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1.
Journal of public health ; 30(4): 398-406, sep.2008. tabgraf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17874

RESUMO

Some countries (e.g. Brazil) have good reputations on AIDS policy, whereas others, (notably South Africa) have been criticized for inadequate leadership. Cross-country regression analysis reveals that these 'poster children' for AIDS leadership have indeed performed better or worse than expected given their economic and institutional constraints and the demographic and health challenges facing them. Regressions were run on HAART coverage (number on highly active antiretroviral therapy as percentage of total need) and MTCTP coverage (pregnant HIV+ women accessing mother-to-child-transmission prevention services as percentage of total need). Brazil, Cambodia, Thailand and Uganda (all of whom have established reputations for good leadership on AIDS performed consistently better than expected-as did Burkina-Faso, Suriname, Paraguay Costa Rica, Mali and Namibia. South Africa, which has the worst reputation for AIDS leadership, performed significantly below expectations-as did Uruguay and Trinidad and Tobago. The paper thus confirms much of the conventional wisdom on AIDS leadership at country level and suggests new areas for research.


Assuntos
Humanos , Geografia , Serviços de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Trinidad e Tobago
2.
Heredity ; 91(3): 322-330, Sep. 2003. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17614

RESUMO

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) has been cultivated in Central America since pre-Columbian times. The type of cacao cultivated in this region was called Criollo; cacao populations from the Amazon basin were called Forastero. The type of Forastero most commonly cultivated until 1950 was named Amelonado. Historical data show Trinitario cacao to have originated in Trinidad, resulting from natural hybridisation between Criollo and Amelonado Forastero. Doubts persist on the source of the Amelonado Forastero involved in the origin of Trinitario; the Amelonado parent may have come from the Lower Amazon, the Orinoco or the Guyanas. Most of the cacao cultivated worldwide until 1950 consisted of Criollo, Trinitario and Amelonado. From the early 1950s, Forastero material collected in the Upper Amazon region during the 1930s and 1940s began to be employed in breeding programmes. To gain a better understanding of the origin and the genetic basis of the cacao cultivars exploited before the utilisation of germplasm collected in the Upper Amazon, a study was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Trinitario samples from 17 countries were analysed. With molecular markers, it was possible to clearly identify three main genotypes (represented by clones SP1, MAT1-6 and SIAL70) implicated in the origin of most Trinitario clones.


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't , Cacau/genética , DNA de Plantas/análise , Variação Genética , Geografia , Escore Lod , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , América do Sul , Região do Caribe
3.
Science ; 287(5454): 857-9, Feb. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-863

RESUMO

Most marine populations are thought to be well connected via long-distance dispersal of larval stages. Eulerian and Lagrangian flow models, coupled with linear mortality estimates, were used to examine this assumption. The findings show that when simple advection models are used, larval exchange rates may be overestimated; such simplistic models fail to account for a decrease of up to nine orders of magnitude in larval concentrations resulting from diffusion and mortality. The alternative process of larval retention near local populations is shown to exist and may be of great importance in the maintenance of marine population structure and management of coastal marine resources.(Au)


Assuntos
21003 , Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Água do Mar , Barbados , Simulação por Computador , Geografia , Larva/fisiologia , Biologia Marinha , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
Antoine van Leeuwenhoek ; 74(4): 283-91, Nov. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1331

RESUMO

Phylogenetic relationships of the yeast genus Lipomyces were studied using sequences from fragments of 5.8S rRNA gene and from internal transcribed spacer region ITS2 of 13 strains (7 type strains included) representing five species and subtaxa, and originating from different geographical locations (Japan, Trinidad, Nigeria, North America, Western Europe, Russia, South Africa, Mauritius). Parsimony and distance analyses were performed. Tree topology from the parsimony and distance analyses of the sequence confirmed the results of nDNA reassociation. Results segregate the 13 isolates of Lipomyces into five major clades.(Au)


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , DNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Saccharomycetales/genética , Geografia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Bases
5.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 791: 369-77, July 23, 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2982

RESUMO

A serological survey was performed of 1788 cattle, goats and sheep on 13 islands in the Lesser Antilles. Sera were tested by microscopic agglutination (MAT) using a panel of 22 live antigens. Evidence of past exposure, at a titer of > or = 100, was found in 101 animals (5.6 percent). Antibodies were more common in cattle and goats (7.2 percent in each) than in sheep (1.7 percent). Seroprevalence was highest in cattle in Martinique (20 percent) and in goats in St. Vincent (23 percent). The predominant serogroups were Sejroe (largely confined to cattle in Martinique), Autumnalis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, and Cynopteri. Eleven cattle from Martinique and 2 sheep with titers of > or = 800 showed evidence of recent infection. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Geografia , Cabras , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos , Ovinos , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 54(3): 304-8, Mar. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3515

