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1.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1046374

RESUMO

Objective: Life expectancy at birth is a robust indicator of the mortality profile in any spatial unit. The paper draws on age-associated life expectancy estimates from six Caribbean nations between 1950 and 2015 to assess variable gain in longevity of life at various stages of human lifespan and make claims about the variable impact of nation-specific sociomedical interventions as well as likely lessons to be learned. Design and Methodology: Using Mixed Methodology, secondary data are drawn from the United Nations Population Databases that reflect mortality profiles at national and regional levels. The data relate to six Caribbean nations ­ Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Haiti and permit the detection of changes in age-associated life expectancy over 20-year intervals including four time points ­ 1955, 1975, 1995 and 2015. Descriptive statistics are used to discern variable national trends that could be understood drawing on qualitative evidence obtained from documentary research and elite interviews. Results: Three distinct mortality profiles emerge with the most favourable being in Cuba and Barbados, the least favourable in Guyana and Haiti, and Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago being located between the two extremes. The timing and magnitude of gains in infant, child, adult and geriatric health states can be discerned from the results. Conclusion: The paper is heuristic and constitutes a basis comparing the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary health care in promoting human resilience to mortality. As such, the paper provides important ameliorative lessons that have implications for critically informing the administration of health policies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epidemiologia , Trinidad e Tobago , Barbados , Mortalidade , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Cuba , Guiana , Haiti , Jamaica
2.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1006451

RESUMO

Objective: To determine knowledge levels, attitudes and beliefs of men 40 years and over regarding Digital Rectal Examination (DRE). The investigators considered this crucial following the scourge of prostate cancer in Trinidad and Tobago, and seeming lack of the use of the DRE, a noted method of screening for the condition for early detection. Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken using all men totaling 216, who were 40 years and over, and who gave their informed consent, attending a central mall in Trinidad in the month of April 2018. Data was collected using researchers'- designed self-administered questionnaire. Data was collected and collated manually but analysed with the aid of the SPSS version 20. Result: Results indicate that the men (a) were knowledgeable (95.8%) about DRE, (b) had positive belief (96.3%) about DRE and its medical significance, and (c) had good attitudes (73.6%) towards DRE. Further, men's knowledge levels and beliefs were not significantly associated with their selected demography, namely age, religion, educational level, marital status and ethnicity (p>0.05. However, their attitudes were associated with their ethnicity only (p<0.03). Conclusion: Results suggest that perhaps the attitudes and beliefs are better predictors of intentions than knowledge. This needs to be explored further given the need to curb the prevalence of prostate cancer among men in Trinidad and Tobago.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exame Retal Digital , Trinidad e Tobago
3.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1022720

RESUMO

Objective: Undetected diabetes in pregnancy (DiP) can lead to deleterious consequences. Strengthening health systems and implementing national standardized protocols for screening and management can improve outcomes. This study aimed to achieve consensus on clinical guidelines and facilitate universal screening using standardized testing and an app. Design and Methodology: An integrated care model was developed and antenatal caregivers were trained on screening and management of DiP. A secure Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) solution for real-time communication of results was designed and piloted as the reporting system. The app provided automatic alerts to patients and doctors facilitating timely intervention and offered self-management tools. Pregnant women ≥ 18 years, n = 655 at two antenatal clinics in Trinidad (1 public and 1 private hospital) were screened using a standard 75g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after an overnight fast. Seven lab technologists and 24 doctors were trained to use the app. Cost-effectiveness was assessed. Results: National consensus was achieved with 197 antenatal caregivers, for universal screening for DiP. The app facilitated a reporting system of blood glucose results and delivered real-time SMS text and e-mail alerts to participants. 10.1% of participants had abnormal fasting glucose and 14.1% had at least one abnormal reading between 0hr to 2hrs. Universal screening for GDM was cost-effective in the local setting. Results: National consensus was achieved with 197 antenatal caregivers, for universal screening for DiP. The app facilitated a reporting system of blood glucose results and delivered real-time SMS text and e-mail alerts to participants. 10.1% of participants had abnormal fasting glucose and 14.1% had at least one abnormal reading between 0hr to 2hrs. Universal screening for GDM was cost-effective in the local setting. Conclusions: The high prevalence of DiP in T&T justifies the need for universal screening and related health systems change. Training healthcare teams in DiP screening and ICT-enabled management are essential elements of a standardized health system which features real-time reporting.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional , Trinidad e Tobago , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico
4.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1022017

