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1.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 40(5): 819-27, July 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1384

RESUMO

In order to examine the mechanism whereby stunted children have poor developmental levels, we compared the behaviour of stunted (N = 78) and nonstunted (N = 26) children aged 12 to 24 months, and examined the relationship of their behaviour to their developmental levels. The effect of nutritional supplementation with or without psychosocial stimulation on the stunted children's behaviour was also examined. The children were observed at home during 4 days over a period of 6 months. The children significantly showed more apathy, and less enthusiasm and variety in exploring, were less happy and more fussy. Caretakers' vocalisations to them were less warm or instructive. Stunted children's activity level, exploratory and happy behaviours were predictive of change in developmental levels measured on the Griffiths Scales, from enrolment to 12 and 24 months later. Supplementation predicted mental age at 12 and 24 months later enrolment, however, it had no significant effect on behaviour (Au)


Assuntos
Criança , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Nanismo/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/psicologia , Jamaica , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Carência Psicossocial , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 156(4): 569-74, Apr. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population samples in Australia, Belgium, China, Germany, Greece, Israel, Jamaica, the Netherlands, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Thailand and the United States. RESULTS: Comparisons of nine cultures for subjects ages 6 through 17 gave medium effect sizes for cross-cultural variations in withdrawn and social problems and small effect sizes for somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior. Scores of Puerto Rican subjects were the highest, whereas Swedish subjects had the lowest scores on almost all syndromes. With great cross-cultural consistency, girls obtained higher scores than boys on somatic complaints and anxious/depressed but lower scores on attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior. Although remarkably consistent across cultures, the developmental trends differed according to syndrome. Comparison of the 12 cultures across ages 6 through 11 supported these results. CONCLUSIONS: Empirically based assessment in terms of Child Behavior Checklist syndromes permits comparisons of problems reported for children from diverse cultures (Au)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Comparação Transcultural , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Psicologia do Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Pais/psicologia , Psicometria
3.
Psychol Med ; 26(2): 289-9, Mar. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3175

RESUMO

African-Caribbean (N=136) and White British (N=192) female family planning clinic attenders were administered the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). A proportion of the participants were subsequently interviewed. The African-Caribbeans were found to have both significantly more disordered eating attitudes and a significantly higher level of abnormal eating behaviour than the White British. Although the African-Caribbean group had a significantly higher mean Body Mass Index this did not mediate the difference in levels of eating attitudes. When compared with the White British group more African-Caribbean women reported feelings of failure, guilt, abnormality and self consciousness concerning their eating habits. The results indicate that eating problems may be highly prevalent in this ethnic minority population and suggest that there may be differences in the nature of eating disorder psychopathology between ethnic groups. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/etnologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Atitude , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , /psicologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Incidência , Determinação da Personalidade
4.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 36(8): 1399-410, Nov. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2074

RESUMO

Theories about black identity are discussed in relation to a study of adolescents with one white and one African or African-Caribbean parent. Interview findings on their racial self-definition, attitudes to their mixed parentage, and allegiance to black and white people and cultures reveal a wide range of racial identities and cultural allegiances. Differences are related to type of school, social class, and the degree of politicisation of the young person's attitudes to race. The findings are discussed in relation to the issue of interracial adoption and fostering, and to recent debates about the concept of an essential black identity.(AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Identificação Social , /psicologia , Aculturação , Características da Família , Determinação da Personalidade , Ajustamento Social
5.
Br J Psychiatry ; 167(3): 362-9, Sep. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND. A clinical sample was used to investigate whether second-generation Afro-Caribbean children differed from other British-born children in their psychiatric presentation or vulnerability to risk factors. METHOD. Second-generation Afro-Caribbean patients (n=292) were compared with a predominantly white group of patients (n=1311) who lived in the same inner-city area and attended the same child psychiatric clinic between 1973 and 1989. Data on psychiatric presentation and background factors were systematically recorded at the time of the initial clinical assessment. RESULTS. Afro-Caribbean patients were exposed to more socio-economic disadvantage but less family dysfunction. The ratio of emotional to conduct disorders was lower among Afro-Caribbean than among the comparison patients - an effect that was not evidently due to demographic factors or diagnostic bias. Most risk factors for emotional or conduct disorders had comparable effects on Afro-Caribbean and comparison patients. Psychotic and autistic disorders were disproportionately common among the Afro-Caribbean patients. CONCLUSIONS. Second-generation Afro-Caribbean children differ somewhat from other British-born children in their psychiatric presentation - a difference that has persisted over the 1970s and 1980s and that deserves more investigation than it has received to date (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aculturação , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Emigração e Imigração , População Urbana , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Reino Unido , Determinação da Personalidade , Carência Psicossocial , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
6.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 64(3): 386-95, July 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5864

RESUMO

The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents (AU)