RESUMO

Use of multispectral satellite data to predict arthropod-borne disease trouble spots is dependent on clear understandings of environmental factors that determine the presence of disease vectors. A blind test of remote sensing - based predictions for the spatial distribution of a malaria vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, was conducted as a follow-up to two years of studies on vector-environmental relationships in Belize. Four of eight sites that were predicted to be high probability locations for presence of An. pseudopunctipennis were positive and all low probability site (0 of 12) were negative. The absence of An. pseudopunctipennis at four high probability locations probably reflects the low densities that seem to characterize field populations of this species, i.e., the population densities were below the threshold of our sampling effort. Another important malaria vector. An. darlingi, was also present at all high probability sites and absent at all low probability sites. Anopheles darlingi, like An. pseudopunctipennis, is a riverine species. Prior to these collections at ecologically defined locations, this species was last detected in Belize in 1946 (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Anopheles/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Malária/transmissão , Belize , Análise Discriminante , Água Doce , Geografia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Probabilidade , Comunicações Via Satélite
7.
Math Biosci ; 128(1/2): 71-91, July-Aug. 1995. gra
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-3636

RESUMO

A model for the spread of infectious diseases among discrete geographic regions is presented that incorporates a mobility process that describes how contact occurs between individuals from different regions. The general formulation of the mobility process is described, and it is shown that the formulation encapsulates a range of mobility behaviour from complete isolation of all regions (no mobility) to permanent migration between regions. It is then shown how this mobility process fits into an SIR epidemic model, and two examples are given extending its use. The examples include a model for disease transmission in a population with two distinct mobility patterns operating and a model developed to describe a 1984 measles epidemic on the Caribbean island of Dominica(AU)


Assuntos
Estudo Comparativo , Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Geografia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/transmissão , Morbidade , Dinâmica Populacional
8.
Math Biosci ; 128(1-2): 71-9, July-Aug. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4735

RESUMO

A model for the spread of infectious diseases among discrete geographic regions is presented that incorporates a mobility process that describes how contact occurs between individuals from different regions. The general formulation of the mobility process is described, and it is shown that the formulation encapsulates a range of mobility behavior from complete isolation of all regions (no mobility) to permanent migration between regions. It is then shown how this mobility process fits into an SIR epidemic model, and two examples are given extending its use. The examples include a model for disease transmission in a population with two distinct mobility patterns operating and a model developed to describe a 1984 measles epidemic on the Caribbean island of Dominica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Geografia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/transmissão , Morbidade , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
9.
s.l.; s.n.; May 22 1991. 69 p. tab.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15053

RESUMO

Reports on a consultancy aimed at evaluating the various aspects of health care provided at the district level in the three countries. The document examines the most important variables in the political and administrative base of local health system; and makes a comparative analysis and recommendations for operational integration and development of local health systems in the countries involved. Findings show that the countries share several common characteristics and that the planning process tended to be more centralised than decentralised. States that the community has never really been involved in the decision-making process. Generally health care is financed by government. Statistical data show considerable improvement in the health of the population over the last decade. However, the system can be more cost-effectively run if strategies suggested are implemented. Observes that the absence of political will remains the single key factor affecting progress in Barbados and to some extent in Grenada


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Instalações de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Locais de Saúde/organização & administração , Características da População , Geografia , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Políticas, Planejamento e Administração em Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Granada , Barbados , Índias Ocidentais
11.
Kingston; s.n.; 1984. x,147 p. tabs, graphs, charts, maps.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8693

RESUMO

This study examines the inter-relationship of the factors: host, agent and human activity in producing clinical leptospirosis in Barbados from 1976 through 1982. These inter-relationships are examined at 2 levels: the macro (parish) and the micro (district) levels. At the macro level the factors of rainfall, drainage and involvement in agriculture were found to have significant associations with the average morbidity pattern. When plotted relative to rainfall, 71.8 percent of the cases occurred in locations and months of above average rainfall. When plotted relative to drainage, 91.3 percent of the cases occurred in areas below 250 ft., where clay infilling in watercourses produced flood-prone environments, or in areas above 250 ft. which were within 220 yd. of watercourses. The net result is that rainfall and drainage combined accounted for 98.5 percent of cases at this level. The Rainfall-Agricultural Involvement multiple regression model explained 60 percent of the variation in parish morbidity over the time period. These factors, however, did not adequately explain micro-level patterns of morbidity. To understand these, human activity was examined. This analysis utilized an adaptation of 2 methodologies - the 24 hr. Recall Technique and Water Contact Studies. These were used to determine exposure to the physical environment, and its relation to the pattern of morbidity. For this examination 2 areas were studied - St. Philip South-West, a high morbidity area with more cases than could be explained by the moisture factor alone, and St. James East, with fewer. Exposure to the physical environment was found to vary according to location, sex and the pattern of human activity. These all had strong associations with morbidity. The micro-level study revealed that there are 2 distinct spheres of exposure - the home and the work environments - and there tends to be little overlap in these 2 spheres. The study also revealed that there was a spatial variation in the nature of contact with the environment which may be an important consideration in explaining the micro-level pattern of morbidity. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Geografia , Morbidade , Chuva , Exposição Ambiental , Sexo , Barbados/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia
12.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 69(1): 121-9, Mar. 1975.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14380