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) in an adult population and explore association with sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and oral health behaviours. Design and Methodology: Cross-sectional survey of consecutive dental patients (18 years and over) attending the UWI School of Dentistry polyclinic. Following informed consent, dental examinations were undertaken by two calibrated dentists. Presence of DH was assessed clinically by sensitivity to an air syringe on individual teeth. Patients were also administered a questionnaire which included age, gender, occupation, medical and dental history, brushing and dietary history. Data were processed using statistical software (SPSS version 24). Association between variables were analyzed using the Chi-Square test. Results: 300 patients participated. Age range 18 ­ 81years, mean 44.7 years (SD 15.69). 69% were female and the main ethnic groups were African (45.7%),Indian (30%) and mixed (23%). 48.3% were in employment. Over half of the participants (54.9%) reported a history of sensitive teeth and 52% reported sensitivity to the air syringe on one or more teeth. A history of sensitive teeth was significantly associated with gender (female), frequent consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juice, history of teeth grinding or clenching and twice daily tooth brushing (Chi-square test p <0.05). Conclusions: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity was high among this sample of dental patients and associated with gender, dietary practices, tooth grinding and brushing frequency. Management of this condition should include dietary advice, modification of oral habits and advice on tooth brushing techniques.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Trinidad e Tobago
5.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1022028

RESUMO

Objective: Sleep is a determinant of a positive life which is heavily influenced by the individual's lifestyle. The objectives of the study were to: (i) assess the quality of sleep among the Trinidad population and effects of associated demographics; (ii) assess the determinants of poor sleep quantity and quality; and (iii) evaluate participant's knowledge about sleep and importance of sleep. Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional study among the residents of Trinidad aged 18 and above was conducted from 18th May 2018 to 30th June 2018. Nonprobability convenience sampling was utilized to obtain information at public malls including: Trincity Mall, Gulf City Mall, Long Circular Mall, West mall and Valpark Mall. Results: 1505 participants were interviewed with 56.1% being poor sleepers while 43.9% were good sleepers. Participants over 40 years were found to have the lowest percentage of good sleepers. Diabetes Mellitus and sex were not found to be a significant determinant of sleep quality (p= 0.865; p=0.351 respectively). Employment status was associated with sleep quality (p <0.001). Night shift workers were more likely than other persons to report bad sleep quality was. Persons who lived in noisy areas and were also poor sleepers. Conclusion: The determinants of sleep quality in the adult Trinidad population were found to be older age, night shift workers and persons who lived in noisy areas or streets.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Sono , Trinidad e Tobago
6.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1022138

RESUMO

Objective: The School of Dentistry introduced an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in 2014 for Year 3 students in its Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) programme, designed to ensure patient care competency. The objective of the study was to determine student and examiner perceptions of thedental OSCE which takes place in Year 3 Semester I. Design and Methodology: All year 3 dental students (n=27) and examiners (n=14) took part in the study. Following ethical approval, a cross-sectional survey method was used. Data were collected on structured questionnaires administered to students and examiners to obtain their perceptions of the OSCE stations which included: History taking, Examination of a patient, Radiographic examination, Basic Life Support and six other specialty stations. Results: Student survey: Fifteen (15) students (55.6%) agreed that the OSCE was fair and 73.1% agreed they were well organized. However, only 55.6% thought there was sufficient time. Nearly 75% felt the OSCE was representative of real clinical scenarios but only 48.1% agreed it was valid in terms of assessing clinical competence. Examiner Survey: Nearly 93% of examiners thought their OSCE station was well organized and that the time allocated was sufficient. One hundred percent (100%) agreed that their OSCE station was fair, a good assessment of the students' competency to begin seeing patients and that the OSCE was a valid form of assessing clinical competence. Conclusion: While less than half of students thought that the OSCE was valid in terms of assessing clinical competence, all of the Examiners thought that it was valid. The discrepancy between student and examiner perceptions needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes de Odontologia , Percepção , Trinidad e Tobago
7.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1022743

RESUMO

Objective: To research the licensing system with respect to vision standards, and the process of assessing vision at licensing offices. We identified areas where there may be problems, which can hinder the safety of drivers and other citizens and proposed solutions for these issues. Design and Methodology: Methods of information gathering includedconducting interviews with the head licensing officer at each licensing office branch. Data such as the types of chart, distance from the chart and room lighting were also measured and recorded at each office. Information about the vision screening process was gathered through the interviews. Results: It was found that there were no set standards in Trinidad and Tobago for assessing the vision of individuals wanting to obtain a driver's license. Individuals performing the vision assessment at the offices were not trained to do so and did not perform it on everyone. There were variations in the types of chart used, the chart distance used for testing, and room lighting, which can significantly affect the results. Conclusions: There is room for improvement in the system and methods of vision screening in Trinidad and Tobago. Other features of vision testing including peripheral vision and contrast sensitivity should be taken into consideration for a proper assessment of vision to be done. There is also a need for more extensive research to be done to aid policymakers in making sound decisions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Condução de Veículo , Trinidad e Tobago , Visão Ocular
8.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1023182

RESUMO

Objectives: To establish normative Hand Grip Strength (HGS) data for Trinidad and Tobago and to assess factors that may influence hand grip strength within this population. Design and Methodology: A cross sectional study of participants between the ages of 18-80 years was conducted at five distinct geographic regions in Trinidad and Tobago. Demographic data was collected including hand dominance. HGS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were performed for all direct measurements and Pearson's correlation coefficient used to analyze the relationship between variables. All statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v20) p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1354 participants took part in the study, with 121 exclusions leaving 1233 for analysis. There were 561 males (45.5%) and 672 females (54.5%). The mean age of the participants was 42.5 years (SD +/-15.5) and mean body mass index (kg/m2) 27.3 (SD +/- 6.0). The overall mean HGS for our sample was 28.4 kgs. (SD +/- 2.9) with males having a higher overall HGS compared with females. Conclusions: This study presents previously unreported normative data on HGS in a Trinidad and Tobago population. This data will allow for a more objective evaluation of hand function in patients following injury and has implications for the assessment of disability in workmen's compensation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Força da Mão , Trinidad e Tobago
9.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1023825

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with symptomatic gallstones require laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to remove the gallbladder to avoid complications. LC should be performed with as little delay as possible. We sought to determine whether the health care delivery systems in Trinidad & Tobago were adhering to best practices. Design and Methodology: At a public and a private institution, the general surgical operating theatre registers were reviewed for the period Jan 2016 to Aug 2018 to identify all patients having undergone LC. Hospital records were then retrieved and retrospectively reviewed. The following data were extracted: patient demographics, index diagnosis, date of index diagnosis, interval between index diagnosis and LC, complications between index diagnosis and LC, duration of LC, complications after LC. Results: 98 patients were studied from both centers with a mean age of 44.8 years ± 12.4(SD) and 92.8% were female. The most common indication for cholecystectomy overall was biliary colic (31.6%). For patients with biliary colic, the mean waiting time for LC was 289.3 days ± 521.5 (SD) days at the public institution compared to 9 days ± 6 (SD). Acute cholecystitis accounted for 30% of diagnoses at both centers. The mean waiting times for patients who presented with acute cholecystitis was 392.9 ± 876.2 days (mean ± SD) in the public healthcare system vs 26.1 ±27.3 days (mean ± SD) in the private healthcare system. Conclusions: There is some disparity in management of symptomatic gallstones between the private and public healthcare systems in Trinidad & Tobago. Specifically, a statistically significant difference in waiting times to complete LC exists between the systems.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cálculos Biliares , Trinidad e Tobago , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde
10.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1024469