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Educação Infantil , Comparação Transcultural , Punição , Identidade de Gênero , Guiana , Determinação da Personalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 22(1): 113-28, Feb. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8125

RESUMO

Research on child behavior problems requires standardized methodology in order to compare parent-reported behavior problems of 360 Jamaican and 946 U.S. children aged 6 to 11. It revealed few differences in individual, total, internalizing (e.g., depression), and externalizing (e.g., fighting) problem scores as a function of nationality, gender, or age. Findings from this and other studies indicate the feasibility of a common methodology in cross-national studies of children's problems, but also the need for further refinement. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Identidade de Gênero , Incidência , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Kingston; s.n; Aug. 1984. 45 p. tab.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-13699

RESUMO

A clinical impression concerning overeating and obesity led to a review of the relevant research and culmination in a research hypothesis. This stated that eating was in many people not only a means of satiating hunger, but a means of obtaining stimulation and part of a general tendency to 'overindulge'. In the research, overeating was found to be linked to high external responsiveness, and sensation seeking to low basal arousal level. Eating as a form of sensation seeking was the subject of this study. The role of arousal level and externality were also examined. Three measures were chosen: a measure of extraversion, of sensation seeking and of basal arousal level (resting pulse rate). These were administered to a small randomly selected sample of subjects, who were then divided into a normal weight and an overweight group, using a 5 percent overweight cutoff point. In addition, a questionnaire was administered, and a standard structured interview given to a subgroup. Results showed the overweight group to be significantly higher on extraversion. The overweight group were found to be differentiated into two groups, the mildly overweight and the very overweight. The mildly overweight were the most extraverted and the highest sensation seeking of all three groups. The overweight group had a lower mean pulse rate than the normal group. The overweight group were higher on the Boredom Susceptibility and Experience Seeking factors of the sensation seeking measure. The mildly overweight smoked and drank more than any other group, suggesting a general pattern of overindulgence. The overweight group as a whole preferred non-physical and non-risk activities. They disliked monotonous activities. It appeared that whereas eating provided stimulation, it appeared to be stimulation of a low intensity type that is easily obtained. Implications were that overeating is a 'normal' response to prevalent food cues in the society, given man's genetic adaptations over the centuries. Treatment should be both curative and preventative, and should take the whole individual into account as obesity is the result of physiological, psychological and environmental factors (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Obesidade/psicologia , Extroversão Psicológica , Projetos Piloto , Nível de Alerta , Sensação , Determinação da Personalidade , Jamaica
9.
Br J Soc Psychiatry ; 4(4): 220-30, 1970.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7874

RESUMO

This review of the Jamaican Child Guidance Clinic referrals shows the following trends:- 1. Children referred to the clinic show relatively higher percentage of parent/child separation than is the average in Jamaica. 2. Predominantly neurotic disorders were associated with (a) children living with both parents (b) middle-class families and higher intelligence. 3. Anti-social behaviour was associated with parent/child separation particularly in the early formative years (under 5 years) and frequently with a low I.Q. in the range or 70-90, but there was no association between clearcut mental sub-normality and parental background. The tendency was in fact for mentally subnormal children to come as often from the middle-class as lower-class families. Anti-social behaviour was also associated with lower-class background, but even within the middle-class group anti-social behaviour occurred significantly more often among the separated than among the non-separated. 4. We have endeavoured to relate certain clinical data to some social and cultural features peculiar to Jamaica and the West Indies. (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Determinação da Personalidade , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Relações Pais-Filho , Clínicas de Orientação Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Clínicas de Orientação Infantil/tendências , Jamaica
10.
In. Anon. Family relationships: fourth Caribbean Conference for Mental Health. Curacao, s.n, 1963. p.88-106.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-10157
11.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3835

RESUMO

Attempts to clarify the major psychological concerns and achievements of the West Indian immigrant community, to develop a methodology for the research of such issues and to suggest conceptual approaches that might guide future research in the analysis of the data generated. Outlines the themes from an inter-subject perspective and those which clinical evidence, anecdotal material and previous studies suggest which will guide the analysis. These are: perceptions of Jamaica, the United States, racism, gender, the family and personality. Describes the results of each. Contends that most subjects were proud of their country despite its problems and shortcomings. In the perception of the United States, the results portray - a land of opportunity and a place with a future but lacking a sense of community and the capacity for one to develop an authentic self. The results show that racism exist. Contends that most female subjects perceived themselves as having a greater sense of personal autonomy but that racism and sexism placed limitations on their ability to grow. The male immigrants did not perceive themselves as being as autonomous as they were in Jamaica, Analyses personality perspectives under the heads: competence/assertiveness, awareness of limitations, clarification of values and sense of loneliness. Outlines the core argument and the basis for the discussion. (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Emigração e Imigração , Determinação da Personalidade , Jamaica/etnologia
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