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1.
West Indian veterinary journal ; 7(1): 1-7, July 2007. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17828

RESUMO

Retrospective data from 18 tunnel-ventilated and 41 conventional houses in Barbados were evaluated in order to compare the effects of the two types of housing using the following indices: feed conversion ratio at 1500 grammes (FCR 1500), European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), and net income per bird (NIPB). The data were obtained from the records of 200 and 282 grow-outs for tunnel-ventilated and conventional houses, respectively. The effects of season of placement and month of placement on the above performance variables were also evaluated. The analyses revealed that the performance variables NIPB, EPEF, and FCR 1500 were superior for tunnel -ventilated housing (P=0.02, 0.0001 respectively); were less variable from month to month for tunnel- ventilated housing; and except for NIPB, were better when birds were placed during the dry season (P=0.08, 0.0005 and 0.007 respectively). Financial anlaysis also showed that tunnel -ventilated house was more profitable venture than the conventional house. The net profit margin (15.38vs 3.59%) net profit per kg, (0.51 vs 0.12 BDS$, (BDS$1.00~ US $0.50)), and net profit per m squared (94.83vs13.13BDS$) were also higher for the tunnel-ventilated house.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas , Habitação , Abrigo para Animais , Barbados , Medicina Veterinária
2.
West Indian veterinary journal ; 7(1): 1-7, July 2007. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18156

RESUMO

Retrospective data from 18 tunnel-ventilated and 41 conventional houses in Barbados were evaluated in order to compare the effects of the two types of housing using the following indices: feed conversion ratio at 1500 grammes (FCR 1500), European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), and net income per bird (NIPB). The data were obtained from the records of 200 and 282 grow-outs for tunnel-ventilated and conventional houses, respectively. The effects of season of placement and month of placement on the above performance variables were also evaluated. The analyses revealed that the performance variables NIPB, EPEF, and FCR 1500 were superior for tunnel -ventilated housing (P=0.02, 0.0001 respectively); were less variable from month to month for tunnel- ventilated housing; and except for NIPB, were better when birds were placed during the dry season (P=0.08, 0.0005 and 0.007 respectively). Financial anlaysis also showed that tunnel -ventilated house was more profitable venture than the conventional house. The net profit margin (15.38vs 3.59%) net profit per kg, (0.51 vs 0.12 BDS$, (BDS$1.00~ US $0.50)), and net profit per m squared (94.83vs13.13BDS$) were also higher for the tunnel-ventilated house.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas , Habitação , Abrigo para Animais , Barbados , Medicina Veterinária
3.
Int J Cancer ; 38(6): 801-8, Dec. 1986.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2092

RESUMO

The presence of antibody to human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV-I) has been assessed in 2,143 men and women who represent 83 percent of all adults aged 35 to 69 years resident in a defined urban community in Trinidad. Individuals of African descent had a higher sero-positivity rate (7.0 percent) than those originating from India (1.4 percent), Europe (0 percent) or of mixed descent (2.7 percent). Women were infected more frequently than men, and the prevalence of infection increased with age in both sexes. Sero-positivity rates were significantly increased in adults who lived in housing of poor quality (p less than 0.001) or close to water courses (p less than 0.025). These data and others raise the possibility that one route of HTLV-I transmission may be via insect vectors under particular domestic circumstances.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Habitação , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/etnologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/transmissão , Trinidad e Tobago
4.
Parasitology ; 110(Pt. 1): 97-102, Jan. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2097

RESUMO

The epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis was studied in families of clinical (reference) cases and their neighbours at endemic foci in Jamaica. Thirteen foci were studied based on the place of residence of a reference case. For each household of a reference case, the 4 most proximal neighbourhood households (spatial controls) were included in the study. Out of 312 persons contacted 244 were followed up using questionaires, stool examimation and serology. Prevalence of infection based on based on stool examination was 3.5 percent and on ELISA 24.2 percent. Prevalence increased with age but was not related to gender. Reference cases were significantly older than the general study population. The prevalence of infection based on both serology and stool examination was significantly higher in referecne than in neighbouring households (the reference cases, themselves, were not included in the analysis). Furthermore, prevalence of infection was highest among persons who shared a bedroom with a reference case and decreased significantly with increasing spatial separation. This is indicative of close contact transmission which has not been previously shown for a geohelminth, but which is common among microparasites.(AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Habitação , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Análise por Conglomerados , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Estatística , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico
6.
Health Phys ; 61(5): 647-51, Nov. 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15931