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine factors associated with asthma related quality of life impairment (AQLI) among patient attending asthma clinics in Trinidad. Design and Methodology: A consecutive sample of 428 patients, ≥18 years, attending asthma clinics in Trinidad were recruited. Data were collected using intervieweradministered questionnaires which captured demography, comorbidities, triggers, hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) visits. AQLI was evaluated using the Juniper Mini AQL questionnaire to capture both the physical and emotional impact of the disease. The data were analysed using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression (SPSS Version 25). Results: Majority of patients were female (81%), ≥40 years (80.4%), of Indo-Caribbean descent (61.9%), and overweight (71.7%). The most commonly reported health conditions were gastrooesophageal reflux (53.0%), hypertension (47.2%), allergic rhinitis (45.1%), anxiety (42.8%), sleep apnoea (35.0%), and depression (32.5%). Environmental allergens (73.8%) were the most commonly reported trigger factor. The prevalence of moderate to severe AQLI was 60% and significantly associated variables were: age group (p=.0003), ethnicity (p<.0001), trigger factors (p=.013), sleep apnoea (OR=3.07, p=.001), gastrooesophageal reflux (OR=2, p=.014), depression (OR=3.59, p=.001) and anxiety (OR=2.52, p=.003), frequent (two or more) exacerbations (OR=4.07, p<.001) and having ever visited the ED (OR=4.78, p<.001) in the last 12 months. Independent predictors of AQLI were age, ethnicity, sleep apnoea and ED visits (Nagelkerke's pseudo R2=41%). Conclusion: Asthmatics demonstrate a high prevalence of moderate to severe quality of life impairment associated with demography and co-morbidities. Understanding these factors may improve doctor patient interactions, treatment and management.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/prevenção & controle , Trinidad e Tobago , Região do Caribe/etnologia
11.
In. The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medical Sciences, Research Day. St. Augustine, Caribbean Medical Journal, March 21, 2019. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1025217

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the Chronic Disease Assistance Programme (CDAP)was able to meet the needs of different risk groups within the Trinidad and Tobago population. The study sought to answer the research question how does the healthcare strategy of risk group segmentation (RGS) interact with the country context to create legitimacy for CDAP. It was hypothesised that the implementation of a RGS strategy improves CDAP's legitimacy to allocate and manage resources. Design and Methodology: A sample of 161 pharmacists were surveyed via face to face interviews and telephone calls using a convenient sampling method. The instrument determined the extent to which the six dimensions of RGS were utilized in CDAP and three performance construct were assessed. Two pharmacists from each pharmacy were interviewed to reduce common method bias. Descriptive measures such as mean, standard deviation and Pearson bivariate correlations for the purpose of simple summaries of the dominant views and relationships were done and hypothesis testing was conducted using three-stage hierarchical regression analysis. Results: RSG was seen as an empowering tool for the patients and was needed, but not addressed. It was found to be desirable but not implemented. Its non implementation reduced the socio-political legitimacy of the program. Conclusions: CDAP in its current form does not address the risk faced by various groups in Trinidad and Tobago. This has led to the socio-political legitimacy of the program being reduced. It may be inferred its ability to create true health equality is compromised.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Trinidad e Tobago , Região do Caribe/etnologia
12.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Belize Vector & Ecology Center; March. 2018. 38 p. tab, map, ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-906953

RESUMO

The Belize Vector and Ecology Center has embarked on vector surveillance initiatives that will allow us to determine changes in distribution and density of vectors and obtain information about population changes. In turn, this will allows us to monitor and evaluate adequate control methods. In this report, we have outlined the various activities that we have been conducting for the month of March.The Household Container Mapping is being conducted by teams consisting of BVEC employees and Vector Control representatives. So far, we have mapped approximately 20.61% of the total structures in Orange Walk Town. Mapping data was updated for the month of March based on the amount of structures we did. Ovitrap Surveillance is being done in which 120 oviposition cups are set out to 60 pre-consented homes in Orange Walk Town. The hatch rate has been determined to be about 40% to 60%, and there is interesting variation in the number of eggs collected per zone which may also be related to the position of ovicups and climatic conditions.The BG Sentinel Surveillance is being conducted in order to collect live adult Aedes mosquitoes in the field. There are 12 BG Sentinels in the town at 12 pre-consented homes. The traps so far have collected a number of Aedes mosquitoes as well as some from the Culex species and other types of flies.The adult Aedes mosquitoes collected in the traps are then sorted, identified and stored for testing using the Dengue Antigen Kit. Tests conducted so far have turned up negative and testing will continue while working on a pooling strategy depending on the number of adult females collected in the field. Larval Resistance Testing is another key component to the surveillance which will be done in conjunction with the ovitrap surveillance initiative. Currently eggs are being pooled and hatched so that there is enough larvae to meet the standard testing methods. BVEC also does Presentations and Training sessions in which we collaborate with schools and other groups to foster community engagement.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vigilância , Controle de Vetores , Belize/epidemiologia
13.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Belize Vector & Ecology Center; Feb. 2018. 36 p. tab, maps, ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-906951

RESUMO

The Belize Vector and Ecology Center has embarked on vector surveillance initiatives that will allow us to determine changes in distribution and density of vectors and obtain information about population changes. In turn, this will allows us to monitor and evaluate adequate control methods. In this report, we have outlined the various activities that we have been conducting for the month of February.The Household Container Mapping is being conducted by teams consisting of BVEC employees and Vector Control representatives. So far we have mapped approximately 19.19% of the total structures in Orange Walk Town. Mapping data was updated for the month of February based on the amount of structures we did. Ovitrap Surveillance is being done in which 120 oviposition cups are set out to 60 pre-consented homes in Orange Walk Town. The hatch rate has been determined to be about 40% to 60% and there is interesting variation in the number of eggs collected per zone which may also be related to the position of ovicups and climatic conditions. The BG Sentinel Surveillance is being conducted in order to collect live adult Aedes mosquitoes in the field. There are 12 BG Sentinels in the town at 12 pre-consented homes. The traps so far have collected a number of Aedes mosquitoes as well as some from the Culex species and other types of flies. The adult Aedes mosquitoes collected in the traps are then sorted, identified and stored for testing using the Dengue Antigen Kit. Tests conducted so far have turned up negative which is a good sign and will continue testing while working on a pooling strategy depending on the number of adult females collected in the field. Larval Resistance Testing is another key component to the surveillance which will be done in conjunction with the ovitrap surveillance initiative. Currently eggs are being pooled and hatched so that there is enough larvae to meet the standard testing methods. BVEC also does Presentations and Training sessions in which we collaborate with schools and other groups to foster community engagement.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Vigilância , Controle de Vetores , Belize/epidemiologia
14.
[Belmopan]; Belize. Belize Vector & Ecology Center; Jan. 2018. 33 p. tab, maps, ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-906952

RESUMO

The Belize Vector and Ecology Center has embarked on vector surveillance initiatives that will allow us to determine changes in distribution and density of vectors and obtain information about population changes. In turn this will allows us to monitor and evaluate adequate control methods. In this report, we have outlined the various activities that we have been conducting for the month of January. The Household Container Mapping is being conducted by teams consisting of BVEC employees and Vector Control representatives. So far we have mapped approximately 17.73% of the total structures in Orange Walk Town. Mapping data was updated for the month of January based on the amount of structures we did. Ovitrap Surveillance is being done in which 120 oviposition cups are set out to 60 pre-consented homes in Orange Walk Town. The hatch rate has been determined to be about 40 to 60% and there is interesting variation in the number of eggs collected per zone which may also be related to the position of ovicups and climatic conditions. The BG Sentinel Surveillance is being conducted in order to collect live adult Aedes mosquitoes in the field. There are 12 BG Sentinels in the town at 12 pre-consented homes. The traps so far have collected a number of Aedes mosquitoes as well as some from the Culex species and other types of flies. The adult Aedes mosquitoes collected in the traps are then sorted, identified and stored for testing using the Dengue Antigen Kit. Tests conducted so far have turned up negative which is a good sign and will continue testing while working on a pooling strategy depending on the number of adult females collected in the field. Larval Resistance Testing is another key component to the surveillance which will be done in conjunction with the ovitrap surveillance initiative. Currently eggs are being pooled and hatched so that there is enough larvae to meet the standard testing methods. For this month some resistance curves were established for some of the zones as the contamination issues were addressed. BVEC also does Presentations and Training sessions in which we collaborate with schools and other groups to foster community engagement.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vigilância , Controle de Vetores , Belize/epidemiologia
15.
[Paramaribo]; Suriname. Bureau of Public Health; 2018. 3 p. ilus, tab.
Não convencional em Holandês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-906738

RESUMO

The information provided in this document by the Suriname Bureau of Public Health (BOG), is intended for the management and staff of hospitals and care homes with regard to the prevention and control of mosquito breeding sites. It focuses on the mosquitoes, and more specifically, the Aedes mosquito, which is a carrier of serious diseases such as Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses. Symptoms of these viruses include fever, headaches, joint and muscle aches, and skin rashes. The core intent of the information is to prevent the spread of diseases carried by this insect vector via elimination of breeding grounds and the environment in which they thrive, such as small water objects like cups, cans, trays, vases, flower pot coasters, car tires and water barrels to name a few. Systematic, sustained implementation of an anti-mosquito program is crucial to the successful control of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, particularly for hospitals and care homes. The key rationale is to raise awareness of the danger of transmission, and encourage widespread participation towards control and eventual elimination of the breeding grounds. A comprehensive list of strategies to eliminate breeding grounds is included in the publication...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Controle de Mosquitos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Aedes , Suriname/epidemiologia , Controle de Vetores
16.
[Paramaribo]; Suriname. Bureau of Public Health; [2018?]. 3 p. tab, ilus.
Não convencional em Holandês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-906740

RESUMO

The information provided in this document by the Department of Entomology of the Suriname Bureau of Public Health (BOG), is intended for the management and staff of government buildings as relates to the prevention and control of mosquito breeding sites. It focuses on the Aedes Aegypti mosquito. The insect vector responsible for transmission of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses. The intent of the information bulletin is to provide information and greater awareness towards prevention of the spread of diseases carried by this insect vector and assist in the effort towards elimination of breeding grounds and environments in which the mosquito thrives.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Controle de Mosquitos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Aedes , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Suriname/epidemiologia
17.
Glob J Health Sc ; 10(5): [117-126], 20180000. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1005460

RESUMO

Background and Aim: The ZIKV is a major public health concern and has the potential to cause a pandemic. Health knowledge is a critical factor in the prevention of the ZIKV. This study aims to ascertain the knowledge levels of the antenatal women attending the antenatal clinic at the Sangre Grande Health Center Trinidad, regarding the ZIKV and its implications as well as to determine the socio-demographic factors that influence their knowledge. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. 69 pregnant women were randomly selected from registers of attendance at the clinic on days of data collection. The researchers-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was utilized for data collection. Using the SPSS version 20, results were presented as frequencies. Results: Most of the participants (98.6%) were of the reproductive age, 18 to 40 years and mainly of mixed ethnicity. The majority of the population had secondary school education and mostly married or in common law relationships. Knowledge of the ZIKV was mostly adjudged moderate; the majority had low knowledge on the implications of the ZIKV. A weak positive correlation (p≤ 0.05) was noted between the educational levels of the participants and their knowledge of the ZIKV as well as between ages of the participants and their levels of knowledge of the implications of ZIKV (p≤ 0.050). Conclusion: The study showed that the pregnant women had moderate knowledge levels of Zika but not a corresponding knowledge on the implications of the conditions. Healthcare geared at increasing the knowledge level of ZIKV and its implications among the populace is recommended. The development of health education and health promotion programs that target disease prevention and control are principal components necessary for success against the ZIKV and its implications.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Trinidad e Tobago , Zika virus , Microcefalia , Região do Caribe
18.
[Georgetown]; Guyana. Ministry of Public Health. Medical Entomology Unit; Dec. 2017. 20 p. tab, ilus.
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-906479

RESUMO

The establishment of the Aedes mosquito in Guyana has raised public health concerns in the ten administrative regions where conditions are suitable for their existence. Recently, studies were conducted in Georgetown to determine the risk of transmission in the city using the Breteau Index tool. This research (unpolished data) has revealed regional epidemic risks and transmission risks in most areas. To contribute in a sustained way the improvement of the entomological surveillance programs, supporting the implementation of a consensual strategy for the monitoring and management of insecticide resistance in the main disease vectors in Guyana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aedes , Entomologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/imunologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Guiana/epidemiologia
19.
In. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty Research Day, Book of Abstracts. St. Augustine, The University of the West Indies, November 9, 2017. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1005919

RESUMO

Background: Needle stick injury is one of the greatest work-related health hazard, that registered nurses encounter on an everyday basis for example the risk of being exposed to dangerous and deadly blood borne pathogens through contaminated needle sticks such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses. New registered nurses' lacking knowledge and skills regarding standard precautions are exposed to needle stick injuries from unsafe practices such as recapping of needles, manipulating used needles such as bending, breaking or cutting hypodermic needles and passing needles from one nurse to another (American Nurses Association 2002). Methods: This was a quantitative descriptive study. The dependent variable was the needle stick injury and the independent variables consisted of factors which influenced the occurrence of needle stick injuries among new registered nurses. The factors are practice, knowledge, resources and attitudes. The population was new registered nurses with less than three years' experience at the San Fernando General Hospital. A total of 120 new registered nurses were employed during the period under review and the entire population was used as the sample. A 26 item instrument was used to collect data which were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Findings: Most of the respondents 59 (49.2%) were between the ages 20-<30 years and 88 (73.4%) were female. The most common years' experience was 53 (44.2%). Almost half 54 (45%) respondents had experienced a needle stick injury with the most common exposure being while in use (17.5%) and recapping needles (215%). A total of 49 (40.8%) respondents had at least one to less than 3 needle sticks since employment and this was most common among staff on the medical wards. There was a moderate correlation between respondents knowledge about institution's policies and need for training (r0.409, p0.01) and strong correlation between their perception of the need to be more vigilant and the quality of the sharps that they are provided with (r0.913, p0.01). Conclusion: Avoidable practices such as non-adherence to standard precautions while using hypodermic needles are contributing factors to needle stick injuries. Prevention of NSI's should be an integral part of occupational health programs in the work place. Therefore, mandatory training and evaluation of health care worker's, knowledge and attitude regarding safety practices and proper use of available resources should be enforced when carrying out their duties in the clinical area.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Trinidad e Tobago , Região do Caribe , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros
20.
In. Faculty of Medical Sciences. Faculty Research Day, Book of Abstracts. St. Augustine, The University of the West Indies, November 9, 2017. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1006476

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is preventable and treatable, yet it is the third leading cause of death and fifth leading cause of disability globally. Local studies in restricted settings have reported about 20% COPD prevalence, but the national prevalence and risk factors are unknown. We aimed to measure the prevalence of COPD and its risk factors in Trinidad and Tobago as part of the multicentre Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Study. Research Design and Methodology Used: A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014-2015 using the BOLD standardised protocol. A stratified cluster sample of non-institutionalised males and females aged ≥ 40 years (N = 1104) and a sample of 18-39 year olds (N = 807) were selected. Questionnaires on respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors were administered and spirometry conducted before and after bronchodilator. Spirometry quality control measures utilised were (1) direct spirometer feedback and (2) BOLD international centre review. Spirometry readings below international standards required technician retraining. Post- bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) was expressed as a percentile of the forced vital capacity (FVC). COPD was defined by FEV1/FVC < 70% and a smoker as having smoked >200 cigarettes in a lifetime. Logistic regression was used to examine associations a (expressed as Odds Ratios (OR) and multivariate logistic regression to determine independent risk factors. Findings: There was a 95% response rate The mean age (SD) of these participants was 54 (11) years and Body Mass Index (BMI) 29 (7) kg/m2; with N (%) males, 443 (40) males; Afro-Trinidadians 400 (37), Indos 454(42), Mixed 234 (21), ever-smokers 302 (27), current smokers 157 (14), Adverse events 13(<1%)]. The prevalence of COPD was 9.5%, Of those with COPD, only 4% reported a previous doctor diagnosed COPD. COPD was more likely among those aged 60-69 years or over 70 (OR=4.15 and 5.88 respectively, p<0.001), among males (OR=1.64, p=0.023), ever smokers (OR=1.72, p=.016), retirees and the unemployed (OR=4.41 and 3.59 respectively, p<.001), with BMI<21 (OR=2.64, p=.001), asthma (OR=5.20, p<.001) or wheezing (OR=3.48, p<.001). Multivariate analysis showed significant risk factors for COPD were: older age groups, low BMI, working over a year in dusty jobs, cigarette or cannabis smoking. There was no non-responder bias in age, gender, ethnicity, smoking or BMI but unacceptable spirometry was more likely in the elderly and smokers. Among the 807 participants aged 18-39 years old, 23% smoked with the prevalence of smoking in males being 32% vs. 11.7% in females (p < 0.001). Conclusions: COPD is prevalent yet under-diagnosed in the general population. Health care education and use of spirometry for prevention of COPD should target males, the elderly, smokers, those working in dusty jobs and those with a history of asthma or wheeze. We suggest spirometry measurements be available at all district health facilities.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Trinidad e Tobago , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Região do Caribe
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