estudo Comparativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Aleitamento Materno , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Mães/psicologia , Antropometria , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Barbados , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Seguimentos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ajustamento Social
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 156(4): 569-74, Apr. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population samples in Australia, Belgium, China, Germany, Greece, Israel, Jamaica, the Netherlands, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Thailand and the United States. RESULTS: Comparisons of nine cultures for subjects ages 6 through 17 gave medium effect sizes for cross-cultural variations in withdrawn and social problems and small effect sizes for somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior. Scores of Puerto Rican subjects were the highest, whereas Swedish subjects had the lowest scores on almost all syndromes. With great cross-cultural consistency, girls obtained higher scores than boys on somatic complaints and anxious/depressed but lower scores on attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior. Although remarkably consistent across cultures, the developmental trends differed according to syndrome. Comparison of the 12 cultures across ages 6 through 11 supported these results. CONCLUSIONS: Empirically based assessment in terms of Child Behavior Checklist syndromes permits comparisons of problems reported for children from diverse cultures (Au)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Comparação Transcultural , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Psicologia do Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Pais/psicologia , Psicometria
3.
In. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Eighth Annual Research Conference 1999. Kingston, s.n, 1999. p.1. (Annual Research Conference 1999, 8).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1426

RESUMO

A retrospective and descriptive study of patients at the Crisis Intervention Unit of the Provincial Psychiatric Hospital of Holguin, Cuba, was undertaken in the first semester of 1998. In three hundred and nine patients we studied, the sociodemographic variables of age and sex as well as crisis type and triggering conflict areas, the diagnostic procedure used, biological therapeutic resources, and nosologic diagnostic at discharge. A slight predominance of males was found, and the greater number of patients was between age 25 and 44 years. The depressive and anxiety crisis were the most frequently found. Several diagnostic resources were employed. The multivalence treatment proved that the most used psychodrugs were tricyclic antidepresives and anxiolytics. The electroconvulsive therapy was employed only in 4 cases. The short psychotherapy modalities were applied in a high percentage of the studied cases prevailing the support, rational psychotherapies and handling attitude. The most frequent diagnostics were: Personality Disorders, Schizophrenia, Neurosis and Situational Disorders. The effectiveness of the Crisis Intervention Unit is presented as model for dealing with patients undergoing psychiatric crisis (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Intervenção na Crise/métodos , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica , Cuba , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cuba
6.
West Indian med. j ; 22(4): 191, Dec. 1973.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6210

RESUMO

Clomipramine, a chlorinated tricyclic drug, was assessed in 2 groups of outpatients (i) 59 depressed patients in a double blind comparative trial with amitryptiline; and (ii) 7 patients with phobic anxiety states. (i) In the comparative trial no difference in anti-depressant action (assessed by serial Hamilton Rating scores) of clomirpramine and amitryptiline could be demonstrated. Both appeared to relieve depression effectively with maximal anti-depressant action in the second and third weeks of treatment. Patients taking clomipramine, however, had significantly more side effects (p<0.01) and more patients in this group had to be withdrawn for this reason. Postural hypotension was the most serious side effect and occurred in 25 percent of patients taking clomipramine as against 115 of patients taking amitryptiline. (ii) 7 patients with phobic anxiety state with predominantly agoraphobic symptoms ("the agoraphobic syndrome"), who had previously proved resistant to treatment by phenelzine, anxiolytic drugs, supportive psychotherapy and (in 4 cases) desensitisation, were treated with clomipramine orally. 2 patients developed side effects. Of the remaining 5, 3 showed a satisfactory response (in 2 complete alleviation of phobic symptoms with return to normal activities, and in 1 marked alleviation). The other 2 patients showed slight improvements but remained considerably handicapped. Clomipramine (i) has been shown to be an effective anti-depressant drug of comparable efficacy and speed of action to amitryptiline. The higher incidence of side effects, however, make it an anti-depressant of second choice. (ii) appears potentially very useful in the management of agarophobic patients (who are in general resistant to treatment (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Fóbicos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Clomipramina/uso terapêutico , Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico
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