RESUMO

The distribution in Trinidad of the tick Amblyomma cajennense is defined, and the methods used to determine the boundaries of the infested areas are outlined. The relationships between the climate, vegetation and husbandry methods and the distribution of the tick are described. Monthly tick collections from specific animals to determine exact seasonal variations were not possible but a study was made of the normal life cycle under laboratory conditions, the results being used to assist in interpreting the field picture and formulating methods of control. Possible systems of control are outlined and mention is made of the feasibility of eradication of the species in Trinidad (Summary)


Assuntos
21003 , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Geografia , Estações do Ano , Trinidad e Tobago
15.
Lab Invest ; 18(5): 604-12, May 1968.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12425

RESUMO

The cerebral arteries (common carotid, internal carotid, vertebral, middle cerebral, and basilar arteries) were examined from 1547 autopsied persons in five countries (Norway, Guatemala, United States, Jamaica, and Chile). Subgroups comparisons were made using a basal group of cases from which were excluded all persons with coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, other atherosclerotic complication, hypertension, and diabetes. The prevalence and mean extent of atherosclerotic lesions increase in each succeeding age group. Lesions appear to develop later in life in the cerebral arteries than in the aorta and the cerebral arteries than in the aorta and the coronary arteries. Men have more raised atherosclerotic lesions than women. The mean extent of fatty streaks in the cartoid arteries does not differ among age groups from 35 to 69 years of age, nor does it differ among location-race groups. The mean extent of raised atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries increases in each succeeding age group after 35 years of age, and differs among location-race groups.The pattern of development of atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries follows that of the aorta. Fatty streaks appear in the intracranial and vertebral arteries much later in life than they do in the carotid arteries.The mean extent of both fatty streaks and raised lesions increases in each succeeding age group after 35 years of age, and the average involvement of both types of lesions differs among location-race groups. The pattern of development of atherosclerosis in the vertebral and intracranial arteries follows that of the coronary arteries. When location-race groups are ranked by extent of cerebral atherosclerosis, they rank in approximately the same order as when they are ranked by aortic and coronary atherosclerosis. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose/patologia , Artéria Basilar/patologia , Afro-Americanos , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artérias Cerebrais/patologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/patologia , Chile , Grupos Étnicos , Geografia , Guatemala , Jamaica , Louisiana , Noruega , Fatores Sexuais , Artéria Vertebral/patologia
16.
Lab Invest ; 18(5): 509-26, May 1968.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12428

RESUMO

Cooperating pathologists in different countries collected 23,207 sets of coronary arteries and aortae, according to a standard protocol. A central laboratry staff stained the arteries with Sudan IV, and a team of pathologists graded the atherosclerotic lesions. A basal group of cases which died from accidents, infections, cancer, and selected miscellaneous causes was extracted in order to compare atherosclerosis among the different geographic, racial, and sex subgroups. Even the most homogeneous subgroups (same location, sex, age, and race) vary greatly in extent of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The 19 location-race groups differ significantly in extent of raised lesions. The abdominal aorta and the left anterior descending coronary artery have more atherosclerosis than other arteries. Within most location-race groups, coronary arteries of men have more raised lesions than the coronary arteries of women. Aortae of men in some groups have slightly more, and in other groups slightly less raised lesions than the aortae of women. Negro groups show little or no sex difference in either the coronary arteries or the aorta. Ranking of the 19 location-race groups by raised atherosclerotic lesions is similar, regardless of lesion measure (fatty streaks excepted), sex, artery, or age group. New Orleans white and the Oslo group rank highest; Bogota, Sao Paulo Negro, Guatemala, and Durban Bantu groups rank lowest. With few exceptions, ranking these groups by raised lesions corresponds closely with ranking them by coronary heart disease mortality rate. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Arteriosclerose/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Arteriosclerose/patologia , Afro-Americanos , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Grupos Étnicos , Geografia , Guatemala , Cooperação Internacional , Jamaica , Louisiana , México , Noruega , Filipinas , Porto Rico , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul , América do Sul
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 17(2): 224-36, Mar. 1968.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12449

RESUMO

Bush Bush Island and the surrounding Nariva Swamp, eastern Trinidad, are described in terms of their topography, flora, and fauna as an introduction to a series of papers reporting the results of 5 years of arbovirus studies in this area. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Arbovirus , Haplorrinos , Geografia , Umidade , Temperatura , Trinidad e Tobago , Vertebrados
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 25(5): 425-32, Sept. 1966.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-13006

RESUMO

The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis has been compared in eight population samples in America and Europe, in which routine x rays were taken of the hands and feet. All the x rays were read by one observer. No relationship to lattitude was discovered. The prevalence of "definite" arthritis was not significantly different in the three racial groups included in these surveys, but "probable" disease was more common in the Negro population in Jamaica than in the Amerindians or Caucasians. Radiological evidence of erosive arthritis was more frequent in the Jamaican than in the Amerindian, and the Amerindian than the Caucasian. Serological tests for rheumatoid factor were more often positive in the Amerindian and erosive changes more severe. The implications of these findings are discussed.(Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Índios Norte-Americanos , Jamaica , Afro-Americanos , América do Norte , Radiografia
19.
Carib Med J ; 27(1-4): 39-53, 1965.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9219

RESUMO

Blood samples taken from 1,055 indigenous residents of Trinidad, B.W.I., were tested for neutralizing antibody against 17 different viral agents known or believed to be arthropod-borne, in 4,555 protection tests. Yellow fever, Ilheus and dengue are, or have, on the basis of protection tests, presumably present, widespread, and common in Trinidad. A yellow fever outbreak occurred during the course of investigations in 1954. There is no evidence that Venezuelan equine encephalitis has been present on the island since the last reported outbreak in 1943. A small number of sera were found which neutralized St. louis encephalitis virus. No interpretation of this result is attempted. Although no human sera netralized Eastern equine encephalitis virus, two different specimens of serum from one donkey neutralized the virus in two tests. Interpretation of tests against Uganda S, West Nile, Semliki, Ntaya, and Japanese B is complicated by the possibility of interfering cross-immune reactions. All tests with Bwamba, Zika, Anopheles A, Western equine encephalitis, and Bunyamwera viruses were negative. A provisional ecological zoning of the island is presented, based upon distribution of immunity against several Virus agents. (Summary).


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Arbovirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , Testes de Neutralização , Sorologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Culicidae/microbiologia , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Geografia/classificação
20.
Trop Geogr Med ; 16(2): 135-45, June 1964.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-14482

RESUMO

Sera from 492 adults and children were collected in northeastern Surinam in January 1960 and examined in haemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests for the presence of antibodies to 11 arboviruses. Neutralization tests results with sera from the 76 adults bled in the coastal towns (Paramaribo, Lelydrop, and Marienburg) and 216 adults bled in settlements in the forested interior were compared. Neutralizing antibody rates for Mayaro, yellow fever, and Ilheus viruses were higher in the forested interior and there higher in males than in females. Antibody rates for V.E.E. virus were also higher in the interior, but in both environments the rates for the sexes were about equal. Antibody rates for dengue type 2 and St Louis viruses were simliar for the two environments and difference between the sexes were not considered significant. Cache Valley virus antibody rates were about the same in the town and the forest, but in both environments were higher in males. Only nine persons immune to E.E.E. virus were encountered, all living in the interior. No antibodies were found against W.E.E. and Manzanilla viruses. Test with Trinidad group C virus, 34053-1, related to Caraparu, provide evidence of group C immune reactors among inhabitants of the interior. Neutralization test results with sera from 93 children in forested environments and 107 who lived away from the forest were in accordance with the results obtained with the sera from adults. In the village of Matta, in the white sand zone, 32 of 34 adults and 10 of 14 children had V.E.E. neutralizing antibodies in their sera. Limited tests with 32 sera from the hinterland Amerindians collected in 1959 gave results similar to those obtained in the 1960 survey (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Camundongos , 21003 , Masculino , Feminino , Vírus da Encefalite/imunologia , Grupos Étnicos , Distribuição por Idade , Geografia , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Testes de Neutralização , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Leste , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana , Vírus da Encefalite Equina do Oeste , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Vírus da Dengue , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis , Suriname
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