RESUMO

Concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K measured in bauxite waste, local building materials, and soils are presented and used in model equations to estimate the effective gamma dose-equivalent increments over background in the center of a standard-sized room in a prototype house. Calculated and measured values compare reasonably well. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Materiais de Construção/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Habitação , Poluentes Radioativos/análise , Jamaica , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Doses de Radiação , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Tório/análise
7.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 84(1): 79-84, Feb. 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9391

RESUMO

Diel patterns of oviposition of domestic Aedes aegypti were monitored early in the dry season in two situations indoors in Trinidad, West Indies. In kitchens, a large, well defined peak of oviposition (comprising more than 56 percent of eggs laid) occurred two to four hours before sunset and a smaller peak (about 16 percent of eggs laid)occurred within the two hours ater sunrise. In living rooms, the afternoon peak was better defined and larger (more than 86 percent of eggs laid) and occurred later, within the two hours before sunset; the morning peak coincided with its counterpart in kitchens but was much smaller (less than 2 percent of eggs laid); some oviposition (about 8 percent) occurred at night but only during the two hours after sunset. Peaks of oviposition corresponded with times of greater human presence or activity in the two kinds of room. Similarities and differences between these patterns and those of oviposition outdoors and of landing indoors are discussed in the context of possible determinants of oviposition behaviour.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , 21003 , Masculino , Feminino , Aedes/fisiologia , Habitação , Oviposição/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Fatores de Tempo , Trinidad e Tobago
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 30(1): 13-24, 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12555

RESUMO

Few empirical investigations into the nature of health services utilization fully acknowledge that the home environment may act as a socio-geographical focus of both disease transmission and of learned health behaviour. This paper examines the role of the home environment, as well as of personal characteristics and accessibility, in the utilization of health services in Grenada, West Indies. Bivarite and logit analysis of household survey data are employed to identify markers of high user individuals and households. Aspects of each domain of the home environment (physical and behavioral environment, demographies, and residential mobility) emerge as contributors to the utilization phenomenon in the study communities. Both etiological and socio-economic linkages are postulated to underlie the observed relationships. The implications of this work for health planning in developing countries is discussed. (AU)


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Aleitamento Materno , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Habitação , Higiene , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abastecimento de Água , Granada
9.
Soc Sci Med;30(10): 1089-95, 1990.
em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12556

RESUMO

In a previous paper (Soc Sci Med 23, 995-1002, 1986), we described the development of a method for identifying households at high risk of childhood diarrhea based on a logit analysis of data collected as part of a diarrhea disease control project in Grenada. In this paper, we report the results of a follow-up study designed to replicate the first using data on diarrhea incidence and risk factors collected in a different set of rural communities in Grenada. The findings of the first study were not replicated. There was no significant association between the risk factors and diarrhea in the follow-up study in contrast to the very strong associations found in the first study. As a consequence, it was not possible to construct a logit model from the second data set. The possible reasons for the contrasting sets of results and their implications for the application of the risk approach are discussed with reference to a two by two true-false table. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Educação em Saúde , Habitação , Higiene , Modelos Logísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural , Granada
11.
In. Anon. Seminar/Workshop on Social and Community Development Issues: 1990's and Beyond, proceedings. Port of Spain, s.n., 1989. p.53-7.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6851

RESUMO

How are we to meet the housing needs demanded by an unchecked population growth rate? How are we to satisfy at least 50 percent of our food requirements, undertake industrial development, and still retain vital community spaces? How are we to accomplish all of this, given the limited land resources available to us? This was the challenge for the future presented by Dr. James for the consideration of participants. She stressed that solution must be based on environmentally sound principles. In addition, she recommended a multi-disciplinary approach in planning major housing and other developmental projects. She cautioned that extra funds spent up-front to safeguard the environment will save unquantifiable hidden costs later on when the consequences of poor environmental planning manifest themselves in numerous forms


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Habitação , Trinidad e Tobago
12.
In. Carpenter, Reginald A; Branday, Joseph M. Burn care. Kingston, Jamaica Burn Programme Management Committee, 1989. p.101-4.
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8370
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 68(7): 581-7, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-12506

RESUMO

Socioeconomic factors relating to all maternal deaths during the 12 months of the Jamaican Perinatal and Mortality Survey were compared with a control population of over 10,000 women. The maternal mortality rate was 11.5 per 10,000 livebirths. Initial analyses revealed (a) that the risk of maternal death declined with increasing maternal education level, (b) that mothers who lived in households with direct pumped water and/or flush toilets enjoyed a reduced risk; (c) mother who were themselves the major wage earner and (d) those living in households where the major wage earner and source of income was an agricultural worker or farmer were at increased risk of maternal death. A previous analysis showed that the mother's age, her parity and variables indicating acess to medical care were important. Logistic regression showed that only maternal age and toilet fascilities were independently associated with maternal mortality. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Mortalidade Materna , Habitação/normas , Jamaica , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2(2): 193-8, Apr. 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-15965

RESUMO

The effects of closed (i.e. locked) houses on the efficiency of control measures against Aedes aegypti (L.) were monitored weekly for 1 year (March 1981 to February 1982) using ovitraps in the towns of Felicity and Trinicity, treatment with larvicidal 1 percent temephos sand granules and perifocal treatment with 40 percent wp fenthion. In Felicity, only 6 percent of houses were closed and after each treatment cycle ovitrap indices showed 100 percent control. In Trinicity, 32 percent of houses were closed and after each treatment cycle reductions in ovitrap indices were less than 50 percent. Ae. aegypti eggs sampled in ovitraps totalled 493 (1-70 per positive paddle) in Felicity and 2310 (1-75 per positive paddle) in Trinicity. Ae. aegypti was successfully eliminated from Felicity during weeks 40-52 using focal/perifocal treatment monitored by ovitraps. Control failure in Trinicity was attributed to the survival of untreated Ae. aegypti populations in closed houses. Recommendations to improve gaining access for inspection and treatment of closed houses include having control/surveillance workers commence activities at 06.00 hours on weekdays, to work at weekends or during school holidays, or as a last resort to invoke court orders against households harbouring Ae. aegypti. (AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Feminino , Aedes , Habitação , Insetos Vetores , Controle de Mosquitos , Oviposição , Chuva , Trinidad e Tobago
16.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 21: 167-72, 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-8591

RESUMO

In Jamaica, between 1979 and 1984 the cost of basic food items increased steeply. It had previously been suggested that many children would rapidly become malnourished in the event of an economic depression. We therefore investigated whether the nutritional status of children in two poor urban neighbourhoods had deteriorated during this period. In both 1979 and 1984, a house to house survey was carried out in the same area using the same methods and sample selection. The sample comprised children between 6 and 48 months, and it included 211 children in 1979 and 227 in 1984. There was no consistent change in the children's mean percentage expected weight-for-age or weight-for-height, nor in the prevalence of moderate or severe malnutrition. There was however an increase in breast feeding. The results suggest that in some populations an increase in malnutrition may be a later manifestation of an economic depression rather than an early one (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Estado Nutricional , Economia/tendências , Aleitamento Materno , Inquéritos Nutricionais , População Urbana , Habitação , Características da Família , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Transtornos Nutricionais
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 41(6): 1322-31, June 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-9921

RESUMO

A survey of two poor neighbourhoods in Kingston, Jamaica is reported the nutritional status in children under 48 months (309) and the developmental levels of children between six and thirty months (168) were assessed. Characteristics of children with poor nutritional status and development were identified. Thirty-one percent of the children had Gomez grade 1 malnutrition. 9 percent had Gomez grade 2, and 1.6 percent had Gomez grade 3. There was somewhat more stunting than wasting. Nutritional indicators, weight for age and weight for height as well as developmental levels declined with the children's age. Children with poor nutritional status tended to be girls, have poor housing, mothers with low levels of education, and mothers who worked. Children with low developmental quotients (DQs) tended to be boys and have mothers who worked. Multiple regression analysis showed that stunting (ht/age) and weight for age had significant effects on DQ, whereas wasting (wt/ht) did not).(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Nutrição da Criança , Pobreza , Fatores Etários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Habitação , Estatura , Peso Corporal
18.
Kingston; s.n; Mar. 1983. 103 p. maps, tab.
Tese em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-13663

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was undertaken in rural Jamaica of 20 index children aged 3 months to 2 years who had been admitted to hospital for treatment of gastro-enteritis. They were compared to 20 healthy controls from the same neighbourhoods to determine whether 1. specific environmental factors namely housing or sanitation were associated with gastro-enteritis; 2. any association existed between feeding practices, hygiene of feed preparation, storage and personnel hygiene and severe gastro-enteritis, and 3. children who had had severe gastro-enteritis differed in nutritional status from controls. The children were visited once in their homes, soon after discharge and a questionnaire administered to the caretaker of each child. Anthropometric measurements were done and observations made of certain factors in the environment. The results showed that index and control children were from poor backgrounds, with similar environments, socio-economic backgrounds and feeding patterns. The individual items which comprised the hygiene rating were not significantly different in index and control groups, but when these were compared to give an overall rating of "maternal technology", there was a significant difference between the groups, the controls having a better "maternal technology". Significantly more control children were breast-fed at the time of study, and control children had significantly better nutritional status as measured by all indices except weight for height. It appeared that gastro-enteritis was associated with poor nutritional status, loss of passive immunity conferred on the infant by breast-milk and decreased resistance to infection under conditions of poor hygiene (Summary)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Feminino , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Jamaica , Estado Nutricional , Aleitamento Materno , Higiene dos Alimentos/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Habitação , Comportamento Alimentar , Antropometria
19.
West Indian med. j ; 32(suppl): 39, 1983.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-6121

RESUMO

Parasitic infections may contribute to gastoenteritis and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) both important problems among young Caribbean children. We conducted an epidemiological study of the prevalence of parasitic infestation and its association with the environment and nutritional status of preschool age children in a poor Kingston neighbourhood. The sample comprised all the 145 children (6 -36 months old) in a defined area. There were equal numbers of boys and girls and in each of 5 age groups (6 - 11, 12 - 17, 18 -23, 24 -29, 30 -36 months). Single stool specimens were examined for helminth ova and protozoan cysts using the formolether method, with iodine staining for light microscopy. The children's weights and heights were measured and their guardians were interviewed about their housing, sanitation and social background. Thirty-four per cent of the children were infested with 1 - 5 organisms: Trichuris, 21 percent, Ascaris, 18 percent, with generally low - moderate loads (< 5,000 ova/500 mg stool). Giardia occurred in 12.6 percent with very few other protozoans (E. coli, 4.2 percent, C.mesnili, 2.1 percent and E. nana, 0.7 percent). The peak prevalence (70 percent) was among 30-36 month-olds, age being significantly positively associated with the presence of parasites (p 0.001). The infested children had significantly poorer sanitation and water facilities (p<0.05) and their parents had a lower educational level (p<0.05) than the non-infested. Sixty-one (42.9 percent) children had some degree of undernutrition with 13(9.1 percent)moderately - severly malnourished. Single stool specimens probably underestimated the true point prevalence and load of parasitic infestations. There was a significant positive association between nutritional status and the presence of parasites in this study, However, undernutrition occurred most often among young toddlers (12 - 17 months) and parasitic infestation among 30 - 36 month-olds. This suggests that parasitic infestation did not play an important role in the aetiology of PEM in this community (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Habitação , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Helmintos , Eucariotos , Saneamento , Nutrição da Criança , Nutrição do Lactente
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