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1.
Rev. panam. salud p£blica ; 22(2): 83-90, Aug. 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17320

RESUMO

Objective: To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticide and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Results: Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91 percent response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9 percent (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2 percent (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9 percent utlization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand and colloquial names of pesticide used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Conclusions: Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide imports and use, and partnership with the Rotterdam Convention are recommended for Trinidad and Tobago. A strengthened Poisons Information Centre can provide educational initiatives and information on early management of pesticide exposure (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Agricultura , Comércio , Regulamentação Governamental , Uso de Praguicidas , Intoxicação por Plantas , Praguicidas/provisão & distribução , Trinidad e Tobago , Praguicidas/normas
2.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 22(2): 83-90, Aug 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. RESULTS: Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91 per cent response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9 per cent (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2 per cent (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9 per cent utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago;...


Assuntos
Humanos , Agricultura , Comércio , Regulamentação Governamental , Praguicidas , Envenenamento , Trinidad e Tobago
3.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Suppl 3): 21, July 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-635

RESUMO

There is a growing demand on the Caribbean Ophthalmologist to address issues of practice management in an increasingly competitive environment. The forces emanate from the patient population, information technology and the opthmalmic market place. A paradigm shift from ophthalmologist centred care delivery to patient centred delivery is necessary for success. One must remain sensitive and responsive to changes in the field. Apart from clinical acumen and surgical skill, one must understand principles of business, accounting and taxation. Some major issues at the point of delivery are: ambience, efficient appointment system, prompt follow-through, accessibility, quality information, quality support staff and appropriate technology. Group practice offers many advantages. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Oftalmologia , Prática Profissional/tendências , Região do Caribe , Gerenciamento da Prática Profissional , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Comércio , Prática de Grupo
4.
Epidemiol Infec ; 123(2): 241-50, Oct. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-736

RESUMO

The prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. as well as counts of E. coli in raw oysters, condiments/spices, and raw oyster cocktails sampled from 72 vendors across Western Trinidad were determined. The microbial quality of the water used in the preparation of raw oysters was also investigated. Of 200 samples each of raw oysters, condiments/spices and oyster cocktails tested, 154 (77.0 percent), 89 (44.5 percent) and 154 (77.0 percent) respectively yielded E. coli. The differences were statistically significant (P= <0.001; chi square = 62.91). The mean E. coli count per g in the ready-to-eat oyster cocktail ranged from 1.5 x 10(3) +/- 2.7 x 10(3) in Couva to 8.7 x 10(6) +/- 4.9 x 10(7) in San Fernando. One hundred and forty six (73.0 percent) oyster cocktails contaminated with E. coli had counts that exceeded the recommended standard of 16 per g. Of a total of 590 E. coli isolates from various sources tested, 24 (4.1 percent0, 20 (3.4 percent) and 69 (11.7 percent) were mucoid, haemolytic and non-sorbitol fermenters respectively. Twelve (2.0 percent) isolates of E. coli were O157 strains, while 92 (46.0 percent) of 200 E.coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Ninety (45.0 percent) and 73 (36.5 percent) of 200 water samples contained total coliforms and faecal coliforms respectively, with counts that exceeded 2.2 coliforms per 100 ml. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 7 (3.5 percent), 1 (0.5 percent) and 2 (1.0 percent) of 200 samples each, of raw oysters, condiments/spices and oyster cocktails respectively. Oysters pose a health risk to consumers in Trinidad, particularly from colibacillosis and salmonellosis, and the need for increased public awareness of this hazard cannot be over-emphasized. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , 21003 , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ostreidae/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Especiarias/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Trinidad e Tobago
6.
Demography ; 5(1): 449-59, 1968. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9291

RESUMO

The physical distribuion of contraceptives is a problem for birth control programs, yet private sector logistics have often been overlooked in planning. This paper studies the distribution of contraceptives in Jamaica in terms of sales, direct contact through manufacturers and importers, wholesalers' activities, and brand stocking-practices. The authors arrive at five essential prescriptions for the use of the private sector. First, the merchandiser views condoms just as he views less sensitive products in his line, and he responds to merchandising in the same way. Second, aggressive stimulation on the level of the supplier will probably bring about increased activity among retailers. Third, traditional drug medical distributors view distribution narrowly, and they would be encouraged to operate on a broader basis, or they should be supplimented with distributors who are more familiar with broadly mass-marketed products. Fourth, an information program may cause a lasting changein private sector behaviour. Fifth, population programs should include specialists in private-sector distribution.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Jamaica , Comércio
7.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16635

RESUMO

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are horticultural crops with socio-economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) teas' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. Cultivating these plants complements conventional fruit and vegetable production in the Virgin Islands and enhance small-farm productivity. This study was initiated to evaluate the agronomic and economic potential of agroforestry systems involving MAPs with focus on alley cropping. Field experiments were conducted to determine yield and productivity of popular species of medicinal plants and aromatic herbs commonly used in the Virgin Islands. Medicinal plants included 'inflammation bush' (Verbesina alata), 'worrywine' (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis) and 'japana' (Eupatorium triplinerve) ... Data were collected on fresh and dry matter yield ... Results indicated yield of intercropped medicinal plants and herbs were not significantly reduced during the first harvest, but yield tended to decrease in subsequent harvest suggesting that tree-crop competition was minimal during the early establishment stage (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Ilhas Virgens Americanas , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Região do Caribe , Plantas Medicinais/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/uso terapêutico , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-16639

RESUMO

Tacit knowledge, also known as know-how, experience and trade secrets, remains valuable as long as it is controlled and not disseminated. Once knowledge is revealed to all and sundry, it becomes explicit knowledge and then becomes difficult to control. The intellectual property rights system has evolved to protect some forms of new expressed creations of the human intellect. The system is intended to allow the creators to retain some control over the dissemination of their expressed knowledge. Specifically, intellectual property laws allow the creators to prevent others from using their creations for specific times to enable them to recoup their research and development expenses, enjoy some returns and encourage further innovation. Theses protectable forms of new explicit knowledge include copyright and related rights, patents, trademarks, utility certificates, industrial designs, geographical indications, layout designs (topographies) of integrated circuits and new plant varieties. The emphasis however, is on new expressed knowledge. Traditional knowledge tends to be knowledge that is held by several persons or a community and has been in the public domain for several years. Intellectual property also vests ownership in a person or persons, a company or some legal entity. Community held knowledge presents a challenge to conventional intellectual property systems. Some countries have tried various mechanisms to address areas for which new intellectual property systems are currently being developed (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Herbária , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade Intelectual , Trinidad e Tobago